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  • Nicole Ziegler (a1)


The current study reports on a meta-analysis of the relative effectiveness of interaction in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) and face-to-face (FTF) contexts. The primary studies included in the analysis were journal articles and dissertations completed between 1990 and 2012 (k = 14). Results demonstrate that interaction in SCMC and FTF had a significant impact on second language (L2) development, providing further support for previous research demonstrating the efficacy of interaction in both communication modes (e.g., Mackey & Goo, 2007; Pellettieri, 2000; Smith, 2004, 2005). There was also a small advantage for interaction in SCMC on measures of overall L2 learning outcomes, with additional analyses indicating a small advantage for SCMC interaction on productive and written measures and a small advantage for FTF interaction on receptive and oral learning outcomes. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between SCMC and FTF, suggesting the mode of communication has no statistically significant impact on the positive developmental benefits associated with interaction.


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*Correspondence concerning this article should be sent to Nicole Ziegler, Department of Second Language Studies, Moore 570, 1890 East-West Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822. E-mail:


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References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis.
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  • Nicole Ziegler (a1)


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