Skip to main content

Shikimate Accumulation in Sunflower, Wheat, and Proso Millet after Glyphosate Application

  • W. Brien Henry (a1), Dale L. Shaner (a2) and Mark S. West (a3)

Experiments were conducted to examine the utility of a spectrophometric leaf disc assay for detecting shikimate accumulation after glyphosate application in sunflower, proso millet, and wheat. The assay was conducted on both greenhouse- and field-grown plants. Glyphosate was applied at five rates ranging from 840 to 53 g ae ha−1. Shikimate accumulation data were generated at 1, 4, 7, and 14 d after application (DAA). Sunflower accumulated shikimate more rapidly and at lower glyphosate rates than the other two species. At 14 DAA, glyphosate at the two highest rates remained detectable in all three species. Plants receiving lower glyphosate doses (210, 105, and 53 g ae ha−1) had begun to grow out of the injury, or at least the shikimate levels in the plants were no longer significantly different than that present in the untreated controls. This spectrophotometric assay is both rapid and simple, with respect to other means of detecting shikimate, and it can be used to detect glyphosate drift. For it to be used by crop managers, samples from potentially drift-affected crops should be taken as soon as possible after the suspected drift event or immediately after the appearance of glyphosate injury.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author's E-mail:
Hide All
Al-Khatib K. and Peterson D. 1999. Soybean (Glycine max) response to simulated drift from selected sulfonylurea herbicides, dicamba, glyphosate, and glufosinate. Weed Technol. 13:264270.
Amrhein N., Deus B., Gehrke P., and Steinrucken H. C. 1980. The site of inhibition of the shikimate pathway by glyphosate II. Interference of glyphosate with chorismate formation in vivo and in vitro. Plant Physiol. 66:830834.
Anonymous , 1999. Spray Drift of Pesticides. December. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Pub. 735F99024.
Auch D. E. and Arnold W. E. 1978. Dicamba use and injury on soybean (Glycine max) in South Dakota. Weed Sci. 26:471475.
Cranmer J. R. and Linscott D. L. 1990. Droplet makeup and the effect of phytotoxicity of glyphosate in velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Sci. 38:406410.
Cromartie T. H. and Polge N. D. 2000. An improved assay for shikimic acid and its use as a monitor for the activity of sulfosate. Proc. Weed Sci. Soc. Am. 40:291.
Drapala P. 2001. Bureau of Plant Industry Announces Supplemental Labeling. Jackson, MS: Bureau of Plant Industry, Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce Lester Spell Jr., D.V.M., Commissioner.
Henry W. B., Koger C. H., and Shaner D. L. 2005. Accumulation of shikimate in corn and soybean exposed to various rates of glyphosate. Crop Manag. doi 1094/CM-2005-1123-01-RS.
Hoagland D. R. and Arnon D. I. 1950. The Water-Culture for Growing Plants without Soil. Berkeley, CA: California Agricultural Experiment Station Circ. 347 (Rev.).
James C. and Krattiger A. F. 1996. Global Review of the Field Testing and Commercializaton of Transgenic Plants (1986 to 1995: The First Decade of Crop Biotechnology). Ithaca, NY ISAA Briefs 1. 31.
Koger C. H., Shaner D. L., Krutz L. J., Walker T. W., Buehring N., Henry W. B., Thomas W., and Wilcut J. 2005. Rice (Oryza sativa) response to drift rates of glyphosate. Pestic. Manag. Sci. 61:11611167.
Miller P. C. H. 1993. Spray drift and its measurement. Pages 101122. in Mathews G.A. and Hislop E.C. eds. Application Technology for Crop Protection. Wallingford, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International.
Nordby A. and Skuterud R. 1975. The effects of boom height, working pressure and wind speed on spray drift. Weed Res. 14:385395.
Pline-Srnic W. 2005. Technical performance of some commercial glyphosate-resistant crops. Pestic. Manag. Sci. 61:225234.
Pringnitz B. 1999. Pesticide Drift: To Spray or Not To Spray?. Ames, IA Iowa State University Extension Pesticide Applicator Education Program PCIC-99d.
Reddy K. N. and Koger C. H. 2004. Herbicide resistant crops and weed management. Pages 549580. in Singh H.P. ed. Handbook of Sustainable Weed Management. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press Inc.
Rowland C. D. 2000. Crop Tolerance to Non-target and Labeled Herbicide Applications. . Mississippi State University, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Mississippi State, MS.
Shaner D. 2000. The impact of glyphosate-tolerant crops on the use of other herbicides and on resistance management. Pestic. Sci. 56:320326.
Shaner D. L., Nadler-Hassar T., Henry W. B., and Koger C. H. III. 2005. A rapid in vivo EPSPS assay with excised leaf discs. Weed Sci. 53:769774.
Singh B. J. and Shaner D. L. 1998. Rapid determination of glyphosate injury to plants and identification of glyphosate-resistant plants. Weed Technol. 12:527530.
Steinrucken H. C. and Amrhein N. 1980. The herbicide glyphosate is a potent inhibitor of 5-enolylpyruvyl-shikimic acid-3-phosphate. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 94:12071212.
USDA-NASS 2004. Acreage., Accessed November 2, 2004.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 8 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 72 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 22nd January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.