Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Management in a modified no-tillage corn–soybean–wheat rotation influences weed population and community dynamics

  • Clarence J. Swanton, Barbara D. Booth (a1), Kevin Chandler (a1), David R. Clements (a2) and Anil Shrestha (a3)...

Abstract

Conservation tillage systems, such as no-tillage, are ecologically advantageous because they reduce soil erosion; however, they rely heavily on herbicide use. Our goal was to determine how weed communities of no-tillage systems are affected when the system is modified to reduce herbicide use through a combination of banded herbicides and interrow cultivation. To this end, we conducted a 9-yr study in a no-tillage corn–soybean–winter wheat rotation. All management systems had a preplant application of glyphosate, followed by either broadcast PRE herbicides (conventional no-tillage), interrow cultivation with banded PRE herbicides, or interrow cultivation alone. Aboveground weed densities were assessed each year and data were grouped into early (1991 to 1993) and late (1996 to 1998) time periods. Over time, weed communities became more distinct, showing a strong response to management and crop. In the early years, weed communities separated more in response to management than crop. In the late years, this was reversed. Weed communities in systems with interrow cultivation were more diverse than those in conventional no-tillage. The response to weed management system and crop was species specific. For example, the abundance of yellow foxtail was higher when interrow cultivation was employed, but abundance was equal in all crops. Dandelion was more abundant in conventional no-tillage of corn and soybean; however, it was equally abundant in all management systems in wheat. Seed bank species richness increased over time and was highest in systems with interrow cultivation. Herbicide use can be reduced in a modified no-tillage corn–soybean–wheat rotation by incorporating interrow cultivation, with or without banded herbicides, into the management plan. The weed community trajectory changes, and the weed community becomes more diverse. A more diverse weed community will not necessarily alter how we manage weeds.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada; cswanton@uoguelph.ca

References

Hide All
Baker, C. J., Saxton, K. E., and Richie, W. R. 1996. No-tillage Seeding: Science and Practice. Oxon, UK: CAB International. P. 272.
Ball, D. A. and Miller, S. D. 1989. A comparison of techniques for estimation of arable soil seedbanks and their relationship to weed flora. Weed Res 29:365373.
Bàrberi, P., Silvestri, N., and Bonari, D. E. 1997. Weed communities of winter wheat as influenced by input level and rotation. Weed Res 37:301313.
Bassett, I. J. and Crompton, C. W. 1978. The biology of Canadian weeds, 32: Chenopodium album L. Can. J. Plant Sci 58:10611072.
Booth, B. D. and Swanton, C. J. 2002. Assembly theory applied to weed communities. Weed Sci 50:213.
Bugg, R. L. 1992. Using cover crops to manage arthropods on truck farms. Hortscience 27:741745.
Buhler, D. D., Hartzler, R. G., and Forcella, F. 1997. Implications of weed seedbank dynamics to weed management. Weed Sci 45:329336.
Cardina, J., Webster, T. M., Herms, C. P., and Regnier, E. E. 1999. Development of weed IPM: levels of integration for weed management. J. Crop Prod 2:239267.
Clements, D. R., Benoit, D. L., Murphy, S. D., and Swanton, C. J. 1996. Tillage effects on weed seed return and seedbank composition. Weed Sci 44:314322.
Clements, D. R., Weise, S. F., and Swanton, C. J. 1994. Integrated weed management and weed species diversity. Phytoprotection 75:118.
Coffman, C. A. and Frank, J. R. 1991. Weed-crop responses to weed management systems in conservation tillage corn (Zea mays). Weed Technol 5:7681.
Cromar, H. E., Murphy, S. D., and Swanton, C. J. 1999. Influence of tillage and crop residue on post-dispersal predation of weed seeds. Weed Sci 47:184194.
Day, J. C., Hallahan, C. B., Sandretto, C. L., and Lindamood, W. A. 1999. Pesticide use in U.S. corn production: Does conservation tillage make a difference? J. Soil Water Conserv 54:477484.
de La Fuente, E. B., Suárez, S. A., Ghersa, C. M., and León, R. J. C. 1999. Soybean weed communities: relationship with cultural history and corn yield. Agron. J 91:234241.
Derksen, D. A. 1996. Weed community ecology: tedious sampling or relevant Science? Phytoprotection 77:2939.
Derksen, D. A., Lafond, G. P., Thomas, A. G., Loeppky, H. A., and Swanton, C. J. 1993. Impact of agronomic practices on weed communities—tillage systems. Weed Sci 41:409417.
Derksen, D. A., Thomas, A. G., Lafond, G. P., Loeppky, H. A., and Swanton, C. J. 1994. Impact of agronomic practices on weed communities: fallow within tillage systems. Weed Sci 42:184194.
Derksen, D. A., Thomas, A. G., Lafond, G. P., Loeppky, H. A., and Swanton, C. J. 1995. Impact of post-emergence herbicides on weed community diversity within conservation-tillage systems. Weed Res 35:311320.
Donald, W. W., Kitchen, N. R., and Sudduth, K. A. 2001. Between-row mowing + banded herbicide to control annual weeds and reduce herbicide use in no-till soybean (Glycine max) and corn (Zea mays). Weed Technol 15:675–584.
Eadie, A., Swanton, C. J., Shaw, J., and Anderson, G. W. 1992. Integration of cereal cover crops in ridge-tillage corn production. Weed Technol 6:553560.
Feldmann, F. and Boyle, C. 1999. Weed-mediated stability of arbuscular mycorrhizal effectiveness in maize monocultures. J. Appl. Bot 73:15.
Forcella, F., Wilson, R. G., and Decker, J. et al. 1997. Weed seed bank emergence across the Corn Belt. Weed Sci 45:6776.
Frick, B. L. and Thomas, A. G. 1993. Influence of tillage systems on weed abundance in southwestern Ontario. Weed Technol 7:699705.
Grime, J. P. 1979. Plant Strategies and Vegetational Processes. Toronto: J. Wiley. P. 42.
Grubb, P. J. 1977. The maintenance of species-richness in plant communities: the importance of the regeneration niche. Biol. Rev 52:107145.
Hellwig, K. B., Johnson, W. G., and Massey, R. E. 2003. Weed management and economic returns in no-tillage herbicide-resistant corn (Zea mays). Weed Technol 17:239248.
Hooker, D. C., Vyn, T. J., and Swanton, C. J. 1997. Effectiveness of soil applied herbicides with mechanical weed control for conservation tillage systems in soybean. Agron. J 89:579587.
House, G. J. and Brust, G. E. 1989. Ecology of low-input, no-tillage agroecosystems. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ 27:331345.
Hyvönen, T. and Salonen, J. 2002. Weed species diversity and community composition in cropping practices at two intensity levels—a six-year experiment. Plant Ecology 154:7381.
Jordan, N. and Vatovec, C. 2003. Agroecological benefits from weeds. Pages 137158 in Inderjit, ed. Weed Biology and Management. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
Kegode, G. O., Forcella, F., and Clay, S. 1999. Influence of crop rotation, tillage, and management inputs on weed seed production. Weed Sci 47:175183.
Leeson, J. Y., Sheard, J. W., and Thomas, A. G. 2000. Weed communities associated with arable Saskatchewan farm management systems. Can. J. Plant Sci 80:177185.
Légère, A. and Samson, D. N. 1999. Relative influence of crop rotation, tillage, and weed management on weed associations in spring barley cropping systems. Weed Sci 47:112122.
Liebman, M., Bastiaans, L., and Baumann, D. T. 2004. Weed management in low-external input and organic farming systems. Pages 285315 in Inderjit, ed. Weed Biology and Management. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
Liebman, M. and Mohler, C. L. 2001. Weeds and the soil environment. Pages 210268 in Liebman, M., Mohler, C. L., and Staver, C. P. eds. Ecological Management of Agricultural Weeds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University.
Maxwell, B. D. and Luschei, E. 2004. The ecology of weed–crop interactions: towards a more complete model of weed communities in agroecosystems. J. Crop Improvement 11:137152.
McIntyre, S. and Lavorel, S. 2001. Livestock grazing in subtropical pastures: steps in the analysis of attribute response and plant functional type. J. Ecol 89:209226.
Norris, R. F. 1999. Ecological implications of using thresholds for weed management. J. Crop Prod 2:3158.
Shrestha, A., Knezevic, S. Z., Roy, R. C., Ball-Coelho, B. R., and Swanton, C. J. 2002. Effect of tillage, cover crop and crop rotation on the composition of weed flora in a sandy soil. Weed Res 42:7687.
Sturz, A. V., Matheson, B. G., Arsenault, W., Kimpinski, J., and Christie, B. R. 2001. Weeds as a source of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in agricultural soils. Can. J. Microbiology 47:10131024.
Swanton, C. J., Clements, D. R., and Derksen, D. A. 1993. Weed succession under conservation tillage: a hierarchical framework for research, and management. Weed Technol 7:286297.
Swanton, C. J. and Murphy, S. D. 1996. Weed Science, beyond the weeds: the role of integrated weed management (IWM) in agroecosystem health. Weed Sci 44:437445.
Swanton, C. J., Shrestha, A., Clements, D. R., Booth, B. D., and Chandler, K. 2002. Evaluation of alternative weed management systems in a no-till corn–soybean–winter wheat rotation: Weed densities, crop yield, and economics. Weed Sci 50:504511.
Swanton, C. J., Shrestha, A., Knezevic, S. Z., Roy, R. C., and Ball-Coelho, B. R. 1999. Effect of tillage systems, N, and cover crop on the composition of weed flora. Weed Sci 47:454461.
Tuesca, D., Puricelli, E., and Papa, C. J. 2001. A long-term study of weed flora shifts in different tillage systems. Weed Res 41:369382.
Verheyen, K., Honnay, O., Motzkin, G., Hermy, M., and Foster, D. R. 2003. Response of forest plant species to land-use change: a life-history trait-based approach. J. Ecol 91:563577.
Weaver, S. E. and McWilliams, E. L. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 44. Amaranthus retroflexus L., Amaranthus powellii S. Wats. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Can. J. Plant Sci 60:12151234.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed