Skip to main content

Seedling recruitment pattern and depth of recruitment of 10 weed species in minimum tillage and no-till seeding systems

  • Bhagirath S. Chauhan, Gurjeet Gill (a1) and Christopher Preston (a2)

Differences in periodicity and depth of weed seedling recruitment due to agronomic management practices, such as reduced tillage, have implications for weed competitive ability and management strategies. Periodicity and depth of seedling recruitment of 10 different weed species was measured in the field in 2004 and 2005. The seedling recruitment of rigid ryegrass, threehorn bedstraw, and wild radish seedlings was higher under minimum tillage than under no-till scenarios. In contrast, the seedling recruitment of Oriental mustard, annual sowthistle, squirreltail fescue, little mallow, and turnipweed was higher under the no-till system. The seedling recruitment of wild oat and African mustard was not influenced by the tillage system. The mean seedling recruitment depth of wild oat, rigid ryegrass, threehorn bedstraw, wild radish, and turnipweed was greater under minimum tillage than under the no-till system. These weeds are able to emerge from deeper in the soil profile. In contrast, the seedling recruitment depth under minimum-tillage and no-till systems was similar for African mustard, Oriental mustard, annual sowthistle, little mallow, and squirreltail fescue. These are all small-seeded species, which failed to emerge from deeper depths under either tillage system. In addition, all of these species except African mustard showed higher total seedling recruitment under the no-till system. Results of this study will facilitate weed-control timing decisions and provide validation data for weed seedling recruitment models.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author. School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Roseworthy Campus, South Australia, Australia 5371;
Hide All
Amor, R. L. and de Jong, R. W. 1983. Changing weed problems in cereal cropping in Victoria since 1920. J. Aust. Inst. Agric. Sci 49:139147.
Andersson, L. and Milberg, P. 1998. Variation in seed dormancy among mother plants, populations and years of seed collection. Seed Sci. Res 8:2938.
Baskin, J. M. and Baskin, C. C. 1989. Role of temperature in regulating timing of germination in soil seed reserves of Thlaspi arvense L. Weed Res 29:317326.
Blackshaw, R. E., Stobbe, E. H., Shaykewich, C. F., and Woodbury, W. 1981. Influence of soil temperature and soil moisture on green foxtail (Setaria viridis) establishment in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Sci 29:179184.
Buhler, D. D. 1991. Influence of tillage systems on weed population dynamics and control in the northern corn belt of the United States. Adv. Agron. (India) 1:5160.
Buhler, D. D. and Daniel, T. C. 1988. Influence of tillage systems on giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) density and control in corn (Zea mays). Weed Sci 36:642647.
Buhler, D. D., Hartzler, R. G., and Forcella, F. 1997. Implications of weed seed bank dynamics to weed management. Weed Sci 45:329336.
Buhler, D. D. and Mester, T. C. 1991. Effect of tillage systems on the emergence depth of giant (Setaria faberi) and green foxtail (Setaria viridis). Weed Sci 39:200203.
Cheam, A. H. 1986. Seed production and seed dormancy in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) and some possibilities for improving control. Weed Res 26:405413.
Chorbadjian, R. and Kogan, M. 2004. Dormancy and germination studies on mallow (Malva parviflora). Cien. Invest. Agric 31:129136.
Cousens, R. D., Baweja, R., Vaths, J., and Schofield, M. 1993. Comparative biology of cruciferous weeds: a preliminary study. Pages 376380 in Proceedings of the 10th Australian and 14th Asian-Pacific Weed Conference.
Cousens, R. D. and Moss, S. R. 1990. A model of the effects of cultivation on the vertical distribution of weed seeds within the soil. Weed Res 30:6170.
D'Emden, F. H. and Llewellyn, R. S. 2004. No-till adoption and cropping issues for Australian grain growers. In Fischer, T., ed. Fourth International Crop Science Conference. Brisbane, Australia.
Derksen, D. A., Lafond, G. P., Thomas, A. G., Loeppky, H. A., and Swanton, C. J. 1993. Impact of agronomic practices on weed communities: tillage systems. Weed Sci 41:409417.
Dillon, S. P. and Forcella, F. 1984. Germination, emergence, vegetative growth and flowering of two silvergrasses, Vulpia bromoides (L.) S.F. Gray and V. myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel. Aust. J. Bot 32:165175.
du Croix Sissons, M. J., Van Acker, R. C., Derksen, D. A., and Thomas, A. G. 2000. Depth of seedling recruitment of five weed species measured in situ in conventional- and zero-tillage fields. Weed Sci 48:327332.
Egley, G. H. 1986. Stimulation of weed seed germination in soil. Rev. Weed Sci 2:6789.
Fernandez-Quintanilla, C., Navarrete, L., Andujar, J. L. G., Fernandez, A., and Sanchez, M. J. 1986. Seedling recruitment and age-specific survivorship and reproduction in populations of Avena sterilis L. ssp. ludoviciana (Durieu) Nyman. J. Appl. Ecol 23:945955.
Forcella, F. 1984. Size structure of silvergrass (Vulpia spp.) populations in direct drilled wheat. Aust. Weeds 3:35.
Froud Williams, R. J. 1985. The biology of cleavers (Galium aparine). Asp. Appl. Biol 9:189195.
Froud Williams, R. J., Chancellor, R. J., and Drennan, D. S. H. 1981. Potential changes in weed floras associated with reduced-cultivation systems for cereal production in temperate regions. Weed Res 21:99109.
Genstat 5 Committee. 1993. Genstat 5, Release 3 Reference Manual. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
Harper, J. L. 1957. The ecological significance of dormancy and its importance in weed control. Pages 415420 in International Conference of Plant Protection. Vol. 1. Hamburg.
Mack, R. N. and Pyke, D. A. 1983. The demography of Bromus tectorum: variation in time and space. J. Ecol 71:6993.
Malik, N. and Vanden Born, W. H. 1987. Germination response of Galium spurium L. to light. Weed Res 27:251258.
Mekenian, M. R. and Willemsen, R. W. 1975. Germination characteristics of Raphanus raphanistrum L. Laboratory studies. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 102:243252.
Miller, S. D. and Nalewaja, J. D. 1985. Weed spectrum change and control in reduced-till wheat. ND Farm Res 43:1114.
Mohler, C. L. 1993. A model of the effects of tillage on emergence of weed seedlings. Ecol. Appl 3:5373.
Mohler, C. L. and Calloway, M. B. 1995. Effects of tillage and mulch on weed seed production and seed banks in sweet corn. J. Appl. Ecol 32:627639.
Mohler, C. L. and Galford, A. E. 1997. Weed seedling emergence and seed survival: separating the effects of seed position and soil modification by tillage. Weed Res 37:147155.
O'Donovan, J. T., de St. Remy, E. A., O'Sullivan, P. A., Dew, D. A., and Sharma, A. K. 1985. Influence of the relative time of emergence of wild oat (Avena fatua) on yield loss of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Sci 33:498503.
Ogg, A. G. Jr. and Dawson, J. H. 1984. Time of emergence of eight weed species. Weed Sci 32:327335.
Pareja, M. R., Staniforth, D. W., and Pareja, G. P. 1985. Distribution of weed seeds among soil structural units. Weed Sci 33:182189.
Piggin, C. M., Reeves, T. G., Brooke, H. D., and Code, G. R. 1978. Germination of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L). Pages 233240 in Parsons, W. T., Eady, F. C., and Richardson, R. E. eds. Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Australian Weed Science Societies. Melbourne, Australia: Council of the Australian Weed Science Society.
Pons, T. L. 1989. Breaking of seed dormancy by nitrate as a gap detection mechanism. Ann. Bot 63:139143.
Pratley, J. E. 1995. Long term investigations of the effect of tillage practices on crop production at Wagga Wagga, New South Wales. Aust. J. Exp. Agric 35:885892.
Reeves, T. G., Code, G. R., and Piggin, C. M. 1981. Seed production and longevity, seasonal emergence and phenology of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L). Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb 21:524530.
Roberts, H. A. 1963. Studies on the weeds of vegetable crops. III. Effects of different primary cultivations on the weed seeds in the soil. J. Ecol 51:8395.
Roberts, H. A. and Potter, M. E. 1980. Emergence patterns of weed seedlings in relation to cultivation and rainfall. Weed Res 20:377386.
Scopel, A. L., Ballare, C. L., and Radosevich, S. R. 1994. Photostimulation of seed germination during soil tillage. New Phytol 126:145152.
Sharma, M. P. and Vanden Born, W. H. 1978. The biology of Canadian weeds. 27. Avena fatua L. Can. J. Plant Sci 58:141157.
Staricka, J. A., Burford, P. M., Allmaras, R. R., and Nelson, W. W. 1990. Tracing the vertical distribution of simulated shattered seeds as related to tillage. Agron. J 82:11311134.
Taylor, G. B. 2005. Hardseededness in Mediterranean annual pasture legumes in Australia. Aust. J. Agric. Res 56:645661.
Wesson, G. and Wareing, P. F. 1969. The induction of light sensitivity in weed seeds by burial. J. Exp. Bot 20:414425.
Widderick, M., Walker, S., and Sindel, B. 2004. Better management of Sonchus oleraceus L. (common sowthistle) based on the weeds ecology. Pages 535537 in Sindel, B. and Johnson, S. B. eds. Proceedings of the 14th Australian Weeds Conference. Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia.
Woolley, J. T. and Stoller, E. 1978. Light penetration and light-induced seed germination in soil. Plant Physiol 61:597600.
Yenish, J. P., Doll, J. D., and Buhler, D. D. 1992. Effects of tillage on vertical distribution and viability of weed seed in soil. Weed Sci 40:429433.
Yenish, J. P., Fry, T. A., Durgan, B. R., and Wyse, D. L. 1996. Tillage effects on seed distribution and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) establishment. Weed Sci 44:815820.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 5 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 89 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 14th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.