Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Rolled Mixtures of Barley and Cereal Rye for Weed Suppression in Cover Crop–based Organic No-Till Planted Soybean

  • Jeffrey A. Liebert (a1), Antonio DiTommaso (a1) and Matthew R. Ryan (a1)
Abstract

Maximizing cereal rye biomass has been recommended for weed suppression in cover crop–based organic no-till planted soybean; however, achieving high biomass can be challenging, and thick mulch can interfere with soybean seed placement. An experiment was conducted from 2012 to 2014 in New York to test whether mixing barley and cereal rye would (1) increase weed suppression via enhanced shading prior to termination and (2) provide acceptable weed suppression at lower cover crop biomass levels compared with cereal rye alone. This experiment was also designed to assess high-residue cultivation as a supplemental weed management tool. Barley and cereal rye were seeded in a replacement series, and a split-block design with four replications was used with management treatments as main plots and cover crop seeding ratio treatments (barley:cereal rye, 0:100, 50:50, and 100:0) as subplots. Management treatments included high-residue cultivation and standard no-till management without high-residue cultivation. Despite wider leaves in barley, mixing the species did not increase shading, and cereal rye dominated cover crop biomass in the 50:50 mixtures in 2013 and 2014, representing 82 and 93% of the biomass, respectively. Across all treatments, average weed biomass (primarily common ragweed, giant foxtail, and yellow foxtail) in late summer ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 Mg ha−1 in 2013 and 0.6 to 1.3 Mg ha−1 in 2014, and weed biomass tended to decrease as the proportion of cereal rye, and thus total cover crop biomass, increased. However, soybean population also decreased by 29,100 plants ha−1 for every 1 Mg ha−1 increase in cover crop biomass in 2013 (P=0.05). There was no relationship between cover crop biomass and soybean population in 2014 (P=0.35). Soybean yield under no-till management averaged 2.9 Mg ha−1 in 2013 and 2.6 Mg ha−1 in 2014 and was not affected by cover crop ratio or management treatment. Partial correlation analyses demonstrated that shading from cover crops prior to termination explained more variation in weed biomass than cover crop biomass. Our results indicate that cover crop management practices that enhance shading at slightly lower cover crop biomass levels might reduce the challenges associated with excessive biomass production without sacrificing weed suppression in organic no-till planted soybean.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: jal485@cornell.edu
Footnotes
Hide All

Associate Editor: Martin M. Williams, II, USDA–ARS

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Arce, GD, Pedersen, P, Hartzler, RG (2009) Soybean seeding rate effects on weed management. Weed Technol 23:1722
Ashford, DL, Reeves, DW (2003) Use of a mechanical roller-crimper as an alternative kill method for cover crops. Am J Alternative Agr 18:3745
Ball, DA (1992) Weed seedbank response to tillage, herbicides, and crop rotation sequence. Weed Sci 40:654659
Bartoń, K (2015) MuMIn: multi-model inference. R package version 1.15.6. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=MuMIn. Accessed February 12, 2016
Bastiaans, L, Paolini, R, Baumann, DT (2008) Focus on ecological weed management: what is hindering adoption? Weed Res 48:481491
Bates, D, Maechler, M, Bolker, B, Walker, S (2015) lme4: linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. R package version 1.1-8. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4. Accessed January 17, 2016
Beckie, HJ (2006) Herbicide-resistant weeds: management tactics and practices. Weed Technol 20:793814
Belsley, DA, Kuh, E, Welsch, RE (1980) Regression Diagnostics: Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Pp 85191
Beres, BL, Harker, KN, Clayton, GW, Bremer, E, Blackshaw, RE, Graf, RJ (2010) Weed-competitive ability of spring and winter cereals in the northern Great Plains. Weed Technol 24:108116
Bernstein, ER, Posner, JL, Stoltenberg, DE, Hedtcke, JL (2011) Organically managed no-tillage rye–soybean systems: agronomic, economic, and environmental assessment. Agron J 103:11691179
Bernstein, ER, Stoltenberg, DE, Posner, JL, Hedtcke, JL (2014) Weed community dynamics and suppression in tilled and no-tillage transitional organic winter rye–soybean systems. Weed Sci 62:125137
Boutin, C, Strandberg, B, Carpenter, D, Mathiassen, SK, Thomas, PJ (2014) Herbicide impact on non-target plant reproduction: what are the toxicological and ecological implications? Environ Pollut 185:295306
Buhler, DD (1995) Influence of tillage systems on weed population dynamics and management in corn and soybean production in the central USA. Crop Sci 35:12471257
Cardina, J, Herms, CP, Doohan, DJ (2002) Crop rotation and tillage system effects on weed seedbanks. Weed Sci 50:448460
Carpenter, AC, Board, JE (1997) Branch yield components controlling soybean yield stability across plant populations. Crop Sci 37:885891
Clements, DR, Benott, DL, Murphy, SD, Swanton, CJ (1996) Tillage effects on weed seed return and seedbank composition. Weed Sci 44:314322
Cohen, J, Cohen, P, West, SG, Aiken, LS (2003) Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 3rd edn. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Pp 64100
Connolly, J (1986) On difficulties with replacement-series methodology in mixture experiments. J Appl Ecol 23:125137
Connolly, J, Wayne, P, Bazzaz, FA (2001) Interspecific competition in plants: how well do current methods answer fundamental questions? Am Nat 157:107125
Cox, WJ, Cherney, JH (2011) Growth and yield responses of soybean to row spacing and seeding rate. Agron J 103:123128
Creamer, NG, Dabney, SM (2002) Killing cover crops mechanically: review of recent literature and assessment of new research results. Am J Alternative Agr 17:3240
Davis, AS (2010) Cover-crop roller-crimper contributes to weed management in no-till soybean. Weed Sci 58:300309
De Bruin, JL, Porter, PM, Jordan, NR (2005) Use of a rye cover crop following corn in rotation with soybean in the upper Midwest. Agron J 97:587598
Dormann, CF, Elith, J, Bacher, S, Buchmann, C, Carl, G, Carré, G, Marquéz, JRG, Gruber, B, Lafourcade, B, Leitão, PJ, Münkemüller, T, McClean, C, Osborne, PE, Reineking, B, Schröder, B, Skidmore, AK, Zurell, D, Lautenbach, S (2013) Collinearity: a review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance. Ecography 36:2746
Drew, MC, Lynch, JM (1980) Soil anaerobiosis, microorganisms, and root function. Annu Rev Phytopathol 18:3766
Eckert, DJ (1988) Rye cover crops for no-tillage corn and soybean production. J Prod Agric 1:207210
Firbank, LG, Watkinson, AR (1985) On the analysis of competition within two-species mixtures of plants. J Appl Ecol 22:503517
Foley, JA, DeFries, R, Asner, GP, Barford, C, Bonan, G, Carpenter, SR, Chapin, FS, Coe, MT, Daily, GC, Gibbs, HK, Helkowski, JH, Holloway, T, Howard, EA, Kucharik, CJ, Monfreda, C, Patz, JA, Prentice, IC, Ramankutty, N, Snyder, PK (2005) Global consequences of land use. Science 309:570574
Fox, J (1997) Applied Regression Analysis, Linear Models, and Related Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pp 337366
Fox, J, Monette, G (1992) Generalized collinearity diagnostics. J Am Stat Assoc 87:178183
Fox, J, Weisberg, S (2011) An R Companion to Applied Regression. 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pp 285329
Graham, MH (2003) Confronting multicollinearity in ecological multiple regression. Ecology 84:28092815
Helms, TC, Deckard, E, Goos, RJ, Enz, JW (1996) Soybean seedling emergence influenced by days of soil water stress and soil temperature. Agron J 88:657661
Hendrickx, J (2015) perturb: tools for evaluating collinearity. R package version 2.05. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=perturb. Accessed March 5, 2016
Inouye, RS, Schaffer, WM (1981) On the ecological meaning of ratio (de Wit) diagrams in plant ecology. Ecology 62:16791681
Jolliffe, PA (2000) The replacement series. J Ecol 88:371385
Kim, S (2015) ppcor: partial and semi-partial (part) correlation. R package version 1.1. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=ppcor. Accessed February 7, 2016
Kornecki, TS, Price, AJ, Raper, RL, Arriaga, FJ (2009) New roller crimper concepts for mechanical termination of cover crops in conservation agriculture. Renew Agr Food Syst 24:165173
Kornecki, TS, Raper, RL, Arriaga, FJ, Balkcom, KS, Price, AJ (2005) Effects of rolling/crimping rye direction and different row-cleaning attachments on cotton emergence and yield. Pages 169–177 in Proceedings of the 27th Southern Conservation Tillage Conference. Florence, SC: Southern Extension and Research Activity
Kutner, MH, Nachtsheim, CJ, Neter, J, Li, W (2005) Applied Linear Statistical Models. 5th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Pp 406414
Lal, R (1991) Tillage and agricultural sustainability. Soil Till Res 20:133146
Lal, R (2004) Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304:16231627
Leyshon, AJ, Sheard, RW (1974) Influence of short-term flooding on the growth and plant nutrient composition of barley. Can J Soil Sci 54:463473
Liebl, R, Simmons, FW, Wax, LM, Stoller, EW (1992) Effect of rye (Secale cereale) mulch on weed control and soil moisture in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol 6:838846
Liebman, M, Dyck, E (1993) Crop rotation and intercropping strategies for weed management. Ecol Appl 3:92122
Logan, TJ, Lal, R, Dick, WA (1991) Tillage systems and soil properties in North America. Soil Till Res 20:241270
Lueschen, WE, Hicks, DR (1977) Influence of plant population on field performance of three soybean cultivars. Agron J 69:390393
Marquardt, DW (1970) Generalized inverses, ridge regression, biased linear estimation, and nonlinear estimation. Technometrics 12:591612
McDaniel, MD, Tiemann, LK, Grandy, AS (2014) Does agricultural crop diversity enhance soil microbial biomass and organic matter dynamics? A meta-analysis. Ecol Appl 24:560570
Mendiburu, F (2015) agricolae: statistical procedures for agricultural research. R package version 1.2-3. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=agricolae. Accessed December 11, 2015
Mirsky, SB, Curran, WS, Mortensen, DA, Ryan, MR, Shumway, DL (2009) Control of cereal rye with a roller/crimper as influenced by cover crop phenology. Agron J 101:15891596
Mirsky, SB, Curran, WS, Mortensen, DA, Ryan, MR, Shumway, DL (2011) Timing of cover-crop management effects on weed suppression in no-till planted soybean using a roller-crimper. Weed Sci 59:380389
Mirsky, SB, Ryan, MR, Curran, WS, Teasdale, JR, Maul, J, Spargo, JT, Moyer, J, Grantham, AM, Weber, D, Way, TR, Camargo, GG (2012) Conservation tillage issues: cover crop-based organic rotational no-till grain production in the mid-Atlantic region, USA. Renew Agr Food Syst 27:3140
Mirsky, SB, Ryan, MR, Teasdale, JR, Curran, WS, Reberg-Horton, CS, Spargo, JT, Wells, MS, Keene, CL, Moyer, JW (2013) Overcoming weed management challenges in cover crop-based organic rotational no-till soybean production in the eastern United States. Weed Technol 27:193203
Mitchell, WH, Teel, MR (1977) Winter-annual cover crops for no-tillage corn production. Agron J 69:569573
Mohler, CL, Callaway, MB (1995) Effects of tillage and mulch on weed seed production and seed banks in sweet corn. J Appl Ecol 32:627639
Mortensen, DA, Egan, JF, Maxwell, BD, Ryan, MR, Smith, RG (2012) Navigating a critical juncture for sustainable weed management. BioScience 62:7584
Moschler, WW, Shear, GM, Hallock, DL, Sears, RD, Jones, GD (1967) Winter cover crops for sod-planted corn: their selection and management. Agron J 59:547551
Munawar, A, Blevins, RL, Frye, WW, Saul, MR (1990) Tillage and cover crop management for soil water conservation. Agron J 82:773777
Murphy, SD, Clements, DR, Belaoussoff, S, Kevan, PG, Swanton, CJ (2006) Promotion of weed species diversity and reduction of weed seedbanks with conservation tillage and crop rotation. Weed Sci 54:6977
Myers, MW, Curran, WS, VanGessel, MJ, Calvin, DD, Mortensen, DA, Majek, BA, Karsten, HD, Roth, GW (2004) Predicting weed emergence for eight annual species in the northeastern United States. Weed Sci 52:913919
Nakagawa, S, Schielzeth, H (2013) A general and simple method for obtaining R 2 from generalized linear mixed-effects models. Methods Ecol Evol 4:133142
Nord, EA, Curran, WS, Mortensen, DA, Mirsky, SB, Jones, BP (2011) Integrating multiple tactics for managing weeds in high residue no-till soybean. Agron J 103:15421551
Nord, EA, Ryan, MR, Curran, WS, Mortensen, DA, Mirsky, SB (2012) Effects of management type and timing on weed suppression in soybean no-till planted into rolled-crimped cereal rye. Weed Sci 60:624633
Norsworthy, JK, Ward, SM, Shaw, DR, Llewellyn, RS, Nichols, RL, Webster, TM, Bradley, KW, Frisvold, G, Powles, SB, Burgos, NR, Witt, WW, Barrett, M (2012) Reducing the risks of herbicide resistance: best management practices and recommendations. Weed Sci 60(Spec Issue 1): 3162
Northeast Regional Climate Center. (2015) CLIMOD 2: monthly summarized data. http://www.climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu. Accessed January 23, 2015
O’Brien, RM (2007) A caution regarding rules of thumb for variance inflation factors. Qual Quant 41:673690
Orlowski, J, Cox, WJ, DiTommaso, A, Knoblauch, W (2012) Planting soybean with a grain drill inconsistently increases yield and profit. Agron J 104:10651073
Paustian, K, Six, J, Elliott, ET, Hunt, HW (2000) Management options for reducing CO2 emissions from agricultural soils. Biogeochemistry 48:147163
Pimentel, D, Harvey, C, Resosudarmo, P, Sinclair, K, Kurz, D, McNair, M, Crist, S, Shpritz, L, Fitton, L, Saffouri, R, Blair, R (1995) Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science 267:11171123
Place, GT, Reberg-Horton, SC, Dunphy, JE, Smith, AN (2009) Seeding rate effects on weed control and yield for organic soybean production. Weed Technol 23:497502
Pleasants, JM, Oberhauser, KS (2013) Milkweed loss in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: effect on the monarch butterfly population. Insect Conserv Diver 6:135144
Poeplau, C, Don, A (2015) Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils via cultivation of cover crops—a meta-analysis. Agr Ecosyst Environ 200:3341
Preacher, KJ (2006) Testing complex correlational hypotheses with structural equation models. Struct Equ Modeling 13:520543
Raper, RL, Simionescu, PA, inventors; the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture, Auburn University, assignees. (2005) November 29. Smooth rolling cover crop roller. US patent 6,968,907 B1
Raper, RL, Simionescu, PA, Kornecki, TS, Price, AJ, Reeves, DW (2004) Reducing vibration while maintaining efficacy of rollers to terminate cover crops. Appl Eng Agric 20:581584
Rawlings, JO, Pantula, SG, Dickey, DA (1998) Applied Regression Analysis: A Research Tool. 2nd edn. New York: Springer-Verlag. Pp 369377
R Core Team. (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org. Accessed July 13, 2015
Reicosky, DC (1997) Tillage-induced CO2 emission from soil. Nutr. Cycl Agroecosys 49:273285
Relyea, RA (2005) The impact of insecticides and herbicides on the biodiversity and productivity of aquatic communities. Ecol Appl 15:618627
Ryan, MR, Curran, WS, Grantham, AM, Hunsberger, LK, Mirsky, SB, Mortensen, DA, Nord, EA, Wilson, DO (2011a) Effects of seeding rate and poultry litter on weed suppression from a rolled cereal rye cover crop. Weed Sci 59:438444
Ryan, MR, Mirsky, SB, Mortensen, DA, Teasdale, JR, Curran, WS (2011b) Potential synergistic effects of cereal rye biomass and soybean planting density on weed suppression. Weed Sci 59:238246
Schipanski, ME, Barbercheck, M, Douglas, MR, Finney, DM, Haider, K, Kaye, JP, Kemanian, AR, Mortensen, DA, Ryan, MR, Tooker, J, White, C (2014) A framework for evaluating ecosystem services provided by cover crops in agroecosystems. Agr Syst 125:1222
Smith, AN, Reberg-Horton, SC, Place, GT, Meijer, AD, Arellano, C, Mueller, JP (2011) Rolled rye mulch for weed suppression in organic no-tillage soybeans. Weed Sci 59:224231
Smith, KA, Restall, SWF (1971) The occurrence of ethylene in anaerobic soil. J Soil Sci 22:430443
Smith, KA, Robertson, PD (1971) Effect of ethylene on root extension of cereals. Nature 234:148149
Taylor, DR, Aarssen, LW (1989) On the density dependence of replacement-series competition experiments. J Ecol 77:975988
Teasdale, JR, Mohler, CL (2000) The quantitative relationship between weed emergence and the physical properties of mulches. Weed Sci 48:385392
Thelen, KD, Mutch, DR, Martin, TE (2004) Utility of interseeded winter cereal rye in organic soybean production systems. Agron J 96:281284
Wagner-Riddle, C, Gillespie, TJ, Swanton, CJ (1994) Rye cover crop management impact on soil water content, soil temperature and soybean growth. Can J Plant Sci 74:485495
Wayman, S, Cogger, C, Benedict, C, Burke, I, Collins, D, Bary, A (2014) The influence of cover crop variety, termination timing and termination method on mulch, weed cover and soil nitrate in reduced-tillage organic systems. Renew Agr Food Syst, 30. doi: 10.1017/S1742170514000246
Weber, CR, Shibles, RM, Byth, DE (1966) Effect of plant population and row spacing on soybean development and production. Agron J 58:99102
Wells, MS, Brinton, CM, Reberg-Horton, SC (2015) Weed suppression and soybean yield in a no-till cover-crop mulched system as influenced by six rye cultivars. Renew Agr Food Syst, 31. doi: 10.1017/S1742170515000344
Westgate, LR, Singer, JW, Kohler, KA (2005) Method and timing of rye control affects soybean development and resource utilization. Agron J 97:806816
Weston, LA (1990) Cover crop and herbicide influence on row crop seedling establishment in no-tillage culture. Weed Sci 38:166171
Wilkins, ED, Bellinder, RR (1996) Mow-kill regulation of winter cereals for spring no-till crop production. Weed Technol 10:247252
Wortman, SE, Lindquist, JL, Haar, MJ, Francis, C (2010) Increased weed diversity, density and above-ground biomass in long-term organic crop rotations. Renew Agr Food Syst 25:281295
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed