Skip to main content

Effect of Adjuvants and Urea Ammonium Nitrate on Bispyribac Efficacy, Absorption, and Translocation in Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). I. Efficacy, Rainfastness, and Soil Moisture

  • Clifford H. Koger (a1), Darrin M. Dodds (a2) and Daniel B. Reynolds (a2)

Bispyribac is registered for postemergence control of broadleaf, sedge, and grass weeds in rice. Bispyribac inhibits the acetolactate synthase enzyme in sensitive plants. Herbicides in this class of chemistry require a spray adjuvant to achieve optimal efficacy, often achieve different levels of weed control according to the spray adjuvant used, and typically have rainfast periods of at least 6 to 8 h. Efficacy and rainfastness of bispyribac can be affected by spray adjuvant and the addition of urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). Greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of spray adjuvant type, addition of UAN, and soil moisture on bispyribac efficacy on barnyardgrass. Control of barnyardgrass was improved when UAN was added to bispyribac at 0.4 or 0.8 g ha−1 plus an organosilicone-based nonionic surfactant (OSL/NIS) or methylated seed oil/organosilicone (MSO/OSL) spray adjuvant. The type of adjuvant added to the spray solution affected bispyribac efficacy on barnyardgrass. The addition of UAN decreased the rainfast period from 8 h (registered rainfast period) to 1 or 4 h (99 to 100% control) when either the OSL/NIS or MSO/OSL adjuvant was applied with bispyribac, respectively. Applying UAN and OSL/NIS or MSO/OSL adjuvant with bispyribac enhanced efficacy and reduced the time period required between bispyribac application and washoff during a rainfall event. Increasing soil moisture conditions resulted in greater efficacy from bispyribac when applied with and without UAN.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author's E-mail:
Hide All
Anonymous , 2006. Regiment product label. Valent USA Corporation. Walnut Creek, CA Valent.
Beyer E. M., Duffy J. J., Hay J. V., and Schlueter D. D. 1988. Sulfonylureas. Pages 117190. in Kearner P.C., Kaufman D.D. eds. Herbicides: Chemistry, Degradation, and Mode of Action. Volume 3. New York Marcel-Dekker.
Bryson C. T. 1987. Effects of rainfall on foliar herbicides applied to rhizome johnsongrass. Weed Sci. 35:115119.
Bryson C. T. 1988. Effects of rainfall on foliar herbicide applied to seedling johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). Weed Technol. 2:153158.
Bunting J. A., Spraque C. L., and Reichers D. E. 2004. Absorption and activity of foramsulfuron in giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) and woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa) with various adjuvants. Weed Sci. 52:513517.
Field R. J. and Bishop N. C. 1988. Promotion of stomatal infiltration of glyphosate by an organosilicone surfactant reduces the critical rainfall period. Pestic. Sci. 24:5562.
Frans R., Talbert R., Marx D., and Crowley H. 1986. Experimental design and techniques for measuring and analyzing plant responses to weed control practices. Pages 3738. in Camper N.D. ed. Research Methods in Weed Science. 3rd ed. Champaign, IL Southern Weed Science Society.
Gardner W. H. 1986. Water retention: field methods. Pages 493544. in Klute A. ed. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Soil Science of America Book Series No. 5. Madison, WI Soil Science of America.
Green J. M. and Cahill W. R. 2003. Enhancing the biological activity of nicosulfuron with pH adjusters. Weed Sci. 17:338345.
Green J. M. and Green J. H. 1993. Surfactant structure and concentration strongly affect rimsulfuron activity. Weed Technol. 7:633640.
Harker K. N. 1992. Effects of various adjuvants on sethoxydim activity. Weed Technol. 6:865870.
Hart S. E., Kells J. J., and Penner D. 1992. Influence of adjuvants on the efficacy, absorption, and spray retention of primisulfuron. Weed Technol. 6:592598.
Hinz J. R. and Owen M. D. K. 1994. Effects of drought stress on velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) on bentazon efficacy. Weed Sci. 42:7681.
Hoagland D. R. and Arnon D. I. 1950. The Water Culture Method for Growing Plant without Soil. Berkley, CA University of California, California Agricultural Experiment Station Circ. 347.
Jordan D. L. 1996. Adjuvants and growth stage affect purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) control with chlorimuron and imazethapyr. Weed Technol. 10:359362.
Koger C. H., Poston D. H., and Reddy K. N. 2004. Effect of glyphosate spray coverage on control of pitted morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa). Weed Technol. 18:24130.
Koger C. H., Price A. J., and Reddy K. N. 2005. Weed control and cotton response to combinations of glyphosate and trifloxysulfuron. Weed Technol. 19:113121.
Levene B. C. and Owen M. D. K. 1995. Effect of moisture stress and leaf age on bentazon absorption in common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Sci. 43:712.
Malefyt T. and Quakenbush L. 1991. Influence of environmental factors on the biological activity of the imidazolinone herbicides. Pages 103127. in Shaner D.L., O'Connor S.L. eds. The Imidazolinone Herbicides. Boca Raton, FL CRC.
Manthey F. A., Horsley R. D., and Nalewaja J. D. 1992. Relationship between surfactant characteristics and the phytotoxicity of CGA-136872. Pages 258270. in Bode L.E., Chasin D.G. eds. Pesticide Formulations and Application Systems. Philadelphia, PA American Society for Testing and Materials.
McIntosh M. S. 1983. Analysis of combined experiments. Agron. J. 75:153155.
Miller P. A., Westra P., and Nissen S. J. 1999. The influence of surfactant and nitrogen on foliar absorption of MON 37500. Weed Sci. 47:270274.
Nalewaja J. D., Praczyk T., and Matysiak R. 1995. Surfactants and oil adjuvants with nicosulfuron. Weed Technol. 9:686695.
Olson B. L., Al-Khatib K., Stahlman P., and Isakson P. J. 2000. Efficacy and metabolism of MON 37500 in Triticum aestivum and weedy grass species as affected by temperature and soil moisture. Weed Sci. 48:541548.
Reynolds D. B., Wheless T. G., Basler E., and Murray D. S. 1988. Moisture stress effects on the absorption, translocation, and metabolism of four foliar-applied herbicides. Weed Technol. 2:437441.
Roggenbuck F. C., Rowe L., Penner D., Petroff L., and Burow R. 1990. Increasing postemergence herbicide efficacy and rainfastness with silicone adjuvants. Weed Technol. 4:576580.
[SAS] Statistical Analysis Systems 2001. SAS User's Guide. Release 8.2. Cary, NC Statistical Analysis Systems Inst.
Schmidt L. A., Talbert R. E., Baldwin F. L., Rutledge J. S., Scherder E. F., and Wheeler C. C. 1999. Performance of V-10029 (bispyribac) in rice weed control programs. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc. 52:49.
Shaner D. L. and Singh B. K. 1997. Acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitors. Pages 69110. in Roe R.M., Burton J.D., Kuhr R.J. eds. Herbicide Activity: Toxicology, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology. Washington, DC IOS.
Tan S., Evans R. R., Dahmer M. L., Singh B. K., and Shaner D. L. 2005. Imidazolinone-tolerant crops: history, current status and future. Pest Manag. Sci. 61:246257.
Tanpipat S., Adkins S. W., Swarbrick J. T., and Boersma M. 1997. Influence of selected environmental factors on glyphosate efficacy when applied to awnless barnyard grass [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link]. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 48:695702.
W.K. Vencill. 2002. Herbicide Handbook. 8th ed. Lawrence, KS Weed Sci. Soc. Am. 51.
Williams B. J. 1999. Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) control in dry-seeded rice with V-10029. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc. 52:50.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 3 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 75 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 21st February 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.