Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

A waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) biotype with multiple resistance across three herbicide sites of action

  • William L. Patzoldt (a1), Patrick J. Tranel (a1) and Aaron G. Hager

A population of waterhemp was identified in Adams County, Illinois, that survived treatment of several acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors and a postemergence (POST) application of lactofen, a protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)–inhibiting herbicide. Greenhouse studies were conducted to quantify the responses of this waterhemp population, designated ACR, to multiple PPO inhibitors and various other herbicides with different sites of action. Resistance ratios were obtained by comparing herbicide dose–response curves between the ACR population and a herbicide-susceptible waterhemp population. The ACR population was resistant to lactofen (23-fold) and to five other PPO-inhibiting herbicides (ranging from 2.2- to 6.2-fold). Furthermore, the ACR waterhemp population was 17,000-fold and 18,000-fold resistant to imazamox and thifensulfuron, respectively, two ALS-inhibiting herbicides. In response to atrazine, a Photosystem II inhibitor, the ACR population was 38-fold resistant. Plants within the ACR waterhemp population survived treatment of a herbicide mixture containing lactofen at 175 g ai ha−1, imazamox at 44 g ae ha−1, and atrazine at 1,000 g ai ha−1. Thus, individual plants—not just the population as a whole—displayed multiple herbicide resistance. The ACR population was not resistant to glyphosate or paraquat. This is the first reported weed population from the United States with resistances to herbicides inhibiting three unique sites of action. Furthermore, this research identifies a significant reduction in the number of POST herbicide options available for waterhemp control in soybean production.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author. Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801;
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

I. Cummins , D. J. Cole , and R. Edwards 1999. A role for glutathione transferases functioning as glutathione peroxidases in resistance to multiple herbicides in black-grass. Plant J 18:285292.

A. G. Hager , L. M. Wax , G. A. Bollero , and F. W. Simmons 2002b. Common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer) management with soil-applied herbicides in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr). Crop Prot 21:277283.

I. Heap 1997. The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds worldwide. Pestic. Sci 51:235243.

F. D. Hess 2000. Light-dependent herbicides: an overview. Weed Sci 48:160170.

W. L. Patzoldt , B. S. Dixon , and P. J. Tranel 2003. Triazine resistance in Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq) Sauer that is not site-of-action mediated. Pest Manag. Sci 59:11341142.

W. L. Patzoldt , P. J. Tranel , and A. G. Hager 2002. Variable herbicide responses among Illinois waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis and A. tuberculatus) populations. Crop Prot 21:707712.

D. B. Pratt and L. G. Clark 2001. Amaranthus rudis and A. tuberculatus— one species or two? J. Torrey Bot. Soc 128:282296.

D. E. Shoup , K. Al-Khatib , and D. E. Peterson 2003. Common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicides. Weed Sci 51:145150.

C. L. Sprague , E. W. Stoller , and L. M. Wax 1997. Response of an acetolactate synthase (ALS)-resistant biotype of Amaranthus rudis to selected ALS-inhibiting and alternative herbicides. Weed Res 37:93101.

M. J. Walsh , S. B. Powles , B. R. Beard , B. T. Parkin , and S. A. Porter 2004. Multiple-herbicide resistance across four modes of action in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum). Weed Sci 52:813.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 2 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 43 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 24th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.