Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Herbicide-Resistant Kochia (Bassia scoparia) in North America: A Review

  • Vipan Kumar (a1), Prashant Jha (a2), Mithila Jugulam (a3), Ramawatar Yadav (a4) and Phillip W. Stahlman (a5)...
Abstract

Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] is a problematic annual broadleaf weed species in the North American Great Plains. Bassia scoparia inherits unique biological characteristics that contribute to its propensity to evolve herbicide resistance. Evolution of glyphosate resistance in B. scoparia has become a serious threat to the major cropping systems and soil conservation practices in the region. Bassia scoparia populations with resistance to four different herbicide sites of action are a concern for growers. The widespread occurrence of multiple herbicide–resistant (HR) B. scoparia across the North American Great Plains has renewed research efforts to devise integrated weed management strategies beyond herbicide use. In this review, we aim to compile and document the growing body of literature on HR B. scoparia with emphasis on herbicide-resistance evolutionary dynamics, distribution, mechanisms of evolved resistance, agronomic impacts, and current/future weed management technologies. We focused on ecologically based, non-herbicidal strategies such as diverse crop rotations comprising winter cereals and perennial forages, enhanced crop competition, cover crops, harvest weed seed control (HWSC), and tillage to manage HR B. scoparia seedbanks. Remote sensing using hyperspectral imaging and other sensor-based technologies would be valuable for early detection and rapid response and site-specific herbicide resistance management. We propose research priorities based on an improved understanding of the biology, genetic diversity, and plasticity of this weed that will aid in preserving existing herbicide resources and designing sustainable, integrated HR B. scoparia mitigation plans.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Herbicide-Resistant Kochia (Bassia scoparia) in North America: A Review
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Herbicide-Resistant Kochia (Bassia scoparia) in North America: A Review
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Herbicide-Resistant Kochia (Bassia scoparia) in North America: A Review
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Prashant Jha, Associate Professor, Montana State University, Southern Agricultural Research Center, Huntley, MT, 59037. (Email: pjha@montana.edu)
References
Hide All
Ahrens, WH (1994) Relative costs of a weed-activated versus conventional sprayer in northern Great Plains fallow. Weed Technol 8:5057
Al-Khatib, K, Libbey, C, Boydston, R (1997) Weed suppression with Brassica green manure crops in green pea. Weed Sci 45:439445
Anderson, RL, Nielsen, DC (1996) Emergence pattern of five weeds in the central Great Plains. Weed Technol 10:744749
Anderson, RL, Tanaka, DL, Black, AL, Schweizer, EE (1998) Weed community and species response to crop rotation, tillage, and nitrogen. Weed Technol 12:531536
Baker, DV, Withrow, JR, Brown, CS, Beck, KG (2010) Tumbling: use of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) to examine an understudied dispersal mechanism. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 3:301309
Ball, DA (1992) Weed seedbank response to tillage, herbicides, and crop rotation sequence. Weed Sci 40:654659
Ball, DA, Cudney, D, Dewey, SA, Elmore, CL, Lym, RG, Morishita, DW, Parker, R, Swan, DG, Whitson, TD, Zollinger, RK (2000) Weeds of The West. 9th ed. Newark, CA: Western Society of Weed Science. Pp 270271
Bandeen, JD, Stephenson, GR, Cowett, ER (1982) Discovery and distribution of herbicide-resistant weeds in North America. Pages 930 in LeBaron HM, Gressel J, eds. Herbicide Resistance in Plants. New York: Wiley
Beckie, H, Blackshaw, R, Hall, L, Johnson, E (2016) Pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow in kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Sci 64:624633
Beckie, HJ, Blackshaw, RE, Leeson, JY, Stahlman, PW, Gaines, TA, Johnson, EN (2018) Seedbank persistence, germination and early growth of glyphosate-resistant Kochia scoparia . Weed Res 58:177187
Beckie, HJ, Blackshaw, RE, Low, R, Hall, LM, Sauder, CA, Martin, S, Brandt, EN, Shirriff, SW (2013) Glyphosate- and acetolactate synthase inhibitor-resistant kochia (Kochia scoparia) in western Canada. Weed Sci 61:310318
Beckie, HJ, Hall, LM, Tardif, FJ (2001) Herbicide resistance in Canada—where are we today? Pages 136 in Blackshaw RE, Hall LM, eds. Integrated Weed Management: Explore the Potential. SainteAnne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada: Expert Committee on Weeds
Beckie, HJ, Leeson, JY, Thomas, AG, Brenzil, CA, Holzgang, G, Lozinski, C, Shirriff, S (2008) Weed resistance monitoring in the Canadian Prairies. Weed Technol 22:530543
Beckie, HJ, Warwick, SI, Sauder, CA, Lozinski, C, Shirriff, S (2011) Occurrence and molecular characterization of acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor–resistant kochia (Kochia scoparia) in western Canada. Weed Technol 25:170175
Biller, RH (1998) Reduced input of herbicides by use of optoelectronic sensors. J Agric Eng Res 71: 357362
Bish, MD, Bradley, KW (2017) Survey of Missouri pesticide applicator practices, knowledge, and perceptions. Weed Technol 31:165177
Blackshaw, RE, Molnar, LJ, Linidwall, CW (1998) Merits of a weed-sensing sprayer to control weeds in conservation fallow and cropping systems. Weed Sci 46:120126
Blackshaw, RE, Moyer, JR, Doram, RC, Boswall, AL (2001) Yellow sweetclover, green manure, and its residues effectively suppress weeds during fallow. Weed Sci 49:406413
Brachtenbach, DA (2015) Kochia scoparia Response to Dicamba and Effective Management Practices for Soybeans. MS thesis. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University. 53 p
Burton, NR, Beckie, HJ, Willenborg, CJ, Shirtliffe, SJ, Schoenau, JJ, Johnson, EN (2017) Seed shatter of six economically important weed species in producer fields in Saskatchewan. Can J Plant Sci 97:266276
Cahoon, CW, York, AC, Jordan, DL, Everman, WJ, Seagroves, RW, Culpepper, AS, Eure, PM (2015) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) management in dicamba-resistant cotton. Weed Technol 29:758770
Cardina, J, Sparrow, DH (1996) A comparison of methods to predict weed seedling populations from the soil seedbank. Weed Sci 44:4651
Chodova, D, Mikulka, J (2000) Resistance to imazapyr and cross resistance to selected sulfonylurea herbicides in kochia (Kochia scoparia S-L.). Rostl Vyroba 46:4954
Christoffoleti, PJ, Westra, PB, Moore, F (1997) Growth analysis of sulfonylurea-resistant and -susceptible kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Sci 45:691695
Cranston, HJ, Kern, AJ, Hackett, JL, Miller, EK, Maxwell, BD, Dyer, WE (2001) Dicamba resistance in kochia. Weed Sci 49:164170
Crespo, RJ, Bernards, ML, Sbatella, GM, Kruger, GR, Lee, DJ, Wilson, RG (2014) Response of Nebraska kochia (Kochia scoparia) accessions to dicamba. Weed Technol 28:151162
Culpepper, AS, Sosnoskie, LM, Shugart, J, Leifheit, N, Curry, M, Gray, T (2018) Effects of low-dose applications of 2,4-D and dicamba on watermelon. Weed Technol 32:267272
Dammer, KH, Wartenberg, G (2007) Sensor-based weed detection and application of variable herbicide rates in real time. Crop Prot 26:270277
Dao, TTH, Linthorst, HJM, Verpoorte, R (2011) Chalcone synthase and its functions in plant resistance. Phytochem Rev 10:397
Davis, AS, Cardina, J, Forcella, F, Johnson, GA, Kegode, G, Lindquist, JL, Luschei, EC, Renner, KA, Sprague, CL, Williams, MM II (2005) Environmental factors affecting seed persistence of annual weeds across the U.S. corn belt. Weed Sci 53:860868
