Skip to main content

Environmental factors affecting seed persistence of annual weeds across the U.S. corn belt

  • Adam S. Davis, John Cardina (a1), Frank Forcella (a2), Gregg A. Johnson (a3), George Kegode (a4), John L. Lindquist (a5), Edward C. Luschei (a6), Karen A. Renner (a7), Christy L. Sprague (a8) and Martin M. Williams (a9)...

Weed seedbanks have been studied intensively at local scales, but to date, there have been no regional-scale studies of weed seedbank persistence. Empirical and modeling studies indicate that reducing weed seedbank persistence can play an important role in integrated weed management. Annual seedbank persistence of 13 summer annual weed species was studied from 2001 through 2003 at eight locations in the north central United States and one location in the northwestern United States. Effects of seed depth placement, tillage, and abiotic environmental factors on seedbank persistence were examined through regression and multivariate ordinations. All species examined showed a negative relationship between hydrothermal time and seedbank persistence. Seedbank persistence was very similar between the two years of the study for common lambsquarters, giant foxtail, and velvetleaf when data were pooled over location, depth, and tillage. Seedbank persistence of common lambsquarters, giant foxtail, and velvetleaf from October 2001 through 2002 and October 2002 through 2003 was, respectively, 52.3% and 60.0%, 21.3% and 21.8%, and 57.5% and 57.2%. These results demonstrate that robust estimates of seedbank persistence are possible when many observations are averaged over numerous locations. Future studies are needed to develop methods of reducing seedbank persistence, especially for weed species with particularly long-lived seeds.

Corresponding author
1 Corresponding author. Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824
Hide All
Benech-Arnold R. L., Sanchez R. A., Forcella F., Kruck B. C., and Ghersa C. M. 2000. Environmental control of dormancy in weed seedbanks in soil. Field Crops Res 67:105122.
Benvenuti S., Macchia M., and Miele S. 2001. Quantitative analysis of emergence of seedlings from buried weed seeds with increasing soil depth. Weed Sci 49:528535.
Bradford K. 2002. Applications of hydrothermal time to quantifying and modeling seed germination and dormancy. Weed Sci 50:248260.
Buhler D. D. and Hartzler R. G. 2001. Emergence and persistence of seed of velvetleaf, common waterhemp, wooly cupgrass, and giant foxtail. Weed Sci 49:230235.
Burnside O. C., Wilson R. G., Weisberg S., and Hubbard K. G. 1996. Seed longevity of 41 weed species buried 17 years in eastern and western Nebraska. Weed Sci 44:7486.
Cousens R. and Mortimer M. 1995. Dynamics of Weed Populations. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 332 p.
Davis A. S., Dixon P. M., and Liebman M. 2004. Using matrix models to determine cropping system effects on annual weed demography. Ecol. Appl 14:655668.
Fenner M. and Thompson K. 2005. The Ecology of Seeds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 250 p.
Flerchinger G. N. 2000. The Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) Model: User's Manual. Northwest Watershed Research Center, U.S.D.A.-A.R.S. Pp. 20.
Forcella F., Wilson R. G., Dekker J., Kremer R. J., Cardina J., Anderson R. L., Alm D., Renner K. A., Harvey G., and Clay S. 1997. Weed seedbank emergence across the corn belt. Weed Sci 45:6776.
Gallandt E. R., Fuerst E. P., and Kennedy A. C. 2004. Effect of tillage, fungicide seed treatment, and soil fumigation on seedbank dynamics of wild oat (Avena fatua). Weed Sci 52:597604.
Gonzalez-Andujar J. L. and Fernandez-Quintanilla C. 1991. Modelling the population dynamics of Avena sterilis under dry-land cereal cropping systems. J. Appl. Ecol 28:1627.
Gotelli N. J. and Ellison A. M. 2004. A Primer of Ecological Statistics. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. 150 p.
Grundy A. C., Phelps K., Reader R. J., and Burston S. 2000. Modelling the germination of Stellaria media using the concept of hydrothermal time. New Phytol 148:433444.
Harrison S. K., Regnier E. E., and Schmoll J. T. 2003. Postdispersal predation of giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) in no-tillage corn. Weed Sci 51:955964.
Jordan N., Mortensen D. A., Prenzlow D. M., and Cox K. C. 1995. Simulation analysis of crop rotation effects on weed seedbanks. Am. J. Bot 82:390398.
Kremer R. J. 1986. Antimicrobial activity of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) seeds. Weed Sci 34:617622.
Kremer R. J. 1993. Management of weed seedbanks with microorganisms. Ecol. Appl 3:4252.
Lewis J. 1973. Longevity of crop and weed seeds: survival after 20 years in soil. Weed Res 13:179191.
Neter J., Kutner M. H., Nachtsheim C. J., and Wasserman W. 1996. Applied Linear Statistical Models. Chicago: Irwin. 1408 p.
Økland R. H. 1996. Are ordination and constrained ordination alternative or complementary strategies in general ecological studies? J. Veg. Sci 7:289292.
Peters J. ed. 2000. Tetrazolium Testing Handbook. Contrib. No. 29 to the Handbook on Seed Testing. Lincoln, NE: Association of Official Seed Analysts.
Robertson G. P., Klingensmith K. M., Klug M. J., Paul E. A., Crum J. R., and Ellis B. G. 1997. Soil resources, microbial activity, and primary production across an agricultural ecosystem. Ecol. Appl 7:158170.
Schafer M. and Kotanen P. M. 2003. The influence of soil moisture on losses of buried seeds to fungi. Acta Oecol 24:255263.
Shem-Tov S., Klose S., Ajwa H. A., and Fennimore S. A. 2005. Effect of carbon:nitrogen ratio and organic amendments on seedbank longevity. Weed Sci. Soc. Am. Abstr 45:97.
Tate R. L. I. 1987. Soil Organic Matter: Biological and Ecological Effects. New York: Wiley Interscience. 318 p.
Taylor K. L. and Hartzler R. G. 2000. Effect of seedbank augmentation on herbicide efficacy. Weed Technol 14:261267.
Telewski F. W. and Zeevaart J. A. D. 2002. The 120-yr period for Dr. Beal's seed viability experiment. Am. J. Bot 89:12851288.
Teo-Sherrell C. P. A., Mortensen D. A., and Keaton M. E. 1996. Fates of weed seeds in soil: a seeded core method of study. J. Appl. Ecol 33:11071113.
ter Braak C. J. F. and Smilauer P. 2002. CANOCO Reference Manual and CanoDraw for Window's User's Guide: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (Version 4.5). Ithaca, NY: Microcomputer Power. 500 p.
Thompson K., Bakker J., and Bekker R. 1997. The Soil Seedbanks of North West Europe: Methodology, Density and Longevity. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 276 p.
Underwood A. J. 1997. Experiments in Ecology: Their Design and Interpretation Using Analysis of Variance. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 504 p.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 5 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 88 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 20th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.