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Effect of Fall-Applied Residual Herbicides on Rice Growth and Yield

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 August 2018

Benjamin H. Lawrence
Affiliation:
Research Associate II, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Delta Research and Extension Center, Stoneville, MS, USA
Jason A. Bond
Affiliation:
Research/Extension Professor, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Delta Research and Extension Center, Stoneville, MS, USA
Henry M. Edwards
Affiliation:
Research Associate, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Delta Research and Extension Center, Stoneville, MS, USA
Bobby R. Golden
Affiliation:
Extension/Research Professor, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Delta Research and Extension Center, Stoneville, MS, USA
Garret B. Montgomery
Affiliation:
Former Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Delta Research and Extension Center, Stoneville, MS, USA
Thomas W. Eubank III
Affiliation:
Former Assistant Extension/Research Professor, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Delta Research and Extension Center, Stoneville, MS, USA
Timothy W. Walker
Affiliation:
Former Research/Extension Professor, Mississippi State University, Delta Research and Extension Center, Stoneville, MS, USA
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Italian ryegrass is one of the most troublesome weeds in Mississippi row crop production. Fall-applied residual herbicide applications are recommended for control of GR Italian ryegrass. However, carryover of residual herbicides applied in fields for rice production can have a negative impact on rice performance. Field studies were conducted in Stoneville, MS, to determine the effects of fall-applied residual herbicides on rice growth and yield. Herbicide treatments included suggested use rates (1×) of clomazone at 840 g ai ha–1, pyroxasulfone 170 g ai ha–1, S-metolachlor 1,420 g ai ha–1, and trifluralin 1,680 g ai ha–1, and two times (2×) the suggested use rates in the fall before rice seeding. Pooled across application rate, pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin injured rice to an extent 28% to 36% greater than clomