Skip to main content

Community-Based Approaches to Herbicide-Resistant Weed Management: Lessons from Science and Practice

  • David E. Ervin (a1) and George B. Frisvold (a2)

When herbicide-resistant weeds are highly mobile across farms, delaying resistance becomes a common-pool resource (CPR) problem. In such situations, it is in the collective long-term interest of farmers to conserve an herbicide's usefulness. Yet, each farmer has an individual short-run incentive to use the herbicide without considering effects on resistance. This study considers the potential for community-based (CB) approaches to address problems of herbicide-resistant weeds. Here, growers actively participate in designing, financing, and implementing programs, usually in collaboration with industry, government, and universities. CB approaches have certain advantages over top-down regulatory or subsidy-based approaches. Scholars and practitioners have developed effective governance mechanisms for many CPRs that could aid in developing effective resistance management programs. Successful CB management programs for insect pest eradication and areawide invasive weed control offer additional lessons about the potential and challenges of such efforts. Lessons from these examples can inform the design and implementation of successful, voluntary programs for herbicide-resistance management. Key research, education, and outreach priorities to help implement successful CB programs are identified at the close.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Community-Based Approaches to Herbicide-Resistant Weed Management: Lessons from Science and Practice
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Community-Based Approaches to Herbicide-Resistant Weed Management: Lessons from Science and Practice
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Community-Based Approaches to Herbicide-Resistant Weed Management: Lessons from Science and Practice
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Corresponding author's E-mail:
Hide All
Associate Editor for this paper: Sarah Ward, Colorado State University.
Hide All
Agrawal, A (2003) Sustainable governance of common-pool resources: context, methods, and politics. Annu Rev Anthropol 32: 243262
Ahouissoussi, NB (1993) A principal-agent model for regional pest control adoption. J Agric Appl Econ 27: 301309
Ahouissoussi, NB, Wetzstein, ME, Duffy, PA (1993) Economic returns to the boll weevil eradication program. J Agric Appl Econ 25: 4655
Anderson, GL, Delfosse, E, Spencer, NR, Prosser, CW, Richard, RD (2003b) Lessons in developing successful invasive weed control programs. J Range Manag 56: 212
Anderson, GL, Prosser, CW, Wendel, LE, Delfosse, ES, Faust, RM (2003a) The ecological areawide management (TEAM) of leafy spurge program of the United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service. Pest Manag Sci 59: 609613
Antilla, L, Whitlow, M, Staten, RT, El Lissy, O, Myers, F (1996) An integrated approach to areawide pink bollworm management in Arizona. Pages 10831085 in Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences. Memphis, TN: National Cotton Council
Barber, LT, Smith, KL, Scott, RC, Norsworthy, JK, Vangilder, AM (2014) Zero Tolerance: A Community-Based Program for Glyphosate Resistant Palmer Amaranth Management. FSA2177. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Services. 6 p
Beckie, HJ, Blackshaw, RE, Low, R, Hall, LM, Sauder, CA, Martin, S (2013) Glyphosate- and acetolactate synthase inhibitor-resistant kochia (Kochia scoparia) in western Canada. Weed Sci 61: 310318
Beckie, HJ, Gulden, RH, Shaikh, N, Johnson, EN, Willenborg, CJ, Brenzil, CA, Ford, G (2015) Glyphosate-resistant kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schrad.) in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Can J Plant Sci 95: 345349
Bordelon, MS (2005) Environmental Benefits Realized from Eradication of the Non-Indigenous Insect Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the Cotton Boll Weevil. Ph. D dissertation. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University. 82 p
Borger, CPD, Walsh, M, Scott, JK, Powles, SB (2007) Tumbleweeds in the western Australian cropping system: seed dispersal characteristics of Salsola australis . Weed Res 47: 406414
Burgos, N, Culpepper, S, Dotray, P, Kendig, JA, Wilcut, J, Nichols, R (2006) Managing Herbicide Resistance in Cotton Cropping Systems. Raleigh, NC: Cotton Inc. 82 p
Busi, R, Yu, Q, Barrett-Lennard, R, Powles, SB (2008) Long distance pollen-mediated flow of herbicide resistance genes in Lolium rigidum . Theor Appl Genet 117: 12811290
