Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa


  • Melissa A. Bowles (a1) and Ronald P. Leow (a2)

The present study addresses the reactivity of two types of verbal protocols in SLA research. It expands on the work of Leow and Morgan-Short (2004), who found nonmetalinguistic verbalization during a second-language reading task to be nonreactive for beginning learners' text comprehension, intake, and production of the targeted morphological form. The present study investigated the reactivity of both metalinguistic and nonmetalinguistic protocols, using a syntactic structure and advanced language learners of Spanish. Results indicated that neither type of verbalization significantly affected text comprehension or written production of old or new exemplars of the targeted structure when compared to a control group, although metalinguistic verbalization appeared to cause a significant decrease in text comprehension over nonmetalinguistic verbalization. Furthermore, both types of verbalization significantly increased the amount of time on task.

Corresponding author
Melissa A. Bowles, Department of Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese, University of Illinois, 4080 Foreign Language Building MC-176, 707 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Ahlum-Heath, M. E., & di Vesta, F. J. (1986). The effect of conscious controlled verbalization of a cognitive strategy on transfer in problem solving. Memory and Cognition, 14, 281285.

Allwood, C. M. (1990). On the relation between justification of solution method and correctness of solution in statistical problem solving. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 31, 181190.

Anderson, M. (1985). Some evidence on the effect of verbalization on process: A methodological note. Journal of Accounting Research, 23, 843852.

Biehal, G., & Chakravarti, D. (1989). The effects of concurrent verbalization on choice processing. Journal of Marketing Research, 26, 8496.

Bower, A. C., & King, W. L. (1967). The effect of number of irrelevant stimulus dimensions, verbalization, and sex on learning bi-conditional classification rules. Psychonomic Science, 8, 453454.

Brehmer, B. (1974). Hypotheses about relations between scaled variables in the learning of probabilistic inference tasks. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 11, 127.

Brunk, L., Collister, G., Swift, C., & Stayton, S. (1958). A correlation study of two reasoning problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 236241.

Carpenter, P. A., Just, M. A., & Schell, P. (1990). What one intelligence measures: A theoretical account of the processing in the Ravens Progressive Matrices Test. Psychological Review, 97, 404431.

Chamot, A. U., & El Dinary, P. B. (1999). Children's learning strategies in language immersion classrooms. Modern Language Journal, 83, 319338.

Cohen, A. D. (1986). Mentalistic measures in reading strategy research: Some recent findings. English for Specific Purposes, 5, 131145.

Cohen, A. D., & Hosenfeld, C. (1981). Some uses of mentalistic data in second language research. Language Learning, 31, 285313.

Davis, J., & Bistodeau, L. (1993). How do L1 and L2 reading differ? Evidence from think aloud protocols. Modern Language Journal, 77, 459472.

Davis, J. H., Carey, M. H., Foxman, P. N., & Tarr, D. B. (1968). Verbalization, experimenter presence, and problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 299302.

Dickson, J., McLennan, J., & Omodei, M. M. (2000). Effects of concurrent verbalization on a time-critical, dynamic decision-making task. Journal of General Psychology, 127, 217228.

Ellis, R. (2001). Investigating form-focused instruction. Language Learning, 51, 146.

Ericsson, K. A. (2002). Towards a procedure for eliciting verbal expression of non-verbal experience without reactivity: Interpreting the verbal overshadowing effect within the theoretical framework for protocol analysis. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 981987.

Gagné, R. H., & Smith, E. C. (1962). A study of the effects of verbalization on problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 1218.

Hosenfeld, C. (1976). Learning about learning: Discovering our students' strategies. Foreign Language Annals, 9, 117129.

Hosenfeld, C. (1977). A preliminary investigation of the reading strategies of successful and nonsuccessful second language learners. System, 5, 110123.

Hughes, J., & Parkes, S. (2003). Trends in the use of verbal protocol analysis in software engineering research. Behaviour & Information Technology, 22, 127141.

Kern, R. G. (1994). The role of mental translation in second language reading. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 441461.

Leow, R. P. (1997). Attention, awareness, and foreign language behavior. Language Learning, 47, 467505.

Leow, R. P. (1998). Toward operationalizing the process of attention in SLA: Evidence for Tomlin and Villa's (1994) fine-grained analysis of attention. Applied Psycholinguistics, 19, 133159.

Leow, R. P. (2000). A study of the role of awareness in foreign language behavior: Aware versus unaware learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, 557584.

Leow, R. P. (2001a). Attention, awareness, and foreign language behavior. Language Learning, 51 (Suppl. 1), 113155.

Leow, R. P. (2001b). Do learners notice enhanced forms while interacting with the L2? An online and offline study of the role of written input enhancement in L2 reading. Hispania, 84, 496509.

Leow, R. P., & Morgan-Short, K. (2004). To think aloud or not to think aloud: The issue of reactivity in SLA research methodology. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 3557.

Mackey, A., Gass, S., & McDonough, K. (2000). How do learners perceive interactional feedback?Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, 471497.

McGeorge, P., & Burton, A. M. (1989). The effects of concurrent verbalization on performance in a dynamic systems task. British Journal of Psychology, 80, 455465.

Nabei, T., & Swain, M. (2002). Learner awareness of recasts in classroom interaction: A case study of an adult EFL student's second language learning. Language Awareness, 11, 4363.

Nevo, N. (1989). Test-taking strategies on a multiple-choice test of reading comprehension. Language Testing, 6, 199215.

Norris, S. P. (1990). Effect of eliciting verbal reports of thinking on critical thinking test performance. Journal of Educational Measurement, 27, 4158.

O'Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., Stewner-Manzanares, G., Kupper, L., & Russo, R. P. (1985). Learning strategies used by beginning and intermediate ESL students. Language Learning, 35, 2146.

Robinson, K. M. (2001). The validity of verbal reports in children's subtraction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 211222.

Robinson, P. (1997a). Generalizability and automaticity of second language learning under implicit, incidental, enhanced, and instructed conditions. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 223247.

Robinson, P. (1997b). Individual differences and the fundamental similarity of implicit and explicit adult second language learning. Language Learning, 47, 4599.

Robinson, P. (2001). Individual differences, cognitive abilities, aptitude complexes, and learning conditions in second language acquisition. Second Language Research, 17, 368392.

Rosa, E., & Leow, R. P. (2004a). Awareness, different learning conditions, and L2 development. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25, 269292.

Rosa, E., & Leow, R. P. (2004b). Computerized task-based exposure, explicitness, type of feedback, and Spanish L2 development. Modern Language Journal, 88, 193217.

Rosa, E., & O'Neill, M. D. (1999). Explicitness, intake, and the issue of awareness. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 511556.

Russo, J. E., Johnson, E. J., & Stephens, D. L. (1989). The validity of verbal protocols. Memory & Cognition, 17, 759769.

Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 10, 209231.

Short, E. J., Schatschneider, C., Cuddy, C. L., Evans, S. W., Dellick, D. M., & Basili, L. A. (1991). The effect of thinking aloud on the problem solving performance of bright, average, learning disabled, and developmentally handicapped students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 16, 139153.

Wilder, L., & Harvey, D. J. (1971). Overt and covert verbalization and problem solving. Speech Monographs, 38, 171176.

Wilson, T. D., & Schooler, J. W. (1991). Thinking too much: Introspection can reduce the quality of preferences and decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 181192.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Studies in Second Language Acquisition
  • ISSN: 0272-2631
  • EISSN: 1470-1545
  • URL: /core/journals/studies-in-second-language-acquisition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 145 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 287 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.