Germination response of perennial wall rocket to temperature, light, osmotic potential, and depth of burial emergence was evaluated under controlled environmental conditions. The effect of seed burial depth on seedling recruitment in the field was also investigated at Roseworthy, South Australia. Under optimal conditions (30 C, light/dark) germination of perennial wall rocket was rapid, with 90% of seeds germinating within 48 h of imbibition. Germination was reduced (20%) at lower, suboptimal temperatures (10 to 20 C) when seeds of perennial wall rocket were exposed to light. Germination declined with increasing osmotic potential and was completely inhibited at osmotic potentials of −1.5 MPa. Perennial wall rocket emergence was greatest from seeds placed on the soil surface, but some seedlings (< 10%) emerged from a depth of 0.5 to 2 cm. Under both field and growth-cabinet conditions, the greatest seedling emergence of perennial wall rocket occurred from seed present on the soil surface; however, the level of absolute recruitment from the seed bank was much lower (< 5%). Information gained from this study will further improve our understanding of the germination behavior of perennial wall rocket and contribute to developing sustainable strategies for its control.
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