Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Differentiation of Life-History Traits among Palmer Amaranth Populations (Amaranthus palmeri) and Its Relation to Cropping Systems and Glyphosate Sensitivity

  • Washington Bravo (a1), Ramon G. Leon (a2), Jason A. Ferrell (a1), Michael J. Mulvaney (a2) and C. Wesley Wood (a2)...
Abstract

Palmer amaranth’s ability to evolve resistance to different herbicides has been studied extensively, but there is little information about how this weed species might be evolving other life-history traits that could potentially make it more aggressive and difficult to control. We characterized growth and morphological variation among 10 Palmer amaranth populations collected in Florida and Georgia from fields with different cropping histories, ranging from continuous short-statured crops (vegetables and peanut) to tall crops (corn and cotton) and from intensive herbicide use history to organic production. Palmer amaranth populations differed in multiple traits such as fresh and dry weight, days to flowering, plant height, and leaf and canopy shape. Differences between populations for these traits ranged from 36% up to 87%. Although glyphosate-resistant (GR) populations collected from cropping systems including GR crops exhibited higher values of the aforementioned variables than glyphosate-susceptible (GS) populations, variation in traits was not explained by glyphosate resistance or distance between populations. Cropping system components such as crop rotation and crop canopy structure better explained the differences among populations. The higher growth of GR populations compared with GS populations was likely the result of multiple selection forces present in the cropping systems in which they grow rather than a pleiotropic effect of the glyphosate resistance trait. Results suggest that Palmer amaranth can evolve life-history traits increasing its growth and reproduction potential in cropping systems, which explains its rapid spread throughout the United States. Furthermore, our findings highlight the need to consider the evolutionary consequences of crop rotation structure and the use of more competitive crops, which might promote the selection of more aggressive biotypes in weed species with high genetic variability.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: rleon@ncsu.edu
Footnotes
Hide All

Current address of second author: Crop and Soil Sciences Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695

