Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Evolution of Glyphosate-Resistant Crop Technology

  • Jerry M. Green (a1)

New and improved glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops continue to be rapidly developed. These crops confer greater crop safety to multiple glyphosate applications, higher rates, and wider application timings. Many of these crops will also have glyphosate resistance stacked with traits that confer resistance to herbicides with other modes of actions to expand the utility of existing herbicides and to increase the number of mixture options that can delay the evolution of GR weeds. Some breeding stacks of herbicide resistance traits are currently available, but the trend in the future will be to combine resistance genes in molecular stacks. The first example of such a molecular stack has a new metabolically based mechanism to inactivate glyphosate combined with an active site-based resistance for herbicides that inhibit acetolactate synthase (ALS). This stack confers resistance to glyphosate and all five classes of ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Other molecular stacks will include glyphosate resistance with resistance to auxin herbicides and herbicides that inhibit acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) and 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD). Scientists are also studying a number of other herbicide resistance transgenes. Some of these new transgenes will be used to make new multiple herbicide-resistant crops that offer growers more herbicide options to meet their changing weed management needs and to help sustain the efficacy of glyphosate.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author's E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R. S. Arias , M. D. Netherland , P. Atul , and F. D. Dayan 2005. Biology and molecular evolution of resistance to phytoene desaturase inhibitors in Hydrilla verticillata and its potential use to produce herbicide-resistant crops. Pest Manag. Sci. 61:258268.

M. Barrett , N. Polge , R. Baerg , L. D. Bradshaw , and C. Poneleit 1997. Role of cytochrome P450s in herbicide metabolism and selectivity and multiple herbicide metabolizing cytochrome P450 activities in maize. Pages 3550. in K. K. Hatzios Regulation of Enzymatic Systems Detoxifying Xenobiotics in Plants. Dordrecht, The Netherlands Kluwer Academic.

H. J. Beckie , K. N. Harker , L. M. Hall , et al. 2006. A decade of herbicide-resistant crops in Canada. Can. J. Plant Sci. 86:12431264.

M. R. Behrens , N. Mutlu , S. Cjairabprtu , W. Jiang , B. J. LaVallee , P. L. Herman , T. E. Clemente , and D. P. Weeks 2007. Dicamba resistance: enlarging and preserving biotechnology-based weed management strategies. Science. 316:11851188.

V. Buchanan-Wollaston , A. Naser , and F. C. Cannon 1992. A plant selectable marker gene based on the detoxification of the herbicide dalapon. Plant Cell Rep. 11:627631.

L. A. Castle , D. L. Siehl , R. Groton , et al. 2004. Discovery and directed evolution of a glyphosate tolerance gene. Science. 304:11511154.

M. Chaboute , N. Chaubet , G. Philipps , M. Ehling , and C. Gigot 1987. Genomic organization and nucleotide sequences of two histone H3 and two histone H4 genes from Arabidopsis thaliana . Plant Mol. Biol. 8:179191.

A. H. Christensen and P. H. Quail 1996. Ubiquitin promoter-based vectors for high-level expression of selectable and/or screenable marker genes in monocotyledonous plants. Transgenic Res. 5:213218.

J. Davies and J. C. Caseley 1999. Herbicide safeners: a review. Pest. Sci. 55:10431058.

L. Didierjean , L. Gondet , R. Perkins , S. M. C. Lau , H. Schaller , D. P. O'Keefe , and D. Werck-Reichart 2002. Engineering herbicide metabolism in tobacco and Arabidopsis with CYP76B1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme from Jerusalem artichoke. Plant Physiol. 130:179189.

G. M. Dill , C. A. CaJacob , and S. R. Padgette 2008. Glyphosate-resistant crops: adoption, use and future considerations. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:326331.

G. A. Elmore , F. W. Roeth , L. A. Nelson , C. A. Shapiro , R. N. Klein , S. Z. Knezevic , and A. R. Martin 2001. Glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivar yields compared with sister lines. Agron. J. 93:408412.

C. Foresman and L. Glasgow 2008. Grower perceptions and experiences with glyphosate-resistant weeds. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:388391.

J. M. Green , C. B. Hazel , D. R. Forney , and L. M. Pugh 2008. New multiple-herbicide crop resistance and formulation technology to augment the utility of glyphosate. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:332339.

D. I. Gustafson 2008. Sustainable use of glyphosate in North American cropping systems. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:409416.

P. Herman , L. M. Behrens , S. Chakraborty , B. M. Chrastil , J. Barycki , and D. P. Weeks 2005. A three-component dicamba O-demethylase from Pseudomonas maltophilia, Strain DI6: gene isolation, characterization, and heterozygous expression. J. Biol. Chem. 280:2475924767.

C. Herouet , D. J. Esdaile , B. A. Mallyon , E. Debruyne , A. Schulz , T. Currier , K. Hendicks , R. J. van der Klis , and D. Rouan 2005. Safety evaluation of the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase proteins encoded by the pat and bar sequences that confer tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicide in transgenic plants. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 41:134149.

S. Hirose , H. Kawahigashi , K. Ozawa , N. Shiota , H. Inui , and H. Ohkawa 2005. Transgenic rice containing human CYP2B6 detoxifies various classes of herbicides. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:34613467.

Y. Ishida , H. Saito , S. Ohta , Y. Hiei , T. Komari , and T. Kumashiro 1996. High efficiency transformation of maize (Zea mays L.) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens . Nat. Biotechnol. 14:745750.

G. Kriete , K. Niehaus , A. M. Perlick , A. Pühler , and I. Broer 1996. Male sterility in transgenic tobacco plants induced by tapetum-specific deacetylation of the externally applied non-toxic N-acetyl-L-phosphinothricin. Plant J. 9:809818.

X. Li and D. Nicholl 2005. Development of PPO inhibitor-resistant cultures and crops. Pest Manag. Sci. 61:277285.

X. Li , S. L. Volrath , D. B. G. Nicholl , C. E. Chilcott , M. A. Johnson , E. R. Ward , and M. D. Law 2003. Development of protoporphyrinogen oxidase as an efficient selection marker for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of maize. Plant Physiol. 133:736747.

C. A. Mallory-Smith and M. Zapiola 2008. Gene flow from glyphosate-resistant crops. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:428440.

M. Matringe , A. Sailland , B. Pelissier , A. Roland , and O. Zind 2005. p-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor-resistant plants. Pest Manag. Sci. 61:269276.

J. A. McCourt , S. S. Pang , J. King-Scott , L. W. Guddat , and R. G. Duggleby 2006. Herbicide-binding sites revealed in the structure of plant acetohydroxyacid synthase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103:568573.

J. E. Ness , S. Kim , A. Gottman , R. Pak , A. Krebber , T. V. Borchert , S. Govindarajan , E. C. Mundorff , and J. Minshull 2002. Synthetic shuffling expands functional protein diversity by allowing amino acids to recombine independently. Nat. Biotechnol. 20:12511255.

J. T. Odell , F. Nagy , and N-H. Chua 1985. Identification of DNA sequences required for activity of cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter. Nature (Lond.) 313:810812.

H. Ohkawa , H. Tsujii , and Y. Ohkawa 1999. The use of cytochrome P450 genes to introduce herbicide tolerance in crops: a review. Pestic. Sci. 55:867874.

S. R. Padgette , K. H. Kolac , X. Delannay , et al. 1995. Development, identification, and characterization of glyphosate-tolerant soybean line. Crop Sci. 35:14511461.

A. Perez-Jones , K. Park , N. Polge , J. Colquhoun , and C. A. Mallory-Smith 2007. Investigating the mechanisms of glyphosate resistance in Lolium multiflorum . Planta. 226:395404.

S. B. Powles 2008. Evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds around the world: lessons to be learnt. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:360365.

A. Sen Gupta , J. L. Heinen , A. S. Holaday , J. J. Burke , and R. D. Allen 1993. Increased resistance to oxidative stress in transgenic plants that overexpress chloroplast Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 90:16291633.

R. F. Service 2007. A growing threat down on the farm. Science. 316:11141117.

D. L. Siehl , L. A. Castle , R. Groton , and R. J. Keenan 2007. The molecular basis of glyphosate resistance by an optimized microbial acetyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 282:11461155.

B. Siminszky , F. T. Corbin , E. R. Ward , T. J. Fleischmann , and R. E. Dewey 1999. Expression of a soybean cytochrome P450 monooxygenase cDNA in yeast and tobacco enhances metabolism of phenylurea herbicides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 96:17501755.

M. Skipsey , I. Cummins , C. J. Andrews , I. Jepson , and R. Edwards 2005. Manipulation of plant tolerance to herbicides through coordinated metabolic engineering of a detoxifying glutathione transferase and thiol cosubstrate. Plant Biotechnol. J. 3:409420.

W. R. Streber , U. Kutschka , F. Thomas , and H-D. Pohlenz 1994. Expression of a bacterial gene in transgenic plants confers resistance to the herbicide phenmedipham. Plant Mol. Biol. 25:977987.

T. Surov , D. Aviv , R. Aly , D. M. Joel , T. Goldman-Guez , and J. Gressel 1998. Generation of transgenic asulam-resistant potatoes to facilitate eradications of parasitic broomrapes (Orobanche spp.) with the su gene as the selectable marker. Theor. Appl. Genet. 96:132137.

S. Y. Tan , R. R. Evans , M. L. Dahmer , B. K. Singh , and D. L. Shaner 2005. Imidazolinone-tolerant crops: history, current status and future. Pest Manag. Sci. 61:246257.

B. J. Vande Berg , P. E. Hammer , B. L. Chun , et al. 2008. Characterization and plant expression of a glyphosate-tolerant enolpyruvylshikimate phosphate synthase. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:340345.

L. S. Watrud , E. H. Lee , A. Fairbrother , C. Burdick , J. R. Reichman , M. Bollman , M. Storm , G. King , and P. K. Van de Water 2004. Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101:1453314538.

M. Zhou , H. Xu , X. Wei , Z. Ye , L. Wei , W. Gong , Y. Wang , and Z. Zhu 2006. Identification of a glyphosate-resistant mutant of rice 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosate synthase using a directed evolution strategy. Plant Physiol. 140:184195.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 4 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 133 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 23rd August 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.