Davis, VM, Gibson, KD, Bauman, TT, Weller, SC, Johnson, WG (2009). Influence of weed management practices and crop rotation on glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) population dynamics and crop yield-years III and IV. Weed Sci 57:417426
Dille, JA, Stahlman, PW, Du, J, Geier, PW, Riffel, JD, Currie, RS, Wilson, RG, Sbatella, GM, Westra, P, Kniss, AR, Moechnig, MJ, Cole, RM (2017) Kochia emergence profiles across the central Great Plains. Weed Sci 65:614625
Durgan, BR, Dexter, AG, Miller, SD (1990) Kochia (Kochia scoparia) interference in sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Weed Technol 4:5256
Dyer, WE, Birdsall, JK, Zwaan, AM (1993a) Phylogenetic analysis of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. populations. Weed Sci Soc Am Abstr 33:179
Dyer, WE, Chee, PW, Fay, PK (1993b) Rapid germination of sulfonylurea-resistant Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. accession is associated with elevated seed levels of branched chain amino acids. Weed Sci 41:1822
Dyer, WE, Goss, GA, Buck, P (2002) Auxin-mediated responses in dicamba-resistant Kochia scoparia . Page 29 in Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science. Salt Lake City, UT: Western Society of Weed Science
Eberlein, CV, Fore, ZQ (1984) Kochia biology. Weeds Today 15:57
Eubank, TW, Poston, DH, Nandula, VK, Koger, CH, Shaw, DR, Reynolds, DB (2008) Glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) control using glyphosate-, paraquat-, and glufosinate-based herbicide programs. Weed Technol 22:1621
Everitt, JD, Keeling, JW (2007) Weed control and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) response to preplant applications of dicamba, 2,4-d, and diflufenzopyr plus dicamba. Weed Technol 21:506510
Everitt, JD, Keeling, JW (2009) Cotton growth and yield response to simulated 2,4-D and dicamba drift. Weed Technol 23:503506
Fenster, CR, Wicks, GA (1982) Fallow systems for winter wheat in western Nebraska. Agron J 74:913
Foes, MJ, Liu, L, Vigue, G, Stoller, EW, Wax, LM, Tranel, PJ (1999) A kochia (Kochia scoparia) biotype resistant to triazine and ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Weed Sci 47:2027
Forcella, F (1985) Spread of kochia in the northwestern United States. Weeds Today 16(4): 46
Frankton, C, Mulligan, GA (1987) Weeds of Canada. Ottawa, ON, Canada: Agriculture Canada Publ 948. 217 p
Friesen, LF, Beckie, HJ, Warwick, SI, Van Acker, RC (2009) The biology of Canadian weeds. 138. Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. Can J Plant Sci 89:141167
Friesen, LF, Mayert, TSH, Morrison, IN (1990a) Control of Chlorsulfuron-Resistant Kochia in Spring Wheat. Expert Committee on Weeds (West. Sect.) Res. Rep. 467 p
Friesen, LF, Mayert, TSH, Morrison, IN (1990b) Control of Sulfonylurea-Susceptible Kochia at Two Growth Stages in Spring Wheat. Expert Committee on Weeds (West. Sect.) Res. Rep. 468 p
Friesen, LF, Mayert, TSH, Morrison, IN (1990c) Response of Chlorsulfuron-Resistant Kochia to Post-emergence Sulfonylurea Herbicides in Spring Wheat. Expert Committee on Weeds (West. Sect.) Res. Rep. 467 p
Friesen, LF, Mayert, TSH, Morrison, IN (1991a) Control of Chlorsulfuron-Resistant Kochia in Spring Wheat (Roblin). Expert Committee on Weeds (West. Sect.) Res. Rep. 822 p
Friesen, LF, Mayert, TSH, Morrison, IN (1991b) Control of Chlorsulfuron-Resistant Kochia in spring Wheat (Roblin) with Growth Regulator Herbicides. Expert Committee on Weeds (West. Sect.) Res. Rep. 822 p
Friesen, LF, Mayer, TSH, Morrison, IN (1991c) Response of Chlorsulfuron-Resistant Kochia to Post-emergence Sulfonylurea Herbicides in Spring Wheat (Roblin). Expert Committee on Weeds (West. Sect.) Res. Rep. 823 p
Gaines, TA, Barker, AL, Patterson, EL, Westra, P, Westra, EP, Wilson, RG, Jha, P, Kumar, V, Kniss, AR (2016) EPSPS gene copy number and whole-plant glyphosate resistance level in Kochia scoparia . PLoS ONE 11:e0168295
Georgia, AE (1914) A Manual of Weeds. New York: Macmillan. 593 p
Godar, AS, Stahlman, PW, Jugulam, M, Dille, JA (2015) Glyphosate-resistant kochia (Kochia scoparia) in Kansas: EPSPS gene copy number in relation to resistance levels. Weed Sci 63:587595
Goss, GA, Dyer, WE (2003) Physiological characterization of auxinic herbicide-resistant biotypes of kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Sci 51:839844
Grossman, K (2010) Auxin herbicides: current status of mechanism and mode of action. Pest Manag Sci 66:113120
Guilfoyle, T (2007) Sticking with auxin. Nature 446:621622
Guttieri, MJ, Eberlein, CV, Thill, DC (1995) Diverse mutations in the acetolactate synthase gene confer chlorsulfuron resistance in kochia (Kochia scoparia) biotypes. Weed Sci 43:175178
Hall, LM, Beckie, HJ, Low, R, Shirriff, SW, Blackshaw, RE, Kimmel, N, Neeser, C (2014) Survey of glyphosate-resistant kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schrad.) in Alberta. Can J Plant Sci 94:127130
Hanks, JE, Beck, JL (1998) Sensor-controlled hooded sprayer for row crops. Weed Technol 12:308314
Heap, I (2018). The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. http://www.weedscience.org. Accessed: June 10, 2018
Hume, L, Tessier, S, Dyck, FB (1991) Tillage and rotation influences on weed community composition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in southwestern Saskatchewan. Can J Plant Sci 71:783789
Jha, P, Kumar, V, Garcia, J, Reichard, N (2015a) Tank mixing pendimethalin with pyroxasulfone and chloroacetamide herbicides enhances in-season residual weed control in corn. Weed Technol 29:198206
Jha, P, Kumar, V, Lim, CA (2015b) Variable response of kochia [Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad.] to auxinic herbicides dicamba and fluroxypyr in Montana. Can J Plant Sci 95:965972
Jha, P, Varanasi, A, Kumar, V, Leland, S (2014) Light activated sensor controlled sprayer (Weed Seeker®) for cost-effective weed control in post-harvest wheat stubble. Page 18 in Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science. Colorado Springs, CO: Western Society of Weed Science
Johnson, CW, Coble, HD (1986) Crop rotation and herbicide effects on the population dynamics of annual grasses. Weed Sci 34:452456
Johnson, VA, Fisher, LR, Jordan, DL, Edmisten, KE, Stewart, AM, York, AC (2012) Cotton, peanut, and soybean response to sublethal rates of dicamba, glufosinate, and 2,4-D. Weed Technol 26:195206
Jugulam, M, Niehues, K, Godar, AS, Koo, D-H, Danilova, T, Friebe, B, Sehgal, S, Varanasi, VK, Wiersma, AT, Westra, P, Stahlman, PW, Gill, BS (2014) Tandem amplification of a chromosomal segment harboring EPSPS locus confers glyphosate resistance in Kochia scoparia . Plant Physiol 166:12001207
Kern, AJ, Chaverra, ME, Cranston, HJ, Dyer, WE (2005) Dicamba-responsive genes in herbicide-resistant and susceptible biotypes of kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Sci 53:139145
Kniss, AR (2010) Comparison of conventional and glyphosate-resistant sugarbeet the year of commercial introduction in Wyoming. J Sugarbeet Res 47:127134
Kumar, V, Felix, J, Morishita, D, Jha, P (2018b) Confirmation of glyphosate-resistant kochia (Kochia scoparia) from sugar beet fields in Idaho and Oregon. Weed Technol 32:2733
Kumar, V, Jha, P (2015a) Effective preemergence and postemergence herbicide programs for kochia control. Weed Technol 29:2434
Kumar, V, Jha, P (2015b) Growth and reproduction of glyphosate-resistant and susceptible populations of Kochia scoparia . PLoS ONE 11:e0147779
Kumar, V, Jha, P (2015c) Influence of glyphosate timing on Kochia scoparia demographics in glyphosate-resistant sugar beet. Crop Prot 76:3945
Kumar, V, Jha, P (2015d) Influence of herbicides applied postharvest in wheat stubble on control, fecundity, and progeny fitness of Kochia scoparia in the US Great Plains. Crop Prot 71:144149
