Skip to main content

Threelobe Morningglory (Ipomoea triloba) Germination and Response to Herbicides

  • Bhagirath Singh Chauhan (a1) and Seth Bernard Abugho (a1)

Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to determine the effects of scarification; alternating day/night temperatures; light, salt, and water stress; seed burial depth; and rice residue on seed germination and seedling emergence of threelobe morningglory, and to evaluate the response of this weed to commonly available POST herbicides in the Philippines. Germination was stimulated by seed scarification, suggesting that inhibition of germination in this species is mainly due to the hard seed coat. Germination of the scarified seeds was not influenced by the tested temperatures (alternating day/night temperatures of 25/15, 30/20, and 35/25 C) and light. The concentrations of sodium chloride, ranging from 0 to 250 mM, did not influence germination of the scarified seeds of threelobe morningglory. The osmotic potential required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination was −0.35 MPa, although some seeds germinated at −0.6 MPa. Seedling emergence was greatest for the seeds placed on the soil surface (96%), and emergence declined with increased burial depth in soil. The burial depth required for 50% inhibition of maximum emergence was 2.8 cm. No seedlings emerged from a burial depth of 6 cm or greater. Residues of up to 6 Mg ha−1 on the soil surface did not influence seedling emergence of threelobe morningglory. The herbicide 2,4-D at 400 g ai ha−1 provided excellent control of threelobe morningglory when applied at the four-leaf (100%) and six-leaf (97%) stages. However, at the eight-leaf stage, percent control was reduced to 67% and herbicide rate had to be increased twofold to achieve 95% control. The information gained from this study could contribute to developing components of integrated weed management strategies for threelobe morningglory. Soil inversion by tillage to bury weed seeds below their maximum depth of emergence and early application of an effective POST herbicide could serve as important tools for managing threelobe morningglory.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author's E-mail:
Hide All
Baskin, C. C. and Baskin, J. M. 1998. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. San Diego, CA Academic. 666 p.
Benvenuti, S. 2003. Soil texture involvement in germination and emergence of buried weed seeds. Agron. J. 95:191198.
Bolfrey-Arku, G. E-K., Chauhan, B. S., and Johnson, D. E. 2011. Seed germination ecology of itchgrass (Rottboellia cochinchinensis). Weed Sci. 59:182187.
Chauhan, B. S. 2011. Crowfootgrass (Dactyloctenium aegyptium) germination and response to herbicides in the Philippines. Weed Sci. 59:512516.
Chauhan, B. S. and Johnson, D. E. 2008a. Influence of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of eclipta (Eclipta prostrata) in a tropical environment. Weed Sci. 56:383388.
Chauhan, B. S. and Johnson, D. E. 2008b. Seed germination and seedling emergence of giant sensitiveplant (Mimosa invisa). Weed Sci. 56:244248.
Chauhan, B. S. and Johnson, D. E. 2010. The role of seed ecology in improving weed management strategies in the tropics. Adv. Agron. 105:221262.
Chauhan, B. S., Gill, G., and Preston, C. 2006a. African mustard (Brassica tournefortii) germination in southern Australia. Weed Sci. 54:891897.
Chauhan, B. S., Gill, G., and Preston, C. 2006b. Influence of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum). Weed Sci. 54:10041012.
Chauhan, B. S., Gill, G., and Preston, C. 2006c. Factors affecting seed germination of little mallow (Malva parviflora) in southern Australia. Weed Sci. 54:10451050.
Chauhan, B. S., Gill, G., and Preston, C. 2006d. Tillage system effects on weed ecology, herbicide activity and persistence: a review. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 46:15571570.
Culpepper, A. S., Gimenez, A. E., York, A. C., Batts, R. B., and Wilcut, J. W. 2001. Morningglory (Ipomoea spp.) and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) control with glyphosate and 2,4-DB mixtures in glyphosate-resistant soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol. 15:5661.
Hardcastle, W. S. 1978a. The influence of temperature and acid scarification duration on Ipomoea obscura Hassk. seed germination. Weed Res. 18:8991.
Hardcastle, W. S. 1978b. Influence of temperature and acid scarification duration on scarlet morningglory (Ipomoea coccinea) seed germination. Weed Sci. 26:261263.
Holm, L., Doll, J., Holm, E., Pancho, J., and Herberger, J. 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York John Wiley and Sons. 1129 p.
Horax, M. J. and Wax, L. M. 1991. Germination and seedling development of bigroot morningglory (Ipomoea pandurata). Weed Sci. 39:390396.
Howe, O. W. III. and Oliver, L. R. 1987. Influence of soybean (Glycine max) row spacing on pitted morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa) interference. Weed Sci. 35:185193.
Jordan, D. L., York, A. C., Griffin, J. L., Clay, P. A., Vidrine, P. R., and Reynolds, D. B. 1997. Influence of application variables on efficacy of glyphosate. Weed Technol. 11:354362.
Lee, J., Chauhan, B. S., and Johnson, D. E. 2011. Germination of fresh horse purslane (Trianthema portulacastrum) seeds in response to different environmental factors. Weed Sci. 59:495499.
Michel, B. E. 1983. Evaluation of the water potentials of solutions of polyethylene glycol 8000 both in the absence and presence of other solutes. Plant Physiol. 72:6670.
Moody, K. 1989. Weeds Reported in Rice in South and Southeast Asia. Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines International Rice Research Institute. 442 p.
Stoller, E. W., Harrison, S. K., Wax, L. M., Regnier, E. E., and Nafziger, E. D. 1987. Weed interference in soybeans (Glycine max). Rev. Weed Sci. 3:155181.
Suwanketnikom, R. and Julakasewee, A. 2004. Hard seededness and germination of small white flower morningglory. Kasetsart J. 38:425433.
Teasdale, J. R. and Mohler, C. L. 1993. Light transmittance, soil temperature, and soil moisture under residue of hairy vetch and rye. Agron. J. 85:673680.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed