Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Weed suppression and crop production in annual intercrops

  • Anthony Szumigalski (a1) and Rene Van Acker
Abstract

Intercrops have been associated with greater yields and pest and weed control compared with sole crops. In this field experiment, we investigated agronomic performance and weed suppression by three crops—spring wheat (Triticum aestivum), canola (Brassica napus), and field pea (Pisum sativum)—alone and in all possible combinations at two sites in Manitoba, Canada, from 2001 to 2003. Crop treatments were planted at the same total density (144 seeds m−2). The effects of the different crop combinations on weed recruitment and biomass and crop production were studied in both the presence and absence of in-crop herbicides. The agronomic performance of intercrop and sole crop treatments varied greatly across site-years. Some intercrop treatments (e.g., wheat–canola and wheat–canola–pea) tended to produce greater weed suppression compared with sole component crops, indicating synergism among crops within intercrops with regard to weed suppression. Intercrop treatments resulted in land-equivalent ratios (LER) > 1 (i.e., overyielding) in both the presence and absence of in-crop herbicides. In the presence of herbicides, canola–pea was the most consistent intercrop treatment in terms of overyielding for grain (mean LER = 1.22), whereas in the absence of herbicides, wheat–canola–pea produced the most consistent overyielding frequency for dry matter production (mean LER = 1.28). In the presence of herbicides, overall grain yield stability was greatest for the wheat–canola–pea intercrop treatment. Results indicate that annual intercrops can enhance both weed suppression and crop production compared with sole crops.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author. Department of Plant Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada; vanacke0@ms.umanitoba.ca
References
Hide All
Altieri M. A. and Liebman M. 1986. Insect, weed and plant disease management in multiple cropping systems. Pages 183218 in Francis C. A. ed. Multiple Cropping Systems. New York: Macmillan.
Anonymous. 1988. Field Crop Production Guide for Manitoba 1988–90. Carman, MB, Canada: Manitoba Agriculture. 90 p.
Bantilan R. T., Palada M. C., and Harwood R. K. 1974. Integrated weed management: I. Key factors affecting crop–weed balance. Philipp. Weed Sci. Bull 1:1436.
Berkenkamp B. and Meeres J. 1987. Mixtures of annual crops for forage in central Alberta. Can. J. Plant Sci 67:175183.
Boyd N. and Van Acker R. 2004. Seed and microsite limitations to emergence of four annual weed species. Weed Sci 52:571577.
Bulson H. A. J., Snaydon R. W., and Stopes C. E. 1997. Effects of plant density on intercropped wheat and field beans in an organic farming system. J. Agric. Sci 128:5971.
Carr P. M., Gardner J. C., Schatz B. G., Zwinger S. W., and Guldan S. J. 1995. Grain-yield and weed biomass of a wheat–lentil intercrop. Agron. J 87:574579.
Clesceri L. S., Greenberg A. E., and Eaton A. D. 1998. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association. 1220 p.
Cowell L. E., Bremer E., and Vankessel C. 1989. Yield and N-2 fixation of pea and lentil as affected by intercropping and N application. Can. J. Soil Sci 69:243251.
Federer W. T. 1999. Statistical Design and Analysis for Intercropping Experiments. Volume 2. Three or More Crops. New York: Springer. 262 p.
Francis C. A. 1986. Introduction: distribution and importance of multiple cropping. Pages 119 in Francis C. A. ed. Multiple Cropping Systems. New York: Macmillan.
Francis C. A. 1989. Biological efficiencies in multiple-cropping systems. Adv. Agron 42:142.
Gliessman S. R. 1986. Plant interactions in multiple cropping systems. Pages 8295 in Francis C. A. ed. Multiple Cropping Systems. New York: Macmillan.
Gomez K. A. and Gomez A. A. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd ed. Toronto: J. Wiley. 680 p.
Grundy A. C., Mead A., Burston S., and Overs T. 2004. Seed production of Chenopodium album in competition with field vegetables. Weed Res 44:271281.
Hauggaard-Nielsen H. and Jensen E. S. 2001. Evaluating pea and barley cultivars for complementarity in intercropping at different levels of soil N availability. Field Crops Res 72:185196.
Izaurralde R. C., Juma N. G., and Mcgill W. B. 1990. Plant and nitrogen yield of barley–field pea intercrop in cryoboreal-subhumid central Alberta. Agron. J 82:295301.
Knezevic S. Z., Evans S. P., Blankenship E. E., Van Acker R. C., and Lindquist J. L. 2002. Critical period for weed control: the concept and data analysis. Weed Sci 50:773786.
Langat P. K. 1992. Effect of Intercropping Pea with Canola or Yellow Mustard. M.Sc. dissertation. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. 89 p.
Liebman M. and Dyck E. 1993. Crop-rotation and intercropping strategies for weed management. Ecol. Appl 3:92122.
Littell R. C., Milliken G. A., Stroup W. W., and Wolfinger R. D. 1996. SAS System for Mixed Models. Cary, NC: Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. 633 p.
Lotz L. A. P., Christensen S., and Cloutier D. et al. 1996. Prediction of the competitive effects of weeds on crop yields based on the relative leaf area of weeds. Weed Res 36:93101.
McKeague J. A. 1976. Manual on Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Prepared for Subcommittee of Canada Soil Survey Committee on Methods of Analysis. Ottawa, Canada: Soil Research Institute.
Mohler C. L. and Liebman M. 1987. Weed productivity and composition in sole crops and intercrops of barley and field pea. J. Appl. Ecol 24:685699.
Nazarko O. M., Van Acker R. C., and Entz M. H. 2005. Strategies and tactics for herbicide use reduction in field crops in Canada: a review. Can. J. Plant Sci 85:457479.
Oyejola B. A. and Mead R. 1982. Statistical assessment of different ways of calculating land equivalent ratios (LER). Exp. Agric 18:125138.
Soria J., Bazan R., Pinchinat A. M., Paez G., Mateo N., Moreno R., Fargas J., and Forsythe W. 1975. Investigacion sobre sistemas de produccion agricola para el pequeno agricultor del tropico. Turriualba 25:283293.
Staver C. 1989. Shortened bush fallow rotations with relay-cropped Inga edulis and Desmodium ovalifolium in wet central amazonian Peru. Agroforest. Syst 8:173196.
Subedi K. D. 1997. Wheat intercropped with tori (Brassica campestris var. toria) and pea (Pisum sativum) in the subsistence farming system of the Nepalese hills. J. Agric. Sci 128:283289.
Swanton C. J. and Weise S. F. 1991. Integrated weed management—the rationale and approach. Weed Technol 5:657663.
Szumigalski A. R. 2005. Studies of the Functionality of Annual Crop and Weed Diversity in Polyculture Cropping Systems. Ph.D. dissertation. The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. 218 p.
Unamma R. P. A., Ene L. S. O., Odurukwe S. O., and Enyinnia T. 1986. Integrated weed management for cassava intercropped with maize. Weed Res 26:917.
Vandermeer J. H. 1989. The Ecology of Intercropping. New York: Cambridge University Press. 237 p.
Walton P. D. 1975. Annual forages seeding rates and mixtures for central Alberta. Can. J. Plant Sci 55:987993.
Waterer J. G., Vessey J. K., Stobbe E. H., and Soper R. J. 1994. Yield and symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in a pea mustard intercrop as influenced by N fertilizer addition. Soil Biol. Biochem 26:447453.
Watson P. 2004. The Contribution of Attributes in the Seed, Seedling, and Mature Plant Phases to Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Cultivar Competitiveness Against Weeds. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. 242 p.
Willey R. W. 1979. Intercropping—its importance and research needs. Part 1. Competition and yield advantages. Field Crop Abst 32:110.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 4 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 91 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 20th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.