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Herbicide-Resistant Kochia (Bassia scoparia) in North America: A Review

  • Vipan Kumar (a1), Prashant Jha (a2), Mithila Jugulam (a3), Ramawatar Yadav (a4) and Phillip W. Stahlman (a5)...

Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] is a problematic annual broadleaf weed species in the North American Great Plains. Bassia scoparia inherits unique biological characteristics that contribute to its propensity to evolve herbicide resistance. Evolution of glyphosate resistance in B. scoparia has become a serious threat to the major cropping systems and soil conservation practices in the region. Bassia scoparia populations with resistance to four different herbicide sites of action are a concern for growers. The widespread occurrence of multiple herbicide–resistant (HR) B. scoparia across the North American Great Plains has renewed research efforts to devise integrated weed management strategies beyond herbicide use. In this review, we aim to compile and document the growing body of literature on HR B. scoparia with emphasis on herbicide-resistance evolutionary dynamics, distribution, mechanisms of evolved resistance, agronomic impacts, and current/future weed management technologies. We focused on ecologically based, non-herbicidal strategies such as diverse crop rotations comprising winter cereals and perennial forages, enhanced crop competition, cover crops, harvest weed seed control (HWSC), and tillage to manage HR B. scoparia seedbanks. Remote sensing using hyperspectral imaging and other sensor-based technologies would be valuable for early detection and rapid response and site-specific herbicide resistance management. We propose research priorities based on an improved understanding of the biology, genetic diversity, and plasticity of this weed that will aid in preserving existing herbicide resources and designing sustainable, integrated HR B. scoparia mitigation plans.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Author for correspondence: Prashant Jha, Associate Professor, Montana State University, Southern Agricultural Research Center, Huntley, MT, 59037. (Email:
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Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
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