Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Seed dormancy: an update on terminology, physiological genetics, and quantitative trait loci regulating germinability

  • Michael E. Foley (a1)

Extract

Dormancy is a form of developmental arrest and is an adaptive trait that promotes the survival of many organisms. In flowering plants, dormancy occurs in seeds and vegetative propagules (Lang 1996). Seed dormancy increases the distribution of germination over time, thus enhancing the survival of plants in an ever-changing environment. Seed dormancy is of intrinsic interest to weed scientists because it is one of 12 adaptive characteristics associated with weeds (Baker 1974). The sporadic emergence of seedlings derived from populations of dormant and nondormant weed seeds in the soil (Benech-Arnold et al. 2000; Forcella et al. 2000) is a key factor that dictates the need to apply weed control measures repeatedly within, between, and across growing seasons. My objective in writing this paper is to provide weed scientists, advanced students, and others with limited background information, some recent findings concerning the physiological genetics of dormancy, and steps toward identifying genes that directly regulate seed dormancy and germination. Molecular aspects of dormancy and germination will not be covered here because they have been reviewed recently (Bewley 1997; Li and Foley 1997). Readers can obtain additional and more extensive information on the biology and ecology of seed dormancy and germination from several recent books and reviews (Baskin and Baskin 1998; Benech-Arnold et al. 2000; Bewley and Black 1994; Casal and Sánchez 1998; Cohn 1996, 1998; Fennell 1999; Forcella et al. 2000; Hilhorst 1995, 1998; Hilhorst and Toorop 1997; Kelley et al. 1992; Kigel and Galili 1995; Simpson 1990; Vleeshouwers et al. 1995).

Copyright

References

Hide All
Alonso-Blanco, C., Peeters, A.J.M., Koornneef, M., Lister, C., Dean, C., van den Bosch, N., Pot, J., and Kuiper, M.T.R. 1998. Development of an AFLP based linkage map of Ler, Col and Cvi Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes and construction of a Ler/Cvi recombinant inbred line population. Plant J. 12:259271.
Amen, R. D. 1968. A model of seed dormancy. Bot. Rev. 34:131.
Anderson, J. A., Sorrells, M. E., and Tanksley, S. D. 1993. RFLP analysis of genomic regions associated with resistance to preharvest sprouting in wheat. Crop. Sci. 33:453459.
Arias, I., Williams, P. M., and Bradbeer, J. W. 1976. Studies in seed dormancy IX. The role of gibberellin biosynthesis and the release of bound gibberellin in the post-chilling accumulation of gibberellin in seeds of Corylus avellana L. Planta 131:135139.
Bailey, P. C., McKibbin, R. S., Lenton, J. R., Holdsworth, M. J., Flintham, J. E., and Gale, M. D. 1999. Genetic map locations for orthologous Vp1 genes in wheat and rice. Theor. Appl. Genet. 98:281284.
Baker, H. G. 1974. The evolution of weeds. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 5:124.
Ballard, T. O., Bauman, T. T., and Foley, M. E. 1996. Germination, viability, and protein changes during cold stratification of giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) seed. J. Plant Physiol. 149:229232.
Baskin, C. C. and Baskin, J. M. 1998. Seeds—Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 666 p.
Baskin, J. M. and Baskin, C. C. 1985. The annual dormancy cycle in buried weed seeds: a continuum. BioScience 35:492498.
Bazzaz, F. A. 1970. Secondary dormancy in seeds of the common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 97:302305.
Beckie, H. J., Thomas, A. G., Légère, A., Kelner, D. J., Van Acker, R. C., and Meers, S. 1999. Nature, occurrence, and cost of herbicide-resistant wild oat (Avena fatua) in small-grain production areas. Weed Technol. 13:612625.
Benech-Arnold, R. L. and Sánchez, R. A. 1995. Modeling weed seed germination. Pages 545566 In Kigel, J. and Galili, G., eds. Seed Development and Germination. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Benech-Arnold, R. L., Sánchez, R. A., Forcella, F., Kruk, B. C., and Ghersa, C. M. 2000. Environmental control of dormancy in weed seed banks in soil. Field Crops Res. 67:105122.
Bennetzen, J. L. and Freeling, M. 1997. The unified grass genome: synergy in synteny. Genome Res. 7:301306.
Bewley, J. D. 1997. Seed germination and dormancy. Plant Cell 9:10551066.
Bewley, J. D. and Black, M. 1994. Seeds—Physiology of Development and Germination. New York: Plenum Press. 445 p.
Bianco, J., Garello, G., and Le Page-Degivry, M. T. 1994. Release of dormancy in sunflower embryos by dry storage: involvement of gibberellins and abscisic acid. Seed Sci. Res. 4:5762.
Botto, J. F., Scopel, A. L., Ballaré, C. L., and Sánchez, R. A. 1998. The effect of light during and after soil cultivation with different tillage implements on weed seedling emergence. Weed Sci. 46:351357.
Bradford, K. J. 1996. Population-based models describing seed dormancy behaviour: implications for experimental design and interpretation. Pages 313339 In Lang, G. A., ed. Plant Dormancy—Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Wallingford, Great Britain: CAB International.
Bradford, K. J. 1997. The hydrotime concept in seed germination and dormancy. Pages 349360 In Ellis, R. H., Black, M., Murdoch, A. J., and Hong, T. D., eds. Basic and Applied Aspects of Seed Biology. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Bradford, K. J. and Trewavas, A. J. 1994. Sensitivity thresholds and variable time scales in plant hormone action. Plant Physiol. 105:10291036.
Briggs, D. E., Woods, J. L., and Favier, J. F. 1994. Drying and storage treatments for overcoming dormancy in malting barley. J. Inst. Brew. 100:271278.
Buhler, D. D., Liebman, M., and Obrycki, J. J. 2000. Theoretical and practical challenges to an IPM approach to weed management. Weed Sci. 48:274280.
Burrows, V. D. 1970. Yield and disease-escape potential of fall-sown oats possessing seed dormancy. Can. J. Plant Sci. 50:371377.
Cardina, J. and Sparrow, D. H. 1997. Temporal changes in velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) seed dormancy. Weed Sci. 45:6166.
Carmichael, J. S. and Selbo, S. M. 1999. Ovule, embryo sac, embryo, and endosperm development in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). Can. J. Bot. 77:599610.
Casal, J. J. and Sánchez, R. A. 1998. Phytochromes and seed germination. Seed Sci. Res. 8:317329.
Cohn, M. A. 1996. Operational and philosophical decisions in seed dormancy research. Seed Sci. Res. 6:147153.
Cohn, M. A., ed. 1998. W-168 Symposium on Seed Biology and Technology: Applications and Advances. Seed Sci. Res. 8:77:149301.
Cranston, H. J., Johnson, R. R., Chaverra, M. E., and Dyer, W. E. 1999. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a sar-like monomeric GTP-binding protein in Avena fatua L. Plant Sci. 145:7581.
Davis, W. E. 1930. Primary dormancy, after-ripening, and the development of secondary dormancy in embryos of Ambrosia trifida . Am. J. Bot. 17:5876.
Debeaujon, I. and Koornneef, M. 2000. Gibberellin requirement for Arabidopsis seed germination is determined both by testa characteristics and embryonic abscisic acid. Plant Physiol. 122:415424.
Debeaujon, I., Léon-Kloosterziel, K. M., and Koornneef, M. 2000. Influence of the testa on seed dormancy, germination, and longevity in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 122:403413.
Dekker, J., Dekker, B., Hilhorst, H., and Karssen, C. 1996. Weedy adaptation in Setaria spp. IV. Changes in the germinative capacity of S. faberi (Poaceae) embryos with development from anthesis to after abscission. Am. J. Bot. 83:979991.
Derkx, M.P.M. and Karssen, C. M. 1993a. Variability in light-, gibberellin- and nitrate requirement of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds due to harvest time and conditions of dry storage. J. Plant Physiol. 141:574582.
Derkx, M.P.M. and Karssen, C. M. 1993b. Effects of light and temperature on seed dormancy and gibberellin-stimulated germination in Arabidopsis thaliana: studies with gibberellin-deficient and -insensitive mutants. Physiol. Plant. 89:360368.
Derkx, M.P.M., Vermeer, E., and Karssen, C. M. 1994. Gibberellins in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana: biological activities, identification and effects of light and chilling on endogenous levels. Plant Growth Regul. 15:223234.
Devos, K. M. and Gale, M. D. 1997. Comparative genetics in the grasses. Plant Mol. Biol. 35:315.
Devos, K. M. and Gale, M. D. 2000. Genome relationships: the grass model in current research. Plant Cell 12:637646.
Egley, G. H. 1989. Water-impermeable seed coverings as barriers to germination. Pages 207223 In Taylorson, R. B., ed. Recent Advances in the Development and Germination of Seeds. New York: Plenum Press.
Egley, G. H. 1995. Seed germination in soil: dormancy cycles. Pages 529543 In Kigel, J. and Galili, G., eds. Seed Development and Germination. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Egley, G. H., Paul, R. N., and Lax, A. R. 1986. Seed coat imposed dormancy: histochemistry of the region controlling onset of water entry into Sida spinosa L. Physiol. Plant. 67:320327.
Esashi, Y., Ogasawara, M., Górecki, R., and Leopold, A. C. 1993. Possible mechanisms of afterripening in Xanthium seeds. Physiol. Plant. 87:359364.
Fennell, A. 1999. Systems and approaches to studying dormancy: proceedings and introduction to the workshop. HortScience 34:11721173.
Fennimore, S. A., Nyquist, W. E., Shaner, G. E., Doerge, R. W., and Foley, M. E. 1999. A genetic model and molecular markers for wild oat (Avena fatua L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 99:711718.
Flintham, J. E. 2000. Different genetic components control coat-imposed and embryo-imposed dormancy in wheat. Seed Sci. Res. 10:4350.
Foley, M. E. 1992. Effect of soluble sugars and gibberellic acid in breaking of dormancy of excised wild oat (Avena fatua) embryos. Weed Sci. 40:208214.
Foley, M. E. 1994. Temperature and water status of seed affect afterripening in wild oat (Avena fatua). Weed Sci. 42:200204.
Foley, M. E. and Fennimore, S. A. 1998. Genetic basis for seed dormancy. Seed Sci. Res. 8:173182.
Forcella, F., Benech-Arnold, R. L., Sánchez, R., and Ghersa, R. M. 2000. Modeling seedling emergence. Field Crops Res. 67:123139.
Forcella, F., Wilson, R. G., Dekker, J., et al. 1997. Weed seed bank emergence across the corn belt. Weed Sci. 45:6776.
Frary, A., Nesbitt, T. C., Frary, A., et al. 2000. fw2.2: A quantitative trait locus key to the evolution of tomato fruit size. Science 289:8588.
Frisby, J. W. and Seeley, S. D. 1993. Chilling of endodormant peach propagules: I. Seed germination and emergence. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 118:248252.
Furuya, M. 1993. Phytochromes: their molecular species, gene families and functions. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 43:617645.
Garello, G. and Le Page-Degivry, M. T. 1999. Evidence for the role of abscisic acid in the genetic and environmental control of dormancy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Seed Sci. Res. 9:219226.
Grappin, P., Bouinot, D., Sotta, B., Miginiac, E., and Jullien, M. 2000. Control of seed dormancy in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia: Post-imbibition abscisic acid synthesis imposes dormancy maintenance. Planta 210:279285.
Groot, S.P.C. and Karssen, C. M. 1987. Gibberellins regulate seed germination in tomato by endosperm weakening: a study with gibberellin-deficient mutants. Planta 171:525531.
Groot, S.P.C. and Karssen, C. M. 1992. Dormancy and germination of abscisic acid-deficient tomato seeds. Studies with the sitiens mutant. Plant Physiol. 99:952958.
Han, F., Kleinhofs, A., Ullrich, S. E., Kilian, A., Yano, M., and Sasaki, T. 1998. Synteny with rice: analysis of barley malting quality QTLs and rpg4 chromosome regions. Genome 41:373380.
Han, F., Ullrich, S. E., Chirat, S., et al. 1995. Mapping of β-glucan content and β-glucanase activity loci in barley grain and malt. Theor. Appl. Genet. 91:921927.
Han, F., Ullrich, S. E., Clancy, J. A., and Romagosa, I. 1999. Inheritance and fine mapping of a major barley seed dormancy QTL. Plant Sci. 143:113118.
Hartmann, K. M. and Nezadal, W. 1990. Photocontrol of weeds without herbicides. Naturwissenschaften 77:158163.
Harushima, Y., Yano, M., Shomura, A., et al. 1998. A high-density rice genetic linkage map with 2275 markers using a single F2 population. Genetics 148:479494.
Hay, J. R. and Cumming, B. G. 1959. A method for inducing dormancy in wild oats (Avena fatua L.). Weeds 7:3440.
Hayes, R. G. and Klein, W. H. 1974. Spectral quality influence of light during development of Arabidopsis thaliana plants in regulating seed germination. Plant Cell Physiol. 15:643653.
Hilhorst, H.W.M. 1995. A critical update on seed dormancy. I. Primary dormancy. Seed Sci. Res. 5:6173.
Hilhorst, H.W.M. 1998. The regulation of secondary dormancy. The membrane hypothesis revisited. Seed Sci. Res. 8:7790.
Hilhorst, H. M. and Bino, R. J. 1999. The Tomato Seed as a Model System to Study Seed Development and Germination: Current State of Progress. Abstract VI. International Workshop on Seed Biology. Mérida, México: J. Vasquez-Ramos and Rodriguez-Sortes, R. p. 28.
Hilhorst, H.W.M., Groot, S.P.C., and Bino, R. J. 1998. The tomato seed as a model system to study seed development and germination. Acta Bot. Neerl. 47:169183.
Hilhorst, H.W.M. and Karssen, C. M. 1988. Dual effect of light on the gibberellin- and nitrate-stimulated seed germination of Sisymbrium officinale and Arabidopsis thaliana . Plant Physiol. 86:591597.
Hilhorst, H.W.M. and Karssen, C. M. 1992. Seed dormancy and germination: The role of abscisic acid and gibberellins and the importance of hormone mutants. Plant Growth Regul. 11:225238.
Hilhorst, H.W.M. and Toorop, P. E. 1997. Review on dormancy, germinability, and germination in crop and weed seeds. Pages 111165 in Sparks, D. L., ed. Advances in Agronomy. Volume 61. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Hoecker, U., Vasil, I. K., and McCarty, D. R. 1995. Integrated control of seed maturation and germination programs by activator and repressor functions of viviparous-1 of maize. Genes Dev. 9:24592469.
Hou, J. Q. and Simpson, G. M. 1992. After-ripening and phytochrome action in seeds of dormant lines of wild oat (Avena fatua). Physiol. Plant. 86:427432.
Jana, S., Acharya, N., and Naylor, J. M. 1979. Dormancy studies in seeds of Avena fatua . 10. On the inheritance of germination behavior. Can. J. Bot. 57:16631667.
Jana, S. and Naylor, J. M. 1982. Adaptation for herbicide tolerance in populations of Avena fatua . Can. J. Bot. 60:16111617.
Jana, S. and Thai, K. M. 1987. Patterns of changes of dormant genotypes in Avena fatua populations under different agricultural conditions. Can. J. Bot. 65:17411745.
Jansen, R. C. 1996. Complex plant traits: time for polygenic analysis. Trends Plant Sci. 1:8994.
Jones, H. D., Peters, N.C.B., and Holdsworth, M. J. 1997. Genotype and environment interact to control dormancy and differential expression of the VIVIPAROUS 1 homologue in embryos of Avena fatua . Plant J. 12:911920.
Karssen, C. M. 1982. Seasonal patterns of dormancy in weed seeds. Pages 244270 In Khan, A. A., ed. The Physiology and Biochemistry of Seed Development, Dormancy and Germination. New York: Elsevier Biomedical Press.
Karssen, C. M., Brinkhorst-van der Swan, D.L.C., Breekland, A. E., and Koornneef, M. 1983. Induction of dormancy during seed development by endogenous abscisic acid: studies on abscisic acid deficient genotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Planta 157:158165.
Karssen, C. M. and Lacka, E. 1986. A revision of the hormone balance theory of seed dormancy: studies on gibberellin and/or abscisic acid-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana . Pages 315323 In Bopp, M., ed. Plant Growth Substances. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Karssen, C. M., Zagórski, S., Kepczyn'ski, J., and Groot, S.P.C. 1989. Key role for endogenous gibberellins in the control of seed germination. Ann. Bot. 63:7180.
Keller, B. and Feuillet, C. 2000. Colinearity and gene density in grass genomes. Trends Plant Sci. 5:246251.
Kelly, K. M., Van Staden, J., and Ball, W. E. 1992. Seed coat structure and dormancy. Plant Growth Regul. 11:201209.
Khan, A. A. 1994. Induction of dormancy in nondormant seeds. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 119:408413.
Khan, M., Cavers, P. B., Kane, M., and Thompson, K. 1996. Role of the pigmented seed coat of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) in imbibition, germination and seed persistence. Seed Sci. Res. 7:2125.
Kigel, J. and Galili, G. 1995. Seed Development and Germination. New York: Marcel Dekker. 853 p.
Koornneef, M., Alonso-Blanco, C., Bentsink, L., Blankestijin-de Vries, H., Debeaujon, I., Hanhart, C. J., Léon-Kloosterziel, L. M., Peeters, A.M.J., and Raz, V. 1999. The genetics of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana . Abstracts Second International Symposium on Plant Dormancy. Angers, France: J.-D. Viémont and Crabbé. pp, J. J. 1819.
Koornneef, M., Elgersma, A., Hanhart, C. J., van Loenen-Martinet, E. P., van Rijn, L., and Zeevaart, J.A.D. 1985. A gibberellin insensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana . Physiol. Plant. 65:3339.
Koornneef, M., Jorna, M. L., Brinkhorst-van der Swan, D.L.C., and Karssen, C. M. 1982. The isolation of abscisic acid (ABA) deficient mutants by selection of induced revertants in non-germinating gibberellin sensitive lines of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Theor. Appl. Genet. 61:385393.
Koornneef, M. and Karssen, C. M. 1994. Seed dormancy and germination. Pages 313334 In Koornneef, M. and Karssen, C. M., eds. Arabidopsis. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Koornneef, M., Reuling, G., and Karssen, C. M. 1984. The isolation and characterization of abscisic acid-insensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana . Physiol. Plant. 61:377383.
Koornneef, M. and van der Veen, J. H. 1980. Induction and analysis of gibberellin sensitive mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Theor. Appl. Genet. 58:257263.
Lang, G. A., ed. 1996. Plant Dormancy—Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Wallingford, Great Britain: CAB International. 386 p.
Lang, G. A., Early, J. D., Martin, G. C., and Darnell, R. L. 1987. Endo-, para-, and ecodormancy: physiological terminology and classification for dormancy research. HortScience 22:371377.
Larson, S., Bryan, G., Dyer, W., and Blake, T. 1996. Evaluating gene effects of a major barley seed dormancy QTL in reciprocal backcross populations. J. Quant. Trait Loci 2:4.
Léon-Kloosterziel, K. M., Keijzer, C. J., and Koornneef, M. 1994. A seed shape mutant of Arabidopsis that is affected in integument development. Plant Cell 6:385392.
Léon-Kloosterziel, K. M., van de Bunt, G. A., Zeevaart, J.A.D., and Koornneef, M. 1996. Arabidopsis mutants with a reduced seed dormancy. Plant Physiol. 110:233240.
Leopold, A. C., Glenister, R., and Cohn, M. A. 1988. Relationship between water content and afterripening in red rice. Physiol. Plant. 74:659662.
Le Page-Degivry, M.-T., Barthe, P., and Garello, G. 1990. Involvement of endogenous abscisic acid in onset and release of Helianthus annuus embryo dormancy. Plant Physiol. 92:11641168.
Le Page-Degivry, M.-T. and Garello, G. 1992. In situ abscisic acid synthesis. Plant Physiol. 98:13861390.
Li, B. and Foley, M. E. 1997. Genetic and molecular control of seed dormancy. Trends Plant Sci. 2:384389.
Lijavetzky, D., Martínez, M. C., Carrari, F., and Hopp, H. E. 2000. QTL analysis and mapping of pre-harvest sprouting resistance in sorghum. Euphytica 112:125135.
Lin, S. Y., Sasaki, T., and Yano, M. 1998. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling seed dormancy and heading date in rice, Oryza sativa L., using backcross inbred lines. Theor. Appl. Genet. 96:9971003.
Mares, D. J. 1996. Dormancy in white wheat: mechanism and location of genes. Pages 179184 In Noda, K., ed. Pre-Harvest Sprouting in Cereals 1995. Osaka, Japan: Center for Academic Societies.
Martinez-García, J. F., Huq, E., and Quail, P. H. 2000. Direct targeting of light signals to a promoter element-bound transcription factor. Science 288:859863.
McCarty, D. R. 1995. Genetic control and integration of maturation and germination pathways in seed development. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 46:7193.
McCouch, S. R. and Doerge, R. W. 1995. QTL mapping in rice. Trends Genet. 11:482487.
Meinke, D. W., Franzmann, L. H., Nickle, T. C., and Yeung, E. C. 1994. Leafy cotyledon mutants of Arabidopsis . Plant Cell 6:10491064.
Metzger, J. D. 1983. Role of endogenous plant growth regulators in seed dormancy of Avena fatua . II. Gibberellins. Plant Physiol. 73:791795.
Michelmore, R. W., Paran, I., and Kesseli, R. V. 1991. Identification of markers linked to disease-resistance genes by bulked segregant analysis: a rapid method to detect markers in specific genomic regions by using segregating populations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:98289832.
Milberg, P., Andersson, L., and Thompson, K. 2000. Large-seeded species are less dependent on light for germination than small-seeded ones. Seed Sci. Res. 10:99104.
Morris, C. F., Moffatt, J. M., Sears, R. G., and Paulsen, G. M. 1989. Seed dormancy and responses of caryopses, embryos, and calli to abscisic acid in wheat. Plant Physiol. 90:643647.
Morrison, I. N. and Dushnicky, L. 1982. Structure of the covering layers of the wild oat (Avena fatua) caryopsis. Weed. Sci. 30:352359.
Myers, S. P., Foley, M. E., and Nichols, M. B. 1997. Developmental differences between germinating afterripened and dormant excised Avena fatua L. embryos. Ann. Bot. 79:1923.
Nambara, E., Akazawa, T., and McCourt, P. 1991. Effects of the gibberellin biosynthetic inhibitor uniconazol on mutants of Arabidopsis . Plant Physiol. 97:736738.
Nambara, E., Naito, S., and McCourt, P. 1992. A mutant of Arabidopsis which is defective in seed development and storage protein accumulation is a new abi3 allele. Plant J. 2:435441.
Naylor, J. M. and Simpson, G. M. 1961. Dormancy studies in seed of Avena fatua 2. A gibberellin-sensitive inhibitory mechanism in the embryo. Can. J. Bot. 39:281295.
Ni, B. and Bradford, K. J. 1993. Germination and dormancy of abscisic acid- and gibberellin-deficient mutant tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seeds—sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid, gibberellin, and water potential. Plant Physiol. 101:607617.
Nikolaeva, M. G. 1969. Physiology of Deep Dormancy in Seeds. Leningrad, USSR: Izdatel'stvo “Nauka”. [Translation from Russian by Z. Shapiro, NSF, Washington, DC]
Oberthur, L., Blake, T. K., Dyer, W. E., and Ullrich, S. E. 1995. Genetic analysis of seed dormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). J. Quant. Trait Loci. 1:5.
O’Donovan, J. T., Newman, J. C., Blackshaw, R. E., Harker, K. N., Derksen, D. A., and Thomas, G. A. 1999. Growth, competitiveness, and seed germination of triallate/difenzoquat-susceptible and -resistant wild oat populations. Can. J. Plant Sci. 79:303312.
Paterson, A. H., Lander, E. S., Hewitt, J. D., Peterson, S., Lincoln, S. E., and Tanksley, S. D. 1988. Resolution of quantitative traits into Mendelian factors by using a complete linkage map of restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Nature 335:721726.
Paterson, A. H., Lin, Y.-R., Li, Z., Schertz, K. F., Doebley, J. F., Pinson, S.R.M., Liu, S.-C., Stansel, J. W., and Irving, J. E. 1995. Convergent domestication of cereal crops by independent mutations at corresponding genetic loci. Science 269:17141718.
Paterson, A. H. and Sorrells, M. E. 1990. Inheritance of grain dormancy in white-kernelled wheat. Crop Sci. 30:2530.
Paterson, A. H., Tanksley, S. D., and Sorrells, M. E. 1991. DNA markers in plant improvement. Adv. Agron. 46:3990.
Peng, J.-R., Carol, P., Richards, D. E., King, K. E., Cowling, R. J., Murphy, G. P., and Harberd, N. P. 1997. The Arabidopsis GAI gene defines a signaling pathway that negatively regulates gibberellin responses. Genes Dev. 11:31943205.
Pollock, B. M. 1963. Temperature control of physiological dwarfing in peach seedlings. Plant Physiol. 37:190197.
Quail, P. H. and Carter, O. G. 1969. Dormancy in seeds of Avena ludoviciana and A. fatua . Aust. J. Agric. Res. 20:111.
Rasmussen, R. D., Hole, D., Hess, J. R., and Carman, J. G. 1997. Wheat kernel dormancy and +abscisic acid level following exposure to fluridone. J. Plant Physiol. 150:440445.
Riggio Bevilacqua, L. R., Fossati, F., and Dondero, G. 1987. “Callose” in the impermeable seed coat of Sesbania punicea . Ann. Bot. 59:335341.
Schmidt, R. 2000. Synteny: recent advances and future prospects. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 3:97102.
Schuurink, R. C., Sedee, N.J.A., and Wang, M. 1992. Dormancy of the barley grain is correlated with gibberellic acid responsiveness of the isolated aleurone layer. Plant Physiol. 100:18341839.
Shinomura, T. 1997. Phytochrome regulation of seed germination. J. Plant Res. 110:151161.
Shinomura, T., Nagatani, A., Hanzawa, H., Kubota, M., Watanabe, M., and Furuya, M. 1996. Action spectra for phytochrome A- and B-specific photoinduction of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:81298133.
Shropshire, W., Klein, W. H., and Elstad, V. B. 1961. Action spectra of photomorphogenic induction and photoinactivation of germination in Arabidopsis thaliana . Plant Cell Physiol. 2:6369.
Simpson, G. M. 1990. Seed Dormancy in Grasses. New York: Cambridge University Press. 297 p.
Song, W.-Y., Wang, G.-L., Chen, L.-L., et al. 1995. A receptor kinase-like protein encoded by the rice disease resistance gene, Xa21 . Science 270:18041806.
Sorrells, M. E. and Anderson, J. A. 1996. Quantitative trait loci associated with preharvest sprouting in white wheat. Pages 137142 In Walker-Simmons, M. K., ed. Proceedings of the 1995 Preharvest Sprouting Symp. in Japan. Osaka, Japan: Center for Academic Societies Japan.
Sreenivasulu, Y. and Amritphale, D. 2000. Changes in protein composition in cellular membranes of various parts of secondary dormant cucumber seeds treated with ethanol. Seed Sci. Res. 10:6170.
Steinbach, H. S., Benech-Arnold, R. L., and Sánchez, R. A. 1997. Hormonal regulation of dormancy in developing sorghum seeds. Plant Physiol. 113:149154.
Still, D. W. and Bradford, K. J. 1997. Endo-β-mannanase activity from individual tomato endosperm caps and radicle tips in relation to germination rates. Plant Physiol. 113:2129.
Still, D. W., Dahal, P., and Bradford, K. J. 1997. A single-seed assay for endo-β-mannanase activity from tomato endosperm and radicle tissues. Plant Physiol. 113:1320.
Symons, S. J., Simpson, G. M., and Adkins, S. W. 1987. Secondary dormancy in Avena fatua: Effect of temperature and after-ripening. Physiol. Plant. 70:419426.
Tanksley, S. D. 1993. Mapping polygenes. Annu. Rev. Genet. 27:205233.
Taylorson, R. B. 1989. Responses of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and witchgrass (Panicum capillare) seeds to anesthetics. Weed Sci. 37:9397.
Tilsner, H. R. and Upadhyaya, M. K. 1985. Induction and release of secondary seed dormancy in genetically pure lines of Avena fatua . Physiol. Plant. 64:377382.
Trewavas, A. J. 1988. Timing and memory processes in seed embryo dormancy—a conceptual paradigm for plant development questions. BioEssays 6:8793.
van Beckum, J.M.M., Libbenga, K. R., and Wang, M. 1993. Abscisic acid and gibberellic acid-regulated responses of embryo and aleurone layers isolated from dormant and nondormant barley grains. Physiol. Plant. 89:483489.
Vanden Born, W. H. 1971. Green foxtail: seed dormancy, germination and growth. Can. J. Plant Sci. 51:5359.
Van der Schaar, W., Alonso-Blanco, C., Léon-Kloosterziel, K. M., Jansen, R. C., Van Ooijen, J. W., and Koornneef, M. 1997. QTL analysis of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis using recombinant inbred lines and MQM mapping. Heredity 79:190200.
Vleeshouwers, L. M., Bouwmeester, H. J., and Karssen, C. M. 1995. Redefining seed dormancy: an attempt to integrate physiology and ecology. J. Ecol. 83:10311037.
Vos, P., Hogers, R., Bleeker, M., et al. 1996. AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res. 23:44074414.
Walker-Simmons, M. 1987. ABA levels and sensitivity in developing wheat embryos of sprouting resistant and susceptible cultivars. Plant Physiol. 84:6166.
Wan, J., Nakazaki, T., Kawaura, K., and Ikehashi, H. 1997. Identification of marker loci for seed dormancy in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Crop Sci. 37:17591763.
Wang, M., Bakhuizen, R., Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S., Van Zeijl, M. J., De Vries, M. A., Van Beckum, J. M., and Sinjorgo, K.M.C. 1994. The role of ABA and GA in barley grain dormancy: a comparative study between embryo and aleurone dormancy. Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 41:577584.
Wang, M., Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S., and Van Duijn, B. 1995. Modulation of germination of embryos isolated from dormant and nondormant barley grains by manipulation of endogenous abscisic acid. Planta 195:586592.
Wang, M., van der Meulen, R. M., Visser, K., Van Schaik, H.-P., Van Duijn, B., and de Boer, A. H. 1998. Effects of dormancy-breaking chemicals on ABA levels in barley grain embryos. Seed Sci. Res. 8:129137.
Warner, R. L., Kudrna, D. A., Spaeth, S. C., and Jones, S. S. 2000. Dormancy in white-grain mutants of Chinese spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Seed Sci. Res. 10:5160.
White, C. N., Proebsting, W. M., Heldden, P., and Rivin, C. J. 2000. Gibberellins and seed development in maize. I. Evidence that gibberellin/abscisic acid balance governs germination versus maturation pathways. Plant Physiol. 122:10811088.
Williams, J.G.K., Kubelik, A. R., Livak, J., Rafalski, J. A., and Tingey, S. V. 1990. DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res. 18:65316535.
Yamaguchi, S., Smith, M. W., Brown, R.G.S., Kamiya, Y., and Sun, T.- P. 1998. Phytochrome regulation and differential expression of gibberellin 3β-hydroxylase genes in germinating Arabidopsis seeds. Plant Cell 10:21152126.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed