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  • Allen MacDuffie
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Notes

1. Spitzer, Leo, “Milieu and Ambience: An Essay in Historical Semantics,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 3, no. 2 (1942): 169218, 204; Frye, Lowell, “History as Biography, Biography as History,” in Thomas Carlyle Resartus: Reappraising Carlyle's Contribution to the Philosophy, History, Political Theory and Cultural Criticism, ed. Kerry, Paul and Hill, Marylu (Madison: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 2010): 133–147, 144.

2. Jessop, Ralph, “Coinage of the Term Environment: A Word Without Authority and Carlyle's Displacement of the Mechanical Metaphor,” Literature Compass 9/11 (2012): 708–20, 713.

3. Pearce, Trevor, “From ‘Circumstances’ to ‘Environment’: Herbert Spencer and the Origins of The Idea of Organism-environment Interaction,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (2010): 241–52, 247–48.

4. Eliot, Middlemarch, 249.

5. Worster, Donald, Nature's Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977), 214–15.

6. Spencer, Herbert, “Progress: Its Law and Cause,” in Essays, Scientific, Political, and Speculative (New York: D. Appleton, 1916), 51.

7. Williams, Raymond, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), 5859.

8. George Stocking, Race, Culture, and Evolution: Essays in the History of Anthropology (New York: Free Press, 1968), 48, 64.

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Environment

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