Calkins, CO, Faust, RJ (2003) Overview of areawide programs and the program for suppression of codling moth in the western USA directed by the United States Department of Agriculture—Agricultural Research Service. Pest Manag Sci 59: 601604
Caplat, P, Coutts, S, Buckley, YM (2012) Modeling population dynamics, landscape structure, and management decisions for controlling the spread of invasive plants. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1249: 7283
Carlson, GA, Sappie, GP, Hammig, MD (1989) Economic returns to boll weevil eradication. USDA Agricultural Economic Report No. 621, Resource Technology Division. Washington, DC: USDA Economic Research Service. 98 p
Carlson, GA, Wetzstein, ME (1993) Pesticides and pest management Pages 268317 in Carlson, AC, Zilberman, D, Miranowski, JA, eds. Agricultural and Environmental Resource Economics. New York: Oxford University Press
Carruthers, RI (2003) Invasive species research in the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. Pest Manag Sci 59: 827834
Chandler, LD (2003) Corn rootworm areawide management program: United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. Pest Manag Sci 59: 605608
Christensen, SC, Ransom, C, Sheley, R, Smith, B, Whitesides, R (2011) Establishing a Weed Prevention Area: A Step-by-Step User's Guide. USDA–ARS, Area-wide EBIPM Project. Accessed July 21, 2015
Chu, CC, Henneberry, TJ, Weddle, RC, Natwick, ET, Carson, JR, Valenzuela, C, Staten, RT (1996) Reduction of pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) populations in the Imperial Valley, California, following mandatory short-season cotton management systems. J Econ Entom 89: 175182
Claassen, R, Horowitz, J, Duquette, E, Ueda, K (2014) Additionality in U.S. Agricultural Conservation and Regulatory Offset Programs. Economic Research Report No. ERR-170. Washington, DC: USDA, Economic Research Service. 75 p
Claassen, R, Ribaudo, M (2007) Conservation policy overview. Pages 195202 in Wiebe, K, Gollehon, N, eds. Agricultural Resources and Environmental Indicators. New York: Nova Science Publishers
Clark, JS, Carlson, GA (1990) Testing for common versus private property: the case of pesticide resistance. J Environ Econ Manag 19: 4560
Clawson, M (1977) Introduction: social controls over private land use. South Dakota Law Rev 22: 479
Cochran, MJ (1996) Benefit-cost analysis of integrated pest management programs. Pages 781793 in King, EG, Phillips, JR, Coleman, RJ, eds. Cotton Insects and Mites: Characterization and Management. Memphis, TN: The Cotton Foundation
Cox, M, Arnold, G, Tomas, SV (2010) A review of design principles for community-based natural resource management. Ecol Soc 15: Article 38. Accessed February 29, 2016
Dauer, JT, Mortensen, DA and Humston, R (2006) Controlled experiments to predict horseweed (Conyza canadensis) dispersal distance. Weed Sci 54: 484489
Dauer, JT, Mortensen, DA, Vangessel, MJ (2007) Temporal and spatial dynamics of long-distance Conyza canadensis see dispersal. J Appl Ecol 44: 105114
Diggle, AJ, Neve, P (2001) The population dynamics and genetics of herbicide resistance—a modeling approach. Pages 61100 in Powles, SB, Shaner, DL, eds. Herbicide Resistance and World Grains. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
Duffy, PA, Cain, DL, Young, GJ, Wetzstein, ME (1994) Effects of the boll weevil eradication program on Alabama cotton farms. J Agribusiness 12: 114
Duke, SO (2012) Why have no new herbicide modes of action appeared in recent years? Pest Manag Sci 68: 505512
Dumas, CF, Goodhue, RE (1999) The cotton acreage effects of boll weevil eradication: a county-level analysis. J Agric Appl Econ 31: 475497
Epanchin-Niell, RS, Hufford, MB, Aslan, CE, Sexton, JP, Port, JD, Waring, TM (2009) Controlling invasive species in complex social landscapes. Front Ecol Environ 8: 210216
Ervin, D (2013) Voluntary resource conservation and environmental management in agriculture and forestry. Pages 124132 in Shogren, J, ed. Encyclopedia of Energy, Natural Resources and Environmental Economics, Vol. 2. Resources. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier
Ervin, D, Jussaume, R (2014) Herbicide resistance: integrating social science into understanding and managing weed resistance and associated environmental impacts. Weed Sci 62: 403414
Fairchild, FR (1935) Forest Taxation in the United States (No. 218). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. 681 p
Faust, RM (2008) General introduction to areawide pest management. Pages 114 in Koul, O, Cuperus, GW, Elliott, N, eds. Areawide Pest Management Theory and Implementation. Cambridge, MA: CAB International
Faust, RM, Chandler, LD (1998). Future programs in areawide pest management. J Agric Entomol 15: 371376
Fiege, M (2005) The weedy west: mobile nature, boundaries, and common space in the Montana landscape. Western Hist Quart 36: 2247
Field, B, Field, M (2012) Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill
Frisvold, G (2009) Can transgenic crops and IPM be compatible? Pages 555579 in Peshin, R, ed. Dissemination of IPM Technology: Theory and Practice. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag
Frisvold, GB, Reeves, JM (2010) Resistance management and sustainable use of agricultural biotechnology. AgBioForum 13: 343359
Frisvold, GB, Reeves, GM (2014) Herbicide resistant crops and weeds: implications for herbicide use and weed management. Pages 332354 in Pimentel, D, Peshin, R, eds. Integrated Pest Management: Pesticide Problems, Vol. 3. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer
Goodwin, K, Sheley, R, Jacobs, J, Wood, S, Manoukian, M, Schuldt, M, Sackman, S (2012) Cooperative prevention systems to protect rangelands from the spread of invasive plants. Rangelands 34: 2631
Gould, F (1995) Comparisons between resistance management strategies for insects and weeds. Weed Technol 94: 830839
Grefenstette, B, El-Lissy, O, Staten, RT (2009) Pink Bollworm Eradication Plan in the US. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Protection Service. 9 p
Haney, PB, Lewis, WJ, Lambert, WR (2009) Cotton Production and the Boll Weevil in Georgia: History, Cost of Control, and Benefits of Eradication. Research Bulletin Number 428. The Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations. Athens, GA: University of Georgia. 59 p
Hardee, DD, Henneberry, TJ (2004) Areawide management of insects infesting cotton. Pages 119140 in Horowitz, AR, Ishaaya, I, eds. Insect Pest Management: Field and Protected Crops. Berlin, Germany: Springer Science and Business Media
Hardin, G (1968) The tragedy of the commons. Science 162(3859):12431248
Heap, I (2015) International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds. Accessed June 21, 2015
Hendrichs, J, Kenmore, P, Robinson, AS, Vreysen, MJB (2007) Areawide integrated pest management (AW-IPM): principles, practice and prospects. Pages 335 in Vreysen, MJ Robinson, AS, Hendrichs, J, eds. Areawide Control of Insect Pests: From Research to Field Implementation. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science and Business Media
Henneberry, TJ (2007) Integrated systems for control of the pink bollworm Pectinophora Gossypiella in cotton. Pages 567579 in Vreysen, MJ, Robinson, AS, Hendrichs, J, eds. Areawide Control of Insect Pests: From Research to Field Implementation. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science and Business Media
[HRAC] Herbicide Resistance Action Committee (2015) Guideline to the Management of Herbicide Resistance. Accessed June 30, 2015
Hershdorfer, ME, Fernandez-Gimenez, ME, Howery, LD (2007) Key attributes influence the performance of local weed management programs in the southwest United States. Rangeland Ecol Manag 60: 225234
Hodur, NM, Leistritz, FL, Bangsund, DA (2006) Evaluation of TEAM leafy spurge project. Rangeland Ecol Manag 59: 483493
Huffman, WE, Evenson, RE (2008) Science for Agriculture: A Long-Term Perspective. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 314 p
Jha, P, Norsworthy JK Garcia, J (2014) Depletion of an artificial seed bank of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) over four years of burial. Am J Plant Sci 5: 15991606
Kazmierczak, RF, Smith, BC (1996) Role of knowledge and opinion in promoting boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) eradication. J Econ Entomol 89: 11661174
Keenan, S, Giles, K, Elliott, N, Royer, T, Porter, D, Burgener, P, Christian, D (2007) Grower perspectives on areawide wheat integrated pest management in the southern US Great Plains. Pages 289314 in Koul, O, Cuperus, G, eds. Ecologically Based Integrated Pest Management. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Keenan, SP, Burgener, PA (2008) Social and economic aspects of areawide pest management. Pages 97116 in Koul, O, Cuperus, G, Elliott, N, eds. Areawide Pest Management: Theory and Implementation. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Knipling, EF (1972) Entomology and the management of man's environment. Aust J Entomol 11: 153167
Larson, JA, English, BC, Suarez, OP (2000) Impact of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program on the West Tennessee Economy. Department of Agricultural Economics Staff Paper 00-02 Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee. 7 p
Livingston, M, Fernandez-Cornejo, J, Unger, J, Osteen, C, Schimmelpfennig, D, Park, T, Lambert, D (2015) The Economics of Glyphosate Resistance Management in Corn and Soybean Production. Economic Research Report Number 184. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. 52 p
Llewellyn, RS, Allen, DM (2006) Expected mobility of herbicide resistance via weed seeds and pollen in a western Australian cropping region. Crop Prot 25: 520526
Llewellyn, RS, Lindner, RK, Pannell, DJ, Powles, SB (2001) Herbicide resistance and the decision to conserve the herbicide resource: review and framework. Australian Agribusiness Review. Accessed February 29, 2016
Llewellyn, RS, Pannell, DJ (2009) Managing the herbicide resource: an evaluation of extension on management of herbicide-resistant weeds. AgBioForum 12: 358369
Lu, YQ, Baker, J, Preston, C (2007) The spread of resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides in a wind borne, self-pollinated weed species. Lactuca serriola L. Theor Appl Genet 115: 443450
Marsh, SP, Llewellyn, RS, Powles, SB (2006) Social costs of herbicide resistance: the case of resistance to glyphosate. Paper presented at the 50th Annual Conference of the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, Manly Pacific Sydney, Australia. Accessed February 29, 2016
McCanny, SJ, Cavers, PB (1988) Spread of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) in Ontario, Canada. II. Dispersal by combines. Weed Res 28: 6772
McCoy, NH, Amatya, P (2005) Games people play: human behavior and invasive weed management. Rangelands 27: 814
Michael, PJ, Owen, MJ, Powles, SP (2010) Herbicide-resistant weed seeds contaminate grain sown in the western Australian grainbelt. Weed Sci 58: 466472
Midwestern Invasive Plant Network (2011) CWMA Cookbook: A Recipe for Success. A Step-by-Step Guide on How to Develop a Cooperative Weed Management Area in the Eastern United States. Accessed July 21, 2015
Miranowski, JA, Carlson, GA (1986) Economic issues in public and private approaches to preserving pest susceptibility. Pages 436444 in Board on Agriculture, ed. Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management. Washington, DC: National Academy Press
Mitchell, PD (2011) Economic Assessment of the Benefits of Chloro-s-triazine Herbicides to US Corn, Sorghum, and Sugarcane Producers. University of Wisconsin Agricultural and Applied Economics Staff Paper 564. Madison, WI: Department of Agriculture and Applied Economics. 51 p
Myers, JH, Savoie, A, Randen, EV (1998) Eradication and pest management. Annu Rev Entomol 43: 471491
[NRC] National Research Council (2010) Impact of Genetically Engineered Crops on Farm Sustainability in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 270 p
[NRC] National Research Council (2012) National Summit on Strategies to Manage Herbicide-Resistant Weeds: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. 54 p
Norsworthy, JK, Griffith, G, Griffin, T, Bagavathiannan, M, Gbur, EE (2014). In-field movement of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and its impact on cotton lint yield: evidence supporting a zero-threshold strategy. Weed Sci 62: 237249
Norsworthy, JK, Smith, KL, Scott, RC, Gbur, EE (2009) Consultant perspectives on weed management needs in Arkansas cotton. Weed Technol 21: 825831
Norsworthy, JK, Ward, SM, Shaw, DR, Llewellyn, RS, Nichols, RL, Webster, TM, Bradley, KW, Frisvold, G, Powles, SB, Burgos, NR, Witt, WW, Barrett, M (2012) Reducing the risks of herbicide resistance: best management practices and recommendations. Weed Sci 60: 3162
Ostrom, E (1990) Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 298 p
Ostrom, E (2009) A general framework for analyzing the sustainability of socio-ecological systems. Science 325: 419422
Ostrom, E, Chang, C, Pennington, M, Tarko, V (2012) The Future of the Commons: Beyond Market Failure and Government Regulation. London, UK: Institute for Economic Affairs. 104 p
Pannell, DJ, Zilberman, D (2001) Economic and sociological factors affecting growers’ decision making on herbicide resistance. Pages 251278 in Powles, SB, Shaner, DL, eds. Herbicide Resistance and World Grains. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
Perrings, C, Williamson, M, Barbier, EB, Delfino, D, Dalmazzone, S, Shogren, J, Watkinson, A (2002) Biological invasion risks and the public good: an economic perspective. Conserv Ecol 6. Accessed February 29, 2016
Prosser, C, Anderson, G, Wendel, L, Richard, R, Redlin, B (2002) TEAM leafy spurge: an areawide pest management program. Integrated Pest Manag Rev 7: 4762
Ransom, CV, Whitesides, RE (2012) Proactive EBIPM: establishing weed prevention areas. Rangelands 34: 3538
Rebaudo, F, Dangles, O (2011) Coupled information diffusionpest dynamics models predict delayed benefits of farmer cooperation in pest management programs. PLoS Computational Biology 7: e1002222
Rieger, M, Lamond, M, Preston, C, Powles, S, Roush, R (2002) Pollen-mediated movement of herbicide resistance between commercial canola fields. Science 296: 23862388
Rogers, EM (2003) Diffusion of Innovations, 5th ed. New York: The Free Press. 550 p
Sayer, J, Sunderland, T, Ghazoul, J, Pfund, JL, Sheil, D, Meijaard, E, Venter, M, Boedhihartono, AG, Day, M, Garcia, C, van Ooster, C and Buck, LE (2013) Ten principles for a landscape approach to reconciling agriculture, conservation, and other competing land uses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110: 83498356
Schmidt, C, Pannell, DJ (1994) Economic issues in management of herbicide-resistant weeds. Rev Marketing Agr Econ 64: 301308
Segerson, K (2013) When is reliance on voluntary approaches in agriculture likely to be effective? Appl Econ Perspect Policy 35: 565592
Shaner, DL, Beckie, HJ (2014) The future for weed control and technology. Pest Manag Sci 70: 13291339
Shaw, DR, Owen, MD, Dixon, PM, Weller, SC, Young, BG, Wilson, RG, Jordan, DL (2011) Benchmark study on glyphosate-resistant cropping systems in the United States. Part 1: Introduction to 2006–2008. Pest Manag Sci 67: 741746
Shields, EJ, Dauer, JT, VanGessel, MJ, Neumann, G (2006) Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) seed collected in the planetary boundary layer. Weed Sci 54: 10631067
Smith, B, Sheley, RL (2012) Government success in partnerships: the USDA–ARS areawide ecologically based invasive annual grass management program. Rangelands 34: 1724
Sosnoskie, LM, Webster, TM, Kichler, JM, MacRae, AW, Culpepper, AS (2007) Preliminary estimates of glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri pollen dispersal distances. Page 28 in Main, CL, ed. Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference. New Orleans, LA: National Cotton Council
Sosnoskie, LM, Webster, TM, Kichler, JM, MacRae, AW, Grey, T, Culpepper, AS (2012) Pollen-mediated dispersal of glyphosate-resistance in Palmer amaranth under field conditions. Weed Sci 60: 366373
Staten, RT, Flint, HM, Weddle, RC, Quintero, E, Zarate, RE, Finnell, CM, Hernandes, M, Yamamoto, A (1987) Pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): large-scale field trials with a high-rate gossyplure formation. J Econ Entomol 80: 12671271
Sunding, DL (1996) Measuring the marginal cost of nonuniform environmental regulations. Am J Agric Econ 10981107
Szmedra, PI, McClendon, RW, Wetzstein, ME (1991) Economic risk efficiency of boll weevil eradication. Southern J Agric Econ 23: 237244
Tabashnik, BE, Sisterson, MS, Ellsworth, PC, Dennehy, TJ, Antilla, L, Liesner, L, Carrière, Y (2010) Suppressing resistance to Bt cotton with sterile insect releases. Nature Biotechnol 28: 13041307
Thomas, MB (1999) Ecological approaches and the development of “truly integrated” pest management. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 59445951
Tribble, C, McIntosh, C, Wetzstein, M (1999) Georgia cotton acreage response to the boll weevil eradication program. J Agric Appl Econ 31: 499506
[US EPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2011) The Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act from 1990 to 2020. Final Report. Revision A. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation. 238 p
VanGessel M Johnson, Q (2015) Palmer Amaranth Control in Crop Land. Weed Facts WF-21. Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Cooperative Extension. 12 p
Volkmann, K (2010) Monsanto offers millions in rebates to farmers. St. Louis Business Journal, October 19. Accessed February 29, 2016
Walters, ML, Sequeira, R, Staten, R, El-Lissy, O, Moses-Gonzales, N (2009) Eradication: strategies and tactics. Pages 298308 in Radcliffe, E, Hutchison, W, Cancelado, R, eds. Integrated Pest Management: Concepts, Tactics, Strategies and Case Studies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
Watrud, LS, Lee, EH, Fairbrother, A, Burdick, C, Reichman, JR, Bollman, M, Van de Water, PK (2004) Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 1453314538
Webster, TM, Sosnoskie, LM (2010) Loss of glyphosate efficacy: a changing weed spectrum in Georgia cotton. Weed Sci 58: 7379
Wilson, RS, Tucker, MA, Hooker, NH, Lejeune, JT, Doohan, D (2008) Perceptions and beliefs about weed management: perspectives of Ohio grain and produce farmers. Weed Technol 22: 339350
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed