Skip to main content

Pollen flow between herbicide-resistant Brassica napus is the cause of multiple-resistant B. napus volunteers

  • Linda Hall, Keith Topinka (a1), John Huffman (a2), Lesley Davis (a3) and Allen Good (a3)...

A field in which Brassica napus volunteers were not controlled by several applications of glyphosate was investigated in 1998. This field had been planted with glufosinate-resistant and imidazolinone-resistant B. napus in 1997 and was adjacent to a field that had grown glyphosate-resistant B. napus. Mature volunteer B. napus were collected on a 50- by 100-m grid in the field. Progeny from 34 volunteers were sprayed with glyphosate at 440 g ae ha−1, and the survivors were sprayed with either glufosinate or imazethapyr at 400 or 50 g ai ha−1, respectively. Where seed numbers permitted (14 volunteers), seedlings were also sprayed sequentially with glyphosate, glufosinate, and imazethapyr, at 440 g ae ha−1, 400 g ai ha−1, and 50 g ai ha−1, respectively. In total, 15 volunteers had progeny that were between 66 and 82% resistant to glyphosate, consistent with the predicted 3:1 resistant : susceptible ratio. Volunteer B. napus plants with glyphosate-resistant seedlings were most common close to the putative pollen source; however, a plant with glyphosate-resistant progeny was collected 500 m from the adjacent field edge. Seedlings from all nine volunteers collected from the glufosinate-resistant area showed multiple resistance to glyphosate and glufosinate, whereas seedlings from 10 of 20 volunteers collected from the imidazolinone-resistant area showed resistance to imazethapyr and glyphosate. DNA extraction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of seedlings confirmed that mature B. napus volunteers were hybrids resulting from pollen transfer rather than inadvertent seed movement between fields. Two seedlings from the 924 screened were resistant to all three herbicides. Progeny from these self-pollinated individuals were resistant to glyphosate and glufosinate at the predicted 3:1 resistant : susceptible ratio and resistant to imazethapyr at the predicted 15:1 resistant : susceptible ratio. Sequential crossing of three herbicide-resistant varieties is the most likely explanation for the observed multiple herbicide resistance. Integrated management techniques, including suitable crop and herbicide rotations, herbicide mixtures, and nonchemical controls should be used to reduce the incidence and negative effect of B. napus volunteers with multiple herbicide resistance.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author. Agronomy Unit, Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development, 6903 116 Street, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6H 5Z2;
Hide All
Barry, G., Kishore, G., Padgette, S., et al. 1992. Inhibitors of amino acid biosynthesis: strategies for imparting glyphosate tolerance to crop plants. Pages 139145 In Singh, B. J., Flores, H. E., and Shannon, J. C., eds. Current Topics in Plant Physiology, an American Society of Plant Physiologists Series; Biosynthesis and Molecular Regulation of Amino Acids in Plants. Rockville, MD: American Society of Plant Physiologists.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 1995a. Decision document DD95-01: Determination of Environmental Safety of AgrEvo Canada Inc.'s Glufosinate Ammonium-Tolerant Canola. Accessed March 13, 2000.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 1995b. Decision document DD95-03: Determination of Environmental Safety of Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc.'s Imidazolinone-Tolerant Canola. Accessed March 13, 2000.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 1996. Decision document: DD96-07: Determination of Environmental Safety of Monsanto Canada Inc.'s Roundup® Herbicide-Tolerant Brassica napus Canola Line GT73. Accessed March 13, 2000.
Chèvre, A. M., Eber, F., Baranger, A., Kerlan, M. C., Barret, P., Festoc, G., Vallée, P., and Renard, M. 1996. Interspecific gene flow as a component of risk assessment for transgenic Brassicas . Acta Hortic. 407:169179.
De Block, M., Botterman, J., Vandewiele, M., et al. 1987. Engineering herbicide resistance in plants by expression of a detoxifying enzyme. EMBO J. 6 (9): 25132518.
Downey, R. K. 1999. Risk assessment of out-crossing of transgenic Brassica, with focus on B. rapa and B. napus . In Proceedings of the 10th International Rapeseed Congress, Canberra, Australia.
Kareiva, P., Morris, W., and Jacobi, C. M. 1994. Studying and managing the risk of cross-fertilization between transgenic crops and wild relatives. Mol. Ecol. 3:1521.
Keeler, K. H., Turner, C. E., and Bolick, M. R. 1996. Movement of crop transgenes into wild plants. Pages 303330 In Duke, S. O., ed. Herbicide-Resistant Crops: Agricultural, Environmental, Economic, Regulatory, and Technical Aspects. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Kumar, A. 1997. Performance of Glufosinate-Tolerant Susceptible Near-Isogenic Lines of Brassica napus L. . University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. 117 p.
Lefol, E., Danielou, V., and Darmency, H. 1996. Predicting hybridization between transgenic oilseed rape and wild mustard. Field Crops Res. 45:153161.
Lefol, E., Séguin-Swartz, G., and Downey, R. K. 1997. Sexual hybridization in crosses of cultivated Brassica species with Erucastrum gallicum and Raphanus raphanistrum: potential for gene introgression. Euphytica 95:127139.
Padgette, S. R., Re, D. B., Barry, G. F., Eichholtz, D. E., Dalannay, X., Fuchs, R. L., Kishore, G. M., and Fraley, R. T. 1992. New weed control opportunities: development of soybeans with a Roundup Ready® gene. Pages 5384 In Duke, S. O., ed. Herbicide-Resistant Crops: Agricultural, Environmental, Economic, Regulatory, and Technical Aspects. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Rakow, G. and Woods, D. 1987. Out-crossing in rape and mustard under Saskatchewan prairie conditions. Can. J. Plant Sci. 67:147151.
Shaner, D. L., Bascomb, N. F., and Smith, W. 1996. Imidazolinone-resistant crops: selection, characterization, and management. Pages 143157 In Duke, S. O., ed. Herbicide-Resistant Crops: Agricultural, Environmental, Economic, Regulatory, and Technical Aspects. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Sharpe, A. G., Parkin, I.A.P., Keith, D. J., and Lydiate, D. J. 1995. Frequent nonreciprocal translocation in the amphidiploid genome of oilseed rape (Brassia napus). Genome 38:11121121.
Sillito, D., Parkin, I.A.P., Mayerhofer, R., Lydiate, D. J., and Good, A. G. 2000. Arabidopsis thaliana, a source of candidate disease resistance genes for Brassica napus . Genome. 43:452460.
Squire, G. R., Burn, D., and Crawford, J. W. 1997. A model for the impact of herbicide tolerance on the performance of oilseed rape as a volunteer weed. Ann. Appl. Biol. 131:315338.
Stringam, G. R. and Downey, R. K. 1978. Effectiveness of isolation distance in turnip rape. Can. J. Plant Sci. 58:427434.
Thomas, G., Frick, B. L., and Hall, L. M. 1998. Alberta Weed Survey of Cereal and Oilseed Crops in 1997. Saskatoon, SK: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Weed Survey Series Publ. 98-2. 283 p.
Thomas, G. A. and Leeson, J. Y. 2000. Persistence of volunteer wheat and canola using weed survey data. Page 94 in Proceeding of the 1999 Expert Committee on Weeds, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Timmons, A. M., Charters, J. M., Crawford, J. W., et al. 1996. Risks from transgenic crops. Nature 380:487.
Wohlleben, W., Arnold, W., Broer, I., Hillemann, D. Strauch, E., and Pühler, A. 1988. Nucleotide sequence of the phosphinothricin N-acetyl-transferace gene from Streptomyces viridonchromogenes Tü494 and its expression in Nicotiana tabacum . Gene 70:2537.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed