Skip to main content
×
×
Home

INTRODUCTION: COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVES ON DIFFICULTY AND COMPLEXITY IN L2 ACQUISITION

  • Alex Housen (a1) and Hannelore Simoens (a1)
  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      INTRODUCTION: COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVES ON DIFFICULTY AND COMPLEXITY IN L2 ACQUISITION
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      INTRODUCTION: COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVES ON DIFFICULTY AND COMPLEXITY IN L2 ACQUISITION
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      INTRODUCTION: COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVES ON DIFFICULTY AND COMPLEXITY IN L2 ACQUISITION
      Available formats
      ×
Abstract
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Alex Housen, Faculty of Arts and Philosophy, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels. E-mail: ahousen@vub.ac.be
References
Hide All
Alanen, R. (1995). Input enhancement and rule presentation in second language acquisition. In Schmidt, R. (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning and teaching (pp. 259302). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Ammar, A., & Lightbown, P. M. (2005). Teaching marked linguistic structures: More about the acquisition of relative clauses by Arab learners of English. In Housen, A. & Pierrard, M. (Eds.), Investigations in instructed second language acquisition (pp. 167199). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Andringa, S., De Glopper, K., & Hacquebord, H. (2011). Effects of explicit and implicit instruction on free written response task performance. Language Learning, 61, 868903.
Bulté, B., & Housen, A. (2012). Defining and operationalising L2 complexity. In Housen, A., Kuiken, F., & Vedder, I. (Eds.), Dimensions of L2 performance and proficiency—investigating complexity, accuracy and fluency in SLA (pp. 2146). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Bulté, B., & Housen, A. (2014). Conceptualizing and measuring short-term changes in L2 writing complexity. Journal of Second Language Writing, 26, 4265.
Carroll, J. B. (1981). Twenty-five years of research in foreign language aptitude. In Diller, K. C. (Ed.), Individual differences and universals in language learning aptitude (pp. 83113). Rowley: Newbury House.
Cerezo, L., Caras, A., & Leow, R. P. (2016). Effectiveness of guided induction versus deductive instruction on the development of complex Spanish “gustar” structures: an analysis of learning outcomes and processes. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(2), 265291.
Collins, L., Trofimovich, P., White, J., Cardoso, W., & Horst, M. (2009). Some input on the easy/difficult grammar question: An empirical study. The Modern Language Journal, 93, 336353.
Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 450466.
De Graaff, R., & Housen, A. (2009). Investigating the effects and effectiveness of L2 instruction. In Long, M. & Doughty, C. (Eds.), The handbook of language teaching (pp. 736755). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
DeKeyser, R. M. (1998). Beyond focus on form: Cognitive perspectives on learning and practicing second language grammar. In Doughty, C. & Williams, J. (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom language acquisition (pp. 4263). New York: Cambridge University Press.
DeKeyser, R. M. (2003). Implicit and explicit learning. In Doughty, C. & Long, M. (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 313348). Oxford: Blackwell.
DeKeyser, R. M. (2005). What makes learning second-language grammar difficult? A review of issues. Language Learning, 55(Suppl. 1), 125.
DeKeyser, R. (2016). Of moving targets and chameleons: Why the concept of difficulty is so hard to pin down. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(2), 353363.
Della Putta, P. (2016). The effects of Textual Enhancement on the acquisition of two non-parallel grammatical features by Spanish-speaking learners of Italian. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(2), 217238.
Dietz, G. (2002). On rule complexity: A structural approach. EUROSLA Yearbook, 2(1), 263286.
Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (1998). Pedagogical choices in focus on form. In Doughty, C. & Williams, J. (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 197261). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ellis, N. C. (2006). Language acquisition as rational contingency learning. Applied Linguistics, 27, 124.
Ellis, N. C. (2016). Salience, Cognition, Language Complexity, and Complex Adaptive Systems. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(2), 341351.
Ellis, R. (2006). Modelling learning difficulty and second language proficiency: The differential contributions of implicit and explicit knowledge. Applied Linguistics, 27, 431463.
Ellis, R. (2007). Explicit form-focused instruction and second language acquisition. In Spolsky, B. & Hult, F. M. (Eds.), The handbook of educational linguistics (pp. 437455). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Godfroid, A. (2016). The effects of implicit instruction on implicit and explicit knowledge development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(2), 177214.
Godfroid, A., & Uggen, M. (2013). Attention to irregular verbs by beginning learners of German: An eye-movement study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35, 291322.
Goldschneider, J., & DeKeyser, R. (2001). Explaining the “natural order of L2 morpheme acquisition” in English: A meta-analysis of multiple determinants. Language Learning, 51, 150.
Granena, G. (2013). Individual differences in sequence learning ability and second language acquisition in early childhood and adulthood. Language Learning, 63, 665703.
Hendriks, H., & Watorek, M. (2011). The role of conceptual complexity in the acquisition of the spatial domain by L1 and L2 learners of French, English and Polish. In Watorek, M., Benazzo, S., & Hickmann, M. (Eds.), Comparative perspectives on language acquisition: A tribute to Clive Perdue (pp. 400418). Dublin: Multilingual Matters.
Housen, A. (2014). Difficulty and complexity of language features and second language instruction. In Chapelle, C. A. (Ed.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. DOI: 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal1443.
Housen, A., Pierrard, M., & Van Daele, S. (2005). Rule complexity and the effectiveness of explicit grammar instruction. In Housen, A. & Pierrard, M. (Eds.), Investigations in instructed second language acquisition (pp. 235270). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hulstijn, J., & de Graaff, R. (1994). Under what conditions does explicit knowledge of a second language facilitate the acquisition of implicit knowledge? A research proposal. AILA Review, 11, 97112.
Izumi, S. (2002). Output, input enhancement and the noticing hypothesis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 541577.
Juffs, A., & Harrington, M. (2011). Aspects of working memory and L2 learning. Language Teaching, 44, 137166.
Li, S. (2013). The interface between feedback type, L2 proficiency, and the nature of the linguistic target. Language Teaching Research, 18, 124.
Long, M., & Robinson, P. (1998). Focus on form: Theory, research and practice. In Doughty, C. & Williams, J. (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 1541). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mackey, A. (1999). Input, interaction, and second language development: An empirical study on question formation in ESL. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 557587.
Marsden, E. J., Williams, J., & Liu, X. (2013). Learning novel morphology: The role of meaning and orientation of attention at initial exposure. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35, 619654.
Miestamo, M. (2008). Grammatical complexity in a cross-linguistic perspective. In Miestamo, M., Sinnemaki, K., & Karlsson, F. (Eds.), Language complexity: Typology, contact, change (pp. 2342). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Miestamo, M., Sinnemäki, K., & Karlsson, F. (2008). Language complexity: Typology, contact, change. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Morgan-Short, K., Faretta-Stutenberg, M., Brill-Schuetz, K., Carpenter, H., & Wong, P. (2014). Declarative and procedural memory as individual differences in second language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17, 5672.
Morgan-Short, K., Sanz, C., Steinhauer, K., & Ullman, M. T. (2010). Acquisition of gender agreement in second language learners: An event-related potential study. Language Learning, 60, 154193.
Ortega, L. (2012). Interlanguage complexity: A construct in search of theoretical renewal. In Kortmann, B. & Szmrecsanyi, B. (Eds.), Linguistic complexity: Second language acquisition, indigenization, contact (pp. 127155). Berlin: de Gruyter.
Ozeki, H., & Shirai, Y. (2007). Does the noun phrase accessibility hierarchy predict the difficulty order in the acquisition of Japanese relative clauses? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 29, 169196.
Pallotti, G. (2009). CAF: Defining, refining and differentiating constructs. Applied Linguistics, 30, 590601.
Pallotti, G. (2015). A simple view of linguistic complexity. Second Language Research, 31, 117134.
Pienemann, M. (2005). Cross-linguistic aspects of processability theory. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Robinson, P. (1996). Learning simple and complex second language rules under implicit, incidental, rule search, and instructed conditions. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 2767.
Robinson, P. (1997). Generalizability and automaticity of second language learning under implicit, incidental, enhanced, and instructed conditions. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 223247.
Robinson, P. (2002). Effects of individual differences in intelligence, aptitude and working memory on adult incidental SLA: A replication and extension of Reber, Walkenfeld and Hernstadt (1991). In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 211266). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Robinson, P. (2005). Aptitude and second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 4573.
Rodríguez Silva, L. H., & Roehr-Brackin, K. (2016). Perceived learning difficulty and actual performance: Explicit and implicit knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(2), 317340.
Roehr, K., & Gánem-Gutiérrez, G. A. (2009). The status of metalinguistic knowledge in instructed adult L2 learning. Language Awareness, 18, 165181.
Sawyer, M., & Ranta, L. (2001). Aptitude, individual differences, and instructional design. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 319353). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Simoens, H., & Housen, A. (2016). L2 difficulty in SLA: The role and effects of perceptual salience. Manuscript in preparation.
Spada, N., & Tomita, Y. (2010). Interactions between type of instruction and type of language feature: A meta-analysis. Language Learning, 60, 263308.
Stockwell, R. P., Bowen, J. D., & Martin, J. W. (1965). The grammatical structures of English and Spanish. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Suzuki, W., & DeKeyser, R. (2015). Comparing elicited imitation and word monitoring as measures of implicit knowledge. Language Learning. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/lang.12138
Tagarelli, K. M., Ruiz-Hernández, S., Vega, J. L. M., & Rebuschat, P. (2016). Variability in second language learning: The roles of individual differences, learning conditions, and linguistic complexity. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(2), 293316.
Trudgill, P. (2011). Sociolinguistic typology: Social determinants of linguistic complexity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wen, Z., Borges Mota, M., & McNeill, A. (Eds.). (2015). Working memory in second language acquisition and processing. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Williams, J., & Evans, J. (1998). What kind of focus and on which forms? In Doughty, C. & Williams, J. (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 139155). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Yalçin, S., & Spada, N. (2016). Language aptitude and grammatical difficulty. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(2), 239263.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Studies in Second Language Acquisition
  • ISSN: 0272-2631
  • EISSN: 1470-1545
  • URL: /core/journals/studies-in-second-language-acquisition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed