Skip to main content Accessibility help

Factors affecting seed germination, seedling emergence, and survival of texasweed (Caperonia palustris)

  • Clifford H. Koger, Krishna N. Reddy (a1) and Daniel H. Poston (a2)


Field, laboratory, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the seed production potential and effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and survival of texasweed. Texasweed produced an average of 893 seed per plant, and 90% were viable. Seed exhibited dormancy, and prechilling did not release dormancy. Percent germination ranged from 56% for seed subjected to no prechilling to 1% for seed prechilled at 5 C for 140 d. Seed remained viable during extended prechilling conditions, with 80% of seed viable after 140 d of prechilling. Texasweed seed germinated over a range of 20 to 40 C, with optimum germination (54%) occurring with a fluctuating 40/30 C temperature regime. Seed germinated with fluctuating 12-h light/dark and constant dark conditions. Texasweed seed germinated over a broad range of pH, osmotic potential, and salt concentrations. Seed germination was 31 to 62% over a pH range from 4 to 10. Germination of texasweed ranged from 9 to 56% as osmotic potential decreased from − 0.8 MPa to 0 (distilled water). Germination was greater than 52% at less than 40 mM NaCl concentrations and lowest (27%) at 160 mM NaCl. Texasweed seedlings emerged from soil depths as deep as 7.5 cm (7% emergence), but emergence was > 67% for seed placed on the soil surface or at a 1-cm depth. Texasweed seed did not germinate under saturated or flooded conditions, but seed survived flooding and germinated (23 to 25%) after flood removal. Texasweed seedlings 2.5 to 15 cm tall were not affected by emersion in 10-cm-deep flood for up to 14 d. These results suggest that texasweed seed is capable of germinating and surviving in a variety of climatic and edaphic conditions, and that flooding is not a viable management option for emerged plants of texasweed.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author. USDA-ARS, Southern Weed Science Research Unit, P.O. Box 350, Stoneville, MS 38776;


Hide All
Baskin, J. M. and Baskin, C. C. 1980. Ecophysiology of secondary dormancy in seeds of Ambrosia artemisiifolia . Ecology 61:475480.
Bello, I. A., Hatterman-Valenti, H., and Owen, M. D. K. 2000. Factors affecting germination and seed production of Eriochloa villosa . Weed Sci 48:749754.
Benvenuti, S. 1995. Soil light penetration and dormancy of jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) seeds. Weed Sci 43:389393.
Benvenuti, S. and Macchia, M. 1997. Germination ecophysiology of bur beggarticks (Bidens tripartita) as affected by light and oxygen. Weed Sci 45:696700.
Bewley, J. D. and Black, M. 1982. The release from dormancy. Pages 127198 in Bewley, J. D. and Black, M. eds. Physiology and Biochemistry of Seeds. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Bouwmeester, H. J. and Karssen, C. M. 1993. Seasonal periodicity in germination of seeds of Chenopodium album L. Ann. Bot 72:463473.
Chachalis, D. and Reddy, K. N. 2000. Factors affecting Campsis radicans seed germination and seedling emergence. Weed Sci 48:212216.
Egley, G. H. and Duke, S. O. 1985. Physiology of weed seed dormancy and germination. Pages 2764 in Duke, S. O. ed. Weed Physiology. Volume I. Reproduction and Ecophysiology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Griffin, R. M., Poston, D. H., Blaine, M. A., and Shaw, D. R. 2002. Postemergence Texasweed control in Mississippi soybeans. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc 55:204.
[ISTA] International Seed Testing Association. 1985. International rules for seed testing. Seed Sci. Technol 13:307513.
Macdonald, G. E., Brecke, B. J., and Shilling, D. G. 1992. Factors affecting germination of dogfennel (Eupatorium capillifolium) and yankeeweed (Eupatorium compositifolium). Weed Sci 40:424428.
Reddy, K. N. and Singh, M. 1992. Germination and emergence of hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa). Weed Sci 40:195199.
[SAS] Statistical Analysis Systems. 1998. SAS/STAT User's Guide. Release 7.00. Cary, NC: Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. 1028 p.
Shaw, D. R., Mack, R. E., and Smith, C. A. 1991. Redvine (Brunnichia ovata) germination and emergence. Weed Sci 39:3336.
Singh, M. and Achhireddy, N. R. 1984. Germination ecology of milkweedvine (Morrenia odorata). Weed Sci 32:781785.
Steuter, A. A., Mozafar, A., and Goodin, J. R. 1981. Water potential of aqueous polyethylene glycol. Plant Physiol 67:6467.
[SWSS] Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weed Identification Guide. Champaign, IL: Southern Weed Science Society.
Taylorson, R. B. 1987. Environmental and chemical manipulation of weed seed dormancy. Rev. Weed Sci 3:135154.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Factors affecting seed germination, seedling emergence, and survival of texasweed (Caperonia palustris)

  • Clifford H. Koger, Krishna N. Reddy (a1) and Daniel H. Poston (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.