Associate Editor for this paper: William Vencill, University of Georgia

Footnotes
References
Hide All
BallDA (1992) Weed seedbank response to tillage, herbicides, and crop rotation sequence. Weed Sci 40:654659
BergerST, FerrellJA, DittmarPJ, LeonR (2015a) Survey of glyphosate- and imazanic-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Florida. Crop, Forage & Turfgrass Management. DOI: 10.2134/cftm2015.0122
BergerST, FerrellJA, RowlandDL, WebsterTM (2015b) Palmer amarnath (Amaranthus palmeri) competition for water in cotton. Weed Sci 63:928935
BolmgrenJ, CowanPD (2008) Time–size tradeoffs: a phylogenetic comparative study of flowering time, plant height and seed mass in a north–temperate flora. Oikos 117:424429
BondJA, OliverLR (2006) Comparative growth of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) accessions. Weed Sci 54:121126
CardinaJ, BreckeBJ (1989) Growth and development of Florida beggarweed (Desmodium tortuosum) selections. Weed Sci 37:207210
ChandiA, Milla-LewisSR, JordanDL, YorkAC, BurtonJD, ZuletaMC, WhitakerJR, CulpepperAS (2013) Use of AFLP markers to assess genetic diversity in Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) populations from North Carolina and Georgia. Weed Sci 61:136145
ClementsDR, DiTommasoA, JordanN, BoothBD, CardinaJ, DoohanD, MohlerCL, MurphySD, SwantonCJ (2004) Adaptability of plants invading North American cropland. Agric Ecosyst Environ 104:379398
ColauttiRI, MaronJL, BarrettSCH (2009) Common garden comparisons of native and introduced plant populations: latitudinal clines can obscure evolutionary inferences. Evol App 2:187199
CronbergN (1998) Population structure and interspecific differentiation of the peat moss sister species Sphagnum rubellum and S. capillifolium (Sphagnaceae) in northern Europe. Plant Sys Evol 209:139158
CulpepperAS, GreyTL, VencillWK, KichlerJM, WebsterTM, BrownSM, YorkAC, DavisJW, HannaWW (2006) Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) confirmed in Georgia. Weed Sci 54:620626
DavisAS, SchutteBJ, HagerAG, YoungBG (2015) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) damage niche in Illinois soybean is seed limited. Weed Sci 63:658668
DorkenME, BarrettSCH (2004) Phenotypic plasticity of vegetative and reproductive traits in monoecious and dioecious populations of Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae): a clonal aquatic plant. J Ecol 92:3244
EhleringerJ (1983) Ecophysiology of Amaranthus palmeri, a Sonoran Desert summer annual. Oecologia 57:107112
FranksSJ, SimS, WeisAE (2007) Rapid evolution of flowering time by an annual plant in response to a climate fluctuation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:12781282
GiacominiD, WestraP, WardSM (2014) Impact of genetic background in fitness cost studies: an example from glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Weed Sci 62:2937
GibsonAC (1998) Photosynthetic organs of dessert plants. BioScience 48:911920
HairJF, AndersonRE, TathamRL (1987) Multivariate Data Analysis. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan. 420 p
HamrickJL, GodtMJW (1996) Effects of life history traits on genetic diversity in plant species. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 351:12911298
HeapI (2016) The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. http://weedscience.org/graphs/speciesbysoacount.aspx. Accessed: April 1, 2016
HerefordJ (2009) Postmating/prezygotic isolation, heterosis, and outbreeding depression in crosses within and between populations of Diodia teres (Rubiaceae) Walt. Int J Plant Sci 170:301310
HoldereggerR, KammU, GugerliF (2006) Adaptive vs. neutral genetic diversity: implications for landscape genetics. Landsc Ecol 21:797807
HorakMJ, PetersonDE (1995) Biotypes of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) are resistant to imazethapyr and thifensulfuron. Weed Technol 9:192195
JhalaAJ, SandellLD, RanaN, KrugerGR, KnezevicSZ (2014) Confirmation and control of triazine and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Nebraska. Weed Technol 28:2838
JordanN (1989a) Path analysis of growth differences between weed and nonweed populations of poorjoe (Diodia teres) in competition with soybean (Glycine max). Weed Sci 37:129136
JordanN (1989b) Predicted evolutionary response to selection for tolerance of soybean (Glycine max) and intraspecific competition in a nonweed population of poorjoe (Diodia teres). Weed Sci 37:451457
JordanNR, JanninkJL (1997) Assessing the practical importnace of weed evolution: a research agenda. Weed Res 37:237246
KhattreeR, NaikDN (2000) Discriminant analyisis. Page 282 in 2000 Multivariate Data Reduction and Discrimination with SAS Software. Cary, NC: SAS Institute
LambertiniC, RiisT, OlesenB, ClaytonJS, SorrellBK, BrixH (2010) Genetic diversity in three invasive clonal aquatic species in New Zealand. BMC Genet 11:52
LeonRG, BasshamDC, OwenMDK (2006a) Germination and proteome analyses reveal intraspecific variation in seed dormancy regulation in tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus). Weed Sci 54:305315
LeonRG, BasshamDC, OwenMDK (2006b) Inheritance of deep seed dormancy and stratification-mediated dormancy alleviation in Amaranthus tuberculatus . Seed Sci Res 16:193202
LeonRG, OwenMDK (2006) Tillage systems and seed dormancy effects on tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) seedling emergence. Weed Sci 54:10371044
LeonRG, WrightDL, MaroisJJ (2015) Weed seed banks are more dynamic in a sod-based, than in a conventional peanut–cotton rotation. Weed Sci 63:877887
LiebmanM, DyckE (1993) Crop rotation and intercropping strategies for weed management. Ecol Appl 3:92122
MassingaRA, CurrieRS, TrooienTP (2003) Water use and light interception under Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and corn competition. Weed Sci 51:523531
MorranLT, ParmenterMD, PhillipsPC (2009) Mutation load and rapid adaptation favour outcrossing over self-fertilization. Nature 462:350352
NeiM, MaruyamaT, ChakrabortyR (1975) The bottleneck effect and genetic variability in populations. Evolution 29:110
NorsworthyJK, GriffithGM, ScottRC, SmithKL, OliverLR (2008) Confirmation of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Arkansas. Weed Technol 22:108113
ObbardDJ, HarrisSA, PannellJR (2006) Sexual systems and population genetic structure in an annual plant: testing the metapopulation model. Am Nat 167:354366
R Core Team. (2014) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org. Accessed September 1, 2016
RitzC, StreibigJC (2005) Bioassay analysis using R. J Stat Soft 12:112
Ruf-PachtaEK, RuleDM, DilleJA (2013) Corn and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) interactions with nitrogen in dryland and irrigated environments. Weed Sci 61:249258
ShawAJ (1999) Genetic structure in relation to reproductive biology of 11 species of Pohlia Hedw. (Bryaceae). Syst Bot 24:8594
ShitakaY, HiroseT (1998) Effects of shift in flowering time on the reproductive output of Xanthium canadense in a seasonal environment. Oecologia 114:361367
SilvertownJ, CharlesworthD (2001) Introduction to Plant Population Biology. 4th edn. Oxford: Blackwell Science. 347 p
SosnoskieLM, CulpepperAS (2014) Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) increases herbicide use, tillage, and hand-weeding in Georgia cotton. Weed Sci 62:393402
SultanSE (2000) Phenotypic plasticity for plant development, function and life history. Trends Plant Sci 5:537542
SwantonCJ, WeiseSF (1991) Integrated weed management: the rationale and approach. Weed Technol 5:657663
ValladaresF, Sanchez-GomezD, ZavalaMA (2006) Quantitative estimation of phenotypic plasticity: bridging the gap between the evolutionary concept and its ecological applications. J Ecol 94:11031116
WardSM, WebsterTM, SteckelLE (2013) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri): a review. Weed Technol 27:1227
WebsterTM (2009) Weed survey southern states. Proc South Weed Sci Soc 62:580–595
WestermanPR, LiebmanM, MenalledFD, HeggenstallerAH, HartzlerRG, DixonPM (2005) Are many little hammers effective? Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) population dynamics in two- and four-row crop rotation systems. Weed Sci 53:382392
WoodCW, ReevesDW, DuffieldRR, EdmistenKL (1992) Field chlorophyll measurments for evaluation of corn nitrogen status. J Plant Nutr 15:487500
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 32
Total number of PDF views: 291 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 716 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 17th May 2017 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.