1. Houghton, Walter, The Victorian Frame of Mind, 1830–1870 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957), 251.
2. On masculinity and work, see Barringer, Tim, Men at Work: Art and Labor in Victorian Britain (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005); Sussman, Herbert, Victorian Masculinities: Manhood and Masculine Poetics in Early Victorian Literature and Art (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995); and Adams, James Eli, Dandies and Desert Saints: Styles of Victorian Masculinity (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995).
3. See especially V21-inspired transhistorical work such as Kornbluh, Anna, Realizing Capital: Financial and Psychic Economies in Victorian Form (New York: Fordham University Press, 2014); and Hensley, Nathan K., Forms of Empire: The Poetics of Victorian Sovereignty (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017).
4. On gentlemanly capitalism and invisible industries, see Cain, P. J. and Hopkins, A. G., British Imperialism (London: Routledge, 2002), 135–50, and Darwin, John, The Empire Project: The Rise and Fall of the British World-System 1830–1970 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 23–63. On the rise of services around the urban core, see Lee, C. H., “Regional Growth and Structural Change in Victorian Britain,” Economic History Review 34, no. 3 (1981): 438–52. On clerical labor, see Anderson, Gregory, Victorian Clerks (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1976); Lockwood, David, The Blackcoated Worker: A Case Study in Class Consciousness, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989); Wild, Jonathan, The Rise of the Office Clerk in Literary Culture, 1880–1939 (New York: Palgrave, 2006). On the experiences of work in literature, see Gooch, Joshua, The Victorian Novel, Service Work, and the Nineteenth-Century Economy (New York: Palgrave, 2015); Ruth, Jennifer, Novel Professions: Interested Disinterest and the Making of the Professional in the Victorian Novel (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2006); Lesjak, Carolyn, Working Fictions: A Genealogy of the Victorian Novel (Durham: Duke University Press, 2007); Colón, Susan E., The Professional Ideal in the Victorian Novel (New York: Palgrave, 2007); Goodlad, Lauren M. E., Victorian Literature and the Victorian State: Character and Governance in a Liberal Society (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003); Anderson, Amanda, The Powers of Distance: Cosmopolitanism and the Cultivation of Detachment (Princeton: Princeton University Press 2001); Poovey, Mary, Uneven Developments: The Ideological Work of Gender in Mid-Victorian England (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988).
5. On the feminization of labor in the twenty-first century, see Hardt, Michael and Negri, Antonio, Commonwealth (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009), 132–36. On work and women in the Victorian era, see Holloway, Gerry, Women and Work in Britain Since 1840 (London: Routledge, 2005); Gleadle, Kathryn, British Women in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Palgrave, 2001); Walby, Sylvia, Patriarchy at Work: Patriarchal Capitalist Relations in Employment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).
6. See Thompson, E. P., The Making of the English Working Class (New York: Vintage, 1966), and Greenfield, Adam, Radical Technologies (London: Verso, 2017).
7. See Virdee, Satnam, Race, Class, and the Racialized Outsider (New York: Palgrave, 2014).