Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The Use of L1 Reading Strategies in L2 Reading: Effects of L1 Orthographic Structures on L2 Phonological Recoding Strategies

  • Keiko Koda (a1)
Abstract

This study investigated first language (L1) orthographic influence on cognitive processing involved in second language (L2) reading. Using a fundamental unit of representation, three orthographic systems (i.e., alphabet, syllabary, and logography) can be categorized into two types: morphography and phonography. Previous L1 reading research has suggested that different strategies are used for phonological recoding by morphographic and phonographic readers. This study tested the possibility that these L1 recoding strategies are transferred and utilized in L2 reading. A cross-linguistic experiment involving adult L2 learners of English with contrasting L1 orthographic backgrounds (Arabic, Japanese, Spanish, and English—for native control) was conducted. The results indicate that reading among phonographic readers (Arabic, Spanish, and English) is seriously impaired when essential phonological information is inaccessible. Similar phonological inaccessibility, in contrast, apparently does not affect the reading performance of Japanese, or morphographic, readers. Further, the study demonstrated, first, that phonological inaccessibility exerts differential effects on the reading processes of phonographic and morphographic readers and, second, that L2 readers from different L1 orthographic backgrounds utilize their L1 strategies in reading English as an L2. Hence, the findings of the study verify cognitive strategy transfer during L2 reading.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Bachman, L. F. (1982). The trait structure of cloze test scores. TESOL Quarterly, 16, 6170.
Baddeley, A. D. (1966). Short term memory for word sequences as a function of acoustic, semantic, and formal similarity. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 362365.
Baron, J. (1973). Phonemic stage not necessary for reading. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 25, 241246.
Baron, J., & Strawson, C. (1976). Use of orthographic and word-specific knowledge in reading words aloud. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2, 386393.
Berman, R. A. (1985). The acquisition of Hebrew. In Slobin, D. I. (Ed.), The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition (pp. 355372). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Besner, D., & Hildebrandt, N. (1987). Orthographic and phonological codes in the oral reading of Japanese Kana. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 335343.
Browselow, E. (1983). Nonobvious transfer: On predicting epenthesis errors. In Gass, S. & Selinker, L. (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp. 369380). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Cimbalo, R. S., & Laughery, K. B. (1967). Short term memory: Effects of auditory and visual similarity. Psychonomic Science, 8, 5758.
Clancy, P. M. (1985). The acquisition of Japanese. In Slobin, D. I. (Ed.), The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition (pp. 373524). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Coltheart, M. (1978). Lexical access in simple reading tasks. In Underwood, G. (Ed.), Strategies of information processing (pp. 151216). London: Academic.
Coltheart, M. (1984). Writing systems and reading disorders. In Henderson, L. (Ed.), Orthographies and reading: Perspectives from cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, and linguistics (pp. 6780). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Conrad, R. (1964). Acoustic confusion in immediate memory. British Journal of Psychology, 55, 7584.
Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49, 222251.
Cummins, J. (1981). Empirical and theoretical underpinning of bilingual education. Journal of Education, 163, 1629.
Cummins, J. (1984). Wanted: A theoretical framework for relating language proficiency to academic achievement among bilingual students. In Rivera, C. (Ed.), Language proficiency and academic achievement (pp. 219). Clevedon: Multilingual matters.
Cummins, J. (1986). Empowering minority students: A framework for intervention. Harvard Educational Review, 56, 1836.
Cummins, J., Swain, M., Nakajima, K., Handscombe, J., & Green, D. (1981, June). Linguistic interdependence in Japanese and Vietnamese students. Report prepared for the Inter-America Research Associates, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Toronto, Canada.
Cunningham, P. M., & Cunningham, J. W. (1978). Investigating the “print to meaning” hypothesis. In Pearson, P. D. & Hansen, J. (Eds.), Reading: Disciplined inquiry in process and practice (27th Yearbook of the National Reading Conference, pp. 116120). Clemson, SC: National Reading Conference.
Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 450466.
Eriksen, C. W, Pollack, M. D., & Montague, W. E. (1970). Implicit speech: Mechanisms in perceptual coding? Journal of Experimental Psychology, 84, 502507.
Gass, S. (1983). Language transfer and universal grammatical relations. In Gass, S. & Selinker, L. (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp. 6984). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Gleitman, L. R. (1985). Orthographic resources affect reading acquisition—If they are used. Remedial and Special Education, 6, 2436.
Gleitman, L. R., & Rozin, P. (1977). The structure and acquisition of reading 1: Relation between orthographies and the structure of language. In Reber, A. S. & Scarborough, D. L. (Eds.), Toward a psychology of reading: The proceedings of the CUNY conference (pp. 154). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Glushko, R. J. (1979). The organization and activation of orthographic knowledge in reading aloud. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 5, 674691.
Green, D. W., & Shallice, T. (1976). Direct visual access in reading for meaning. Memory and Cognition, 4, 753758.
Gundel, J. K., & Tarone, E. E. (1983). Language transfer and the acquisition of pronominal anaphora. In Gass, S. & Selinker, L. (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp. 281296). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Hakuta, K. (1976). A case study of a Japanese child learning English as a second language. Language Learning, 26, 321351.
Hakuta, K. (1982). Interaction between particles and word order in the comprehension and production of simple sentences in Japanese children. Developmental Psychology, 18, 6276.
Hatano, G. (1986). How do Japanese children learn to read? Orthographic and eco-cultural variables. In Foorman, B. R. & Siegel, A. L. (Eds.), Acquisition of reading skills: Cultural constraints and cognitive universals (pp. 81118). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hayashibe, H. (1975). Word order and particles: A developmental study in Japanese. Descriptive and Applied Linguistics, 8, 111.
Henderson, L. (1982). Orthography and word recognition in reading. London: Academic.
Henderson, L. (1984). Writing system and reading processes. In Henderson, L. (Ed.), Orthographies and reading: Perspectives from cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, and linguistics (pp. 1124). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Henderson, L. (1985). Issues in the modeling of pronunciation assembly in normal reading. In Patterson, K. E., Marshall, J. C., & Coltheart, M. (Eds.), Surface dyslexia (pp. 459508). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Irujo, S. (1986). Don't put your leg in your mouth: Transfer in the acquisition of idioms in a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 287304.
The Japanese National Language Research Institute. (1964). The development of language ability in elementary school children. Tokyo: Shue Shuppan.
Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). A theory of reading: From eye fixation to comprehension. Psychological Review, 87, 329354.
Kellerman, E. (1983). Now you see it, now you don't. In Gass, S. & Selinker, L. (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp. 112134). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Kintch, W., & van Dijk, T. A. (1978). Toward a model of text comprehension. Psychological Review, 85, 363394.
Kirstein, B., & de Vincenz, A. (1974). A note on bilingualism and generative grammar. IRAL, 12, 159161.
Klapp, S. T. (1971). Implicit speech inferred from response latencies in same-different decisions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 91, 262267.
Kleiman, G. M. (1975). Speech recoding in reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 323340.
Koda, K. (1987). Cognitive strategy transfer in second language reading. In Devine, J., Carrell, P. L., & Eskey, D. E. (Eds.), Research in reading in English as a second language (pp. 125144). Washington, DC: TESOL.
Kuruskal, B. K. (1968). Transformation of data. Statistical Analysis, 7, 182193.
Legaretta, D. (1979). The effects of program models on language acquisition by Spanish speaking children. TESOL Quarterly, 13, 521534.
Levy, B. A. (1975). Vocalization and suppression effects in sentence memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 304314.
Levy, B. A. (1977). Reading: Speech and meaning processes. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 16, 623628.
Mann, V. A. (1985). A cross-linguistic perspective on the relation between temporary memory skills and early reading ability. Remedial and Special Education, 6, 3742.
McCutchen, D., & Perfetti, C. A. (1982). The visual tongue-twister effect: Phonological activation in silent reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 21, 672687.
McNeill, D., Yukawa, R., & McNeill, N. B. (1971). The acquisition of direct and indirect objects in Japanese. Child Development, 42, 237249.
Meyer, D. E., & Ruddy, M. G. (1973). Lexical-memory retrieval based on graphemic and phonemic representation of printed words. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, St. Louis.
Mou, L. C, & Anderson, N. S. (1981). Graphemic and phonemic codings of Chinese characters in short-term retention. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 17, 255258.
Navon, D., & Shimron, J. (1984). Reading Hebrew: How necessary is the graphemic representation of vowels? In Henderson, L. (Ed.), Orthographies and reading: Perspective from cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, and linguistics (pp. 91102). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Olshtain, E. (1983). Sociocultural competence and language transfer: The case of apology. In Gass, S. & Selinker, L. (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp. 232249). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Palincsar, A. S., & Brown, A. L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1, 117175.
Paradis, M., Hagiwara, H., & Hildebrandt, N. (1985). Neurolinguistic aspects of the Japanese writing system. New York: Academic.
Patterson, K. E., & Morton, J. (1985). From orthography to phonology: An attempt at an old interpretation. In Patterson, K. E., Marshall, J. C., & Coltheart, M. (Eds.), Surface dyslexia (pp. 335360). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Perfetti, C. A., & Lesgold, A. M. (1977). Discourse comprehension and source of individual differences. In Just, M. A. & Carpenter, P. A. (Eds.), Cognitive processes in comprehension (pp. 141184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Perfetti, C. A., & McCutchen, D. (1982). Speech process in reading. In Lass, N. (Ed.), Advances in speech and language, (Vol. 7, pp. 141184). New York: Academic.
Perkins, K., & El-Ezaby, Y. (1984, March). Evidence of Arabic interference in item performance data from the ALIGU Test. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Houston, TX.
Rosier, O., & Ferella, M. (1976). Bilingual education at Rock Point-Some early results. TESOL Quarterly, 10, 379388.
Rosson, M. B. (1985). The interaction of pronunciation rules and lexical representation in reading aloud. Memory and Cognition, 13, 9099.
Rubenstein, H., Lewis, S. S., & Rubenstein, M. A. (1971). Evidence for phonemic recording in visual word recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 10, 647657.
Sasanuma, S. (1984). Can surface dyslexia occur in Japanese? In Henderson, L. (Ed.), Orthographies and reading: Perspective from cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, and linguistics (pp. 4356). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Sato, C. J. (1984). Phonological processes in second language acquisition: Another look at interlanguage syllable structure. Language Learning, 34, 4357.
Scarcella, R. C. (1983). Discourse accent in second language performance. In Gass, S. & Selinker, L. (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp. 306326). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Schachter, J. (1983). A new account of language transfer. In Gass, S. & Selinker, L. (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp. 98111). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Seidenberg, M. S. (1985). The time course of phonological code activation in two writing systems. Cognition, 19, 130.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T., & Toukomaa, P. (1976). Teaching migrant children's mother tongue and learning the language of the host country in the context of the socio-cultural situation of the migrant family. Helsinki: Finnish National Commission for UNESCO.
Slobin, D. I., & Bever, T. G. (1982). Children's use of canonical sentence schemas: A crosslinguistic study of word order and inflections. Cognition, 12, 229265.
Slowiaczek, M. L, & Clifton, C. Jr, (1980). Subvocalization and reading for meaning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 573582.
Taft, M. (1982). An alternative to grapheme-phoneme conversion rules? Memory and Cognition, 10, 465474.
Tarone, E. E. (1979). Interlanguage as chameleon. Language Learning, 25, 181191.
Tierney, R., & Cunningham, J. (1984). Research on teaching reading comprehension. In Pearson, P. D. (Ed.), The handbook of reading research (pp. 609656). New York: Longman.
Troike, R. C. (1978). Research evidence for the effectiveness of bilingual education. NABE Journal, 3, 1324.
Turvey, M. T, Feldman, L. B., & Lukatela, G. (1984). The Serbo-Croatian orthography constrains the reader to a phonologically analytic strategy. In Henderson, L. (Ed.), Orthographies and reading: Perspective from cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, and linguistics (pp. 8190). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tzeng, O. J. L, Hung, D. L, & Wang, W. S.-Y. (1977). Speech recoding in reading Chinese characters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 3, 621630.
Tzeng, O. J. L, & Wang, W. S.-Y. (1983). The first two R's: The way different languages reduce speech to script affects how visual information is processed in the brain. American Scientist, 71, 238243.
Weinstein, C, & Mayer, R. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. In Wittrock, M. (Ed.), The handbook of research on teaching (pp. 315327). New York: Macmillan.
Yanco, J. J. (1985). Language contact and grammatical interference: Hausa and Zarma in Niamey, Niger. Studies in African Linguistics, 9, 318322.
Yik, W F. (1978). The effect of visual and acoustic similarity on short-term memory for Chinese words. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 30, 487494.
Yu, B., Zhang, W, Jing, Q., Peng, R., Zhang, G., & Simon, H. A. (1985). STM capacity for Chinese and English language materials. Memory and Cognition, 13, 202207.
Zehler, A. M. (1982). Reflection of first-language-derived processes in second-language acquisition. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Champaign.
Zhang, G., & Simon, H. A. (1985). STM capacity for Chinese words and idioms: Chunking and acoustical loop hypotheses. Memory and Cognition, 13, 193201.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Studies in Second Language Acquisition
  • ISSN: 0272-2631
  • EISSN: 1470-1545
  • URL: /core/journals/studies-in-second-language-acquisition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed