Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Genetic Relationship between Cultivated and Feral Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) in a Cultural Landscape

  • Collin W. Ahrens (a1) and Carol A. Auer (a1)

Gene flow is an important consideration in the adoption of crops with novel traits or transgenes when sexually compatible relatives occur in the landscape. Unfortunately, gene flow and its long-term environmental impacts are very difficult to predict without releasing and studying the novel genotype. This project uses a retrospective population genetics approach to characterize the relationship between cultivated creeping bentgrass (CB) on a golf course and the same species in five feral populations nearby. CB plants were collected from an 8-yr-old golf course, five weedy populations up to 1,020 m from the golf course, and four modern CB cultivars. Using microsatellite markers and Bayesian inference, two major genetic clusters were distinguished: (1) CB cultivars and individuals from the golf course (cultivar genotype), and (2) the majority of individuals (62%) from the five feral populations (feral genotype). Two feral CB individuals (3.3% of all feral plants) were partially assigned to the cultivar genotype. Principal coordinates analysis agreed with this assignment, suggesting that an intraspecific hybridization event may have occurred. Plants in four feral populations showed a high degree of genetic similarity, but one feral population (Reservoir) was heterogeneous indicating that genetically complex CB populations can develop in cultural landscapes. While recognizing the limitations inherent in a single study of CB population genetics, these results add to the relevant knowledge for predictive ecological risk assessment.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author's E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

C. Ahrens , J. Chung , T. Meyer , and C. Auer 2011a. Bentgrass distribution surveys and habitat suitability maps support ecological risk assessment in cultural landscapes. Weed Sci. 59:145154.

C. Ahrens , G. Ecker , and C. Auer 2011b. The intersection of ecological risk assessment and plant communities: an analysis of Agrostis and Panicum species in the northeastern U.S. Plant Ecol. 212:16291642.

J.-F. Arnaud , F. Viard , M. Delescluse , and J. Cuguen 2003. Evidence for gene flow via seed dispersal from crop to wild relatives in Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae): consequences for the release of genetically modified crop species with weedy lineages. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 270:15651571.

F. Belanger , T. R. Meagher , P. R. Day , K. Plumley , and W. A. Meyer 2003. Interspecific hybridization between Agrostis stolonifera and related Agrostis species under field conditions. Crop Sci. 43:240246.

M. A. Bollman , M. J. Storm , G. A. King , and L. S. Watrud 2012. Wetland and riparian plant communities at risk of invasion by transgenic herbicide-resistant Agrostis spp. in central Oregon. Plant Ecol. DOI:10.1007/s11258-011-0015-z.

S. Chandler and J. M. Dunwell 2009. Gene flow, risk assessment and the environmental release of transgenic plants. Crit. Rev. Plant. Sci. 27:2549.

D. Charles 2011. Scientist in the middle of the GM-organic wars. Science. 332:168–168.

T. M. Culley and N. A. Hardiman 2009. The role of intraspecific hybridization in the evolution of invasiveness: a case study of the ornamental pear tree Pyrus calleryana . Biol. Invasions. 11:11071119.

N. Ellstrand 1992. Gene flow by pollen—implications for plant conservation genetics. Oikos. 63:7786.

N. Ellstrand 2003. Current knowledge of gene flow in plants: implications for transgene flow. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 358:11631170.

G. Evanno , S. Regnaut , and J. Goudet 2005. Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Mol. Ecol. 14:26112620.

S. Fei and E. Nelson 2003. Estimation of pollen viability, shedding pattern, and longevity of creeping bentgrass on artificial media. Crop Sci. 43:21772181.

S. Fei and E. Nelson 2004. Greenhouse evaluation of fitness-related reproductive traits in Roundup®-tolerant transgenic creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). In Vitro Cell. Dev. Pl. 40:266273.

R. C. Golembiewski , T. K. Danneberger , and P. M. Sweeney 1997. Potential of RAPD markers for use in the identification of creeping bentgrass cultivars. Crop Sci. 37:212214.

R. Guadagnuolo , D. Savova-Bianchi , and F. Felber 2001. Gene flow from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.), as revealed by RAPD and microsatellite markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 103:18.

S. E. Hart , F. C. Belanger , P. E. McCullough , and D. Rotter 2009. Competitiveness of interspecific hybrids in turfgrass swards. Crop Sci. 49:22752284.

R. Haygood , A. R. Ives , and D. A. Andow 2003. Consequences of recurrent gene flow from crops to wild relatives. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 270:18791886.

M. Jakobsson and N. A. Rosenberg 2007. CLUMPP: a cluster matching and permutation program for dealing with label switching and multimodality in analysis of population structure. Bioinformatics. 23:18011806.

E. Jenczewski , J.-M. Prosperi , and J. Ronfort 1999. Evidence for gene flow between wild and cultivated Medicago sativa (Leguminosae) based on allozyme markers and quantitative traits. Am. J. Bot. 86:677687.

C. Kik , T. Linders , and R. Bijlsma 1993. Ploidy level and somatic chromosome number variation in Agrostis stolonifera . Acta Bot. Neerl. 42:7380.

J. R. Reichman , B. M. Smith , J. P. Londo , M. A. Bollman , C. A. Auer , and L. S. Watrud 2011. Diallelic nuclear microsatellites for diversity and population analyses of the allotetraploid creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Crop Sci. 51:747758.

J. R. Reichman , L. S. Watrud , E. H. Lee , C. A. Burdick , M. A. Bollman , M. J. Storm , G. A. King , and C. Mallory-Smith 2006. Establishment of transgenic herbicide-resistant creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) in nonagronomic habitats. Mol. Ecol. 15:42434255.

N. A. Rosenberg 2004. DISTRUCT: a program for the graphical display of population structure. Mol. Ecol. 4:137138.

D. Rotter , K. V. Ambrose , and F. C. Belanger 2010. Velvet bentgrass (Agrostis canina L.) is the likely ancestral diploid maternal parent of allotetraploid creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 57:10651077.

L. Sahoo , J. J. Schmidt , J. F. Pedersen , D. J. Lee , and J. L. Lindquist 2010. Growth and fitness components of wild × cultivated Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae) hybrids in Nebraska. Am. J. Bot. 97:16101617.

E. A. Scheef , M. Casler , and G. Jung 2003. Development of species specific SCAR markers in bentgrass. Crop Sci. 43:345349.

A. A. Snow , D. A. Andow , P. Gepts , E. M. Hallerman , A. Power , J. M. Tiedje , and L. L. Wolfenbarger 2005. Genetically engineered organisms and the environment: Current status and recommendations. Ecol. Appl. 15:377404.

G. Vergara and S. Bughrara 2003. AFLP analyses of genetic diversity in bentgrass. Crop Sci. 43:21622171.

Z.-Y. Wang and E. C. Brummer 2012. Is genetic engineering ever going to take off in forage, turf and bioenergy crop breeding? Ann. Bot. DOI:10.1093/aob/mcs027

S. E. Warnke , D. S. Douches , and B. E. Branham 1997. Relationships among creeping bentgrass cultivars based on isozyme polymorphisms. Crop Sci. 37:203207.

S. I. Warwick , A. Legere , M.-J. Simard , and T. James 2008. Do escaped transgenes persist in nature? The case of an herbicide resistance transgene in a weedy Brassica rapa population. Mol. Ecol. 17:13871395.

N. Waser , M. Price , and R. Shaw 2000. Outbreeding depression varies among cohorts of Ipomopsis aggregata planted in nature. Evolution. 54:485491.

L. S. Watrud , E. H. Lee , A. Fairbrother , C. Burdick , J. R. Reichman , M. Bollman , M. Storm , G. King , and P. K. Van de Water 2004. Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101:1453314538.

A. Wegier , A. Piñeyro-Nelson , J. Alarcón , A. Gálvez-Mariscal , E. R. Álvarez-Buylla , and D. Piñero 2011. Recent long-distance transgene flow into wild populations conforms to historical patterns of gene flow in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) at its centre of origin. Mol. Ecol. 20:41824194.

I. Yamamato and J. M. Duich 1994. Electrophoretic identification of cross-pollinated bentgrass species and cultivars. Crop Sci. 34:792798.

M. L. Zapiola , C. K. Campbell , M. D. Butler , and C. A. Mallory-Smith 2008. Escape and establishment of transgenic glyphosate-resistant creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) in Oregon, USA: a 4-year study. J. Appl. Ecol. 45:486494.

H. Zhao , S. Bughrara , and J. Oliveira 2006. Genetic diversity in colonial bentgrass (Agrostis capillaris L.) revealed by EcoRI-MseI and Pst-MseI AFLP markers. Genome. 49:328335.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 3 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 18 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 26th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.