Kumar, V, Jha, P (2016) Differences in germination, growth, and fecundity characteristics of dicamba-fluroxypyr-resistant and susceptible Kochia scoparia . PLoS ONE 11:e0161533
Kumar, V, Jha, P (2017) Effect of temperature on germination characteristics of glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Sci 65:361370
Kumar, V, Jha, P, Dille, JA, Stahlman, PW (2018a) Emergence dynamics of kochia (Kochia scoparia) populations from the U.S. Great Plains: a multi-site-year study. Weed Sci 66:2535
Kumar, V, Jha, P, Giacomini, D, Westra, E, Westra, P (2015) Molecular basis of evolved resistance to glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicides in kochia (Kochia scoparia) accessions from Montana. Weed Sci 63:758769
Kumar, V, Jha, P, Reichard, N (2014) Occurrence and characterization of kochia (Kochia scoparia) accessions with resistance to glyphosate in Montana. Weed Technol 28:122130
Kumar, V, Stahlman, PW, Currie, R, Engel, R, Boyer, G (2018c) Variable response of kochia accessions to dicamba and fluroxypyr in western Kansas. Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports 4, 10.4148/2378-5977.7612
LeClere, S, Wu, C, Westra, P, Sammons, RD (2018) Cross-resistance to dicamba, 2,4-D, and fluroxypyr in Kochia scoparia is endowed by a mutation in an AUX/IAA gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 10.1073/pnas.1712372115
Lee, MA, Huang, Y, Nandula, VK, Reddy, KN (2014) Differentiating glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-sensitive Italian ryegrass using hyperspectral imagery. Page 7 in Kim MS, Chao K, eds. Sensing for Agriculture and Food Quality and Safety VI. Proceedings Volume 9108. Baltimore, MD: SPIE Sensing Technology + Applications. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2053072
Légère, A, Stevenson, FC, Beckie, HJ, Warwick, SI, Johnson, EN, Hrynewich, B, Lozinski, C (2013) Growth characterization of kochia (Kochia scoparia) with substitutions at Pro197 or Trp574 conferring resistance to acetolactate synthase–inhibiting herbicides. Weed Sci 61:267276
Lewis, DW, Gulden, RH (2014) Effect of kochia (Kochia scoparia) interference on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) yield. Weed Sci 62:158165
Lim, CA, Jha, P, Kumar, V, Leland, S, Jha, A (2016) Survival and fecundity of glyphosate-resistant kochia with variable EPSPS gene copies in response to glyphosate selection. Page 20 in Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science. Albuquerque, NM: Western Society of Weed Science
Mallory-Smith, CA, Thill, DC, Stallings, GP (1993) Survey and gene flow in acetolactate synthase resistant kochia and Russian thistle. Pages 555558 in Brighton Crop Protection Conference–Weeds. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council
Martin, SL, Benedict, L, Sauder, CA, Wei, W, Da Costa, LO, Hall, LM, Beckie, HJ (2017) Glyphosate resistance reduces kochia fitness: comparison of segregating resistant and susceptible F2 populations. Plant Sci 261:6979
Meades, SJ, Hay, SG, Brouillet, L (2000) Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Digital Flora of Newfoundland and Labrador Vascular Plants. http://www.digitalnaturalhistory.com/flora.htm. Accessed: June 24, 2018
Mengistu, LW, Christoffers, MJ, Lym, RG (2005) A psbA mutation in Kochia scoparia (L) Schrad. from railroad right-of-ways with resistance to diuron, tebuthiuron, and metribuzin. Pest Manag Sci 61:10351042
Mengistu, LW, Messersmith, CG (2002) Genetic diversity of kochia. Weed Sci 50:498503
Mesbah, A, Miller, S, Fornstrom, KJ, Legg, DE (1994) Kochia (Kochia scoparia) and green foxtail (Setaria viridis) interference in sugarbeets (Beta vulgaris). Weed Technol 8:754759
Mithila, J, Hall, JC, Johnson, WG, Kelley, KB, Riechers, DE (2011) Evolution of resistance to auxinic herbicides: historical perspectives, mechanisms of resistance, and implications for broadleaf weed management in agronomic crops. Weed Sci 59:445457
Morishita, DW (2018) Impact of glyphosate-resistant sugar beet. Pest Manag Sci 74:10501053
Morrison, IN, Devine, MD (1994) Herbicide resistance in the Canadian prairie provinces: five years after the fact. Phytoprotection 75(Suppl):516
Mulugeta, D, Maxwell, BD, Fay, PK, Dyer, WE (1994) Kochia (Kochia scoparia) pollen dispersion, viability and germination. Weed Sci 42:548552
Nandula, VK, Manthey, FA (2002) Response of kochia (Kochia scoparia) inbreds to 2,4-D and dicamba. Weed Technol 16:5054
Nugent, P, Shaw, JA, Jha, P, Scherrer, B, Donelick, A, Kumar, V (2018) Discrimination of herbicide-resistant kochia with hyperspectral imaging. J Appl Remote Sens 12:016037
Nyamusamba, RP (2014) Crop Canopy Effect on Kochia Establishment in Crop Fields. Ph.D dissertation. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University. 92 p
Osipitan, OA, Dille, JA (2017) Fitness outcomes related to glyphosate resistance in kochia (Kochia scoparia): What life history stage to examine? Front Plant Sci 8:1090
Peterson, GA, Westfall, DG (2004) Managing precipitation use in sustainable dryland agroecosystems. Ann Appl Biol 144:127138
Petrosino, JS (2010) Response of Weeds to the Intensification of Kansas No-Till Crop Rotations with Cover Cropping. MS thesis. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University. 155 p
Petrosino, JS, Dille, JA, Holman, JD, Roozeboom, KL (2015) Kochia suppression with cover crops in southwestern Kansas. Crop Forage Turfgrass Manag 1:2014–0078
Pettinga, DJ, Ou, J, Patterson, EL, Jugulam, M, Westra, P, Gaines, TA (2017) Increased chalcone synthase (CHS) expression is associated with dicamba resistance in Kochia scoparia . Pest Manag Sci 74 23062315
Preston, C, Belles, DS, Westra, PH, Nissen, SJ, Ward, SM (2009) Inheritance of resistance to the auxinic herbicide dicamba in kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Sci 57:4347
Primiani, MM, Cotterman, JC, Saari, LL (1990) Resistance of kochia (Kochia scoparia) to sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides. Weed Technol 4:169172
Rana, N, Jhala, AJ (2016) Confirmation of glyphosate- and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting-resistant kochia (Kochia scoparia) in Nebraska. J Agric Sci 8:10
Reddy, KN, Huang, Y, Lee, MA, Nandula, VK, Fletcher, RS, Thomson, SJ, Zhao, F (2014) Glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.): hyperspectral reflectance properties of plants and potential for classification. Pest Manag Sci 70:19101917
Riar, DS, Ball, DA, Yenish, JP, Burke, IC (2011) Light-activated, sensor-controlled sprayer provides effective postemergence control of broadleaf weeds in fallow. Weed Technol 25:447453
Saari, LL, Cotterman, JC, Primiani, MM (1990) Mechanism of sulfonylurea herbicide resistance in the broadleaf weed, Kochia scoparia . Plant Physiol 93:5561
Schweizer, EE (1973) Predicting sugarbeet root losses based on kochia densities. Weed Sci 21:565567
Schwinghamer, TD, Van Acker, RC (2008) Emergence timing and persistence of kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Sci 56:3741
Sivakumaran, K, Mulugeta, D, Fay, PK, Dyer, WE (1993) Differential herbicide response among sulfonylurea-resistant Kochia scoparia L. accessions. Weed Sci 41:159165
Spaunhorst, DJ, Siefert-Higgins, S, Bradley, KW (2014) Glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) and waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) management in dicamba-resistant soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol 28:131141
Stallings, GP, Thill, DC, Mallory-Smith, CA, Shafii, B (1995) Pollen-mediated gene flow of sulfonylurea-resistant kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Sci 43:95102
Tan, X, Calderon-Villalobos, LIA, Sharon, M, Zheng, C, Robinson, CV, Estelle, M, Zheng, N (2007) Mechanism of auxin perception by the TIR1 ubiquitin ligase. Nature 446:640645.
Teasdale, JR, Pillai, P, Collins, RT (2005) Synergism between cover crop residue and herbicide activity on emergence and early growth of weeds. Weed Sci 53:521527
Thill, DC, Mallory-Smith, CA, Saari, LL, Cotterman, JC, Primiani, MM, Saladini, JL (1991) Sulfonylurea herbicide resistant weeds: discovery, distribution, biology, mechanism, and management. Pages 115128 in Caseley JC, Cussans GW, Atkin RK, eds. Herbicide Resistance in Weeds and Crops. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann
Thompson, CR, Peterson, DE, Fick, WH, Currie, RS, Kumar, V, Slocombe, (2018) 2018 Chemical Weed Control for Field Crops, Pastures, Rangeland, and Noncropland. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service Report of Progress 1139
Thompson, CR, Thill, DC, Shafii, B (1994) Germination characteristics of sulfonylurea-resistant and -susceptible kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Sci 42:5056
Tidemann, BD, Hall, LM, Harker, KN, Beckie, HJ (2017) Factors affecting weed seed devitalization with the Harrington seed destructor. Weed Sci 65:650658
Tonks, DJ, Westra, P (1997) Control of sulfonylurea-resistant kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Technol 11:270276
Trebst, A, Draber, W (1986) Inhibitors of photosystem II and the topology of the herbicide and QB binding polypeptide in the thylakoid membrane. Photosynth Res 10:381392
[USDA-NRCS] United States Department of Agriculture–Natural Resources Conservation Service (2008) The PLANTS Database. Version 3.5. Baton Rouge, LA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov. Accessed: June 15, 2018
Varanasi, VK, Godar, AS, Currie, RS, Dille, AJ, Thompson, CR, Stahlman, PW, Jugulam, M (2015) Field-evolved resistance to four modes of action of herbicides in a single kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schrad.) population. Pest Manag Sci 71:12071212
Vink, JP, Soltani, N, Robinson, DE, Tardif, FJ, Lawton, MB, Sikkema, PH (2012) Glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) control in dicamba-tolerant soybean. Weed Technol 26:422428
Waite, J, Thompson, CR, Peterson, DE, Currie, RS, Olson, BLS, Stahlman, PW, Khatib, KA (2013) Differential kochia (Kochia scoparia) populations response to glyphosate. Weed Sci 61:193200
Walsh, MJ, Newman, P, Powles, SB (2013) Targeting weed seeds in-crop: a new weed control paradigm for global agriculture. Weed Technol 27:431436
Walsh, MJ, Powles, SB (2014) High seed retention at maturity of annual weeds infesting crop fields highlights the potential for harvest weed seed control. Weed Technol 28:486493
Warwick, SI, Xu, R, Sauder, C, Beckie, HJ (2008) Acetolactate synthase target-site mutations and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping in ALS-resistant kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Sci 56:797806
Weatherspoon, DM, Schweizer, EE (1971) Competition between sugarbeet and five densities of kochia. Weed Sci 19:125128
Westra, EP (2016)Glyphosate-Resistant Kochia (Kochia scoparia) Management in the Central Great Plains and Western Canada. Ph.D dissertation. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 99 p
Wicks, GA, Martin, AR, Haack, AE, Mahnken, GW (1994) Control of triazine-resistant kochia (Kochia scoparia) in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Weed Technol 8:748753
Wicks, GA, Martin, AR, Mahnken, GW (1993) Control of triazine-resistant kochia (Kochia scoparia) in conservation tillage corn (Zea mays). Weed Sci 41:225231
Wiersma, AT, Gaines, TA, Preston, C, Hamilton, JP, Giacomini, D, Buell, CR, Leach, JE, Westra, P (2015) Gene amplification of 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in glyphosate resistant Kochia scoparia . Planta 241:463474
Yu, Q, Powles, SB (2014) Resistance to AHAS inhibitor herbicides: current understanding. Pest Manag Sci 70:13401350
Zorner, PS, Zimdahl, RL, Schweizer, EE (1984) Effect of depth and duration of seed burial on kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Sci 32:602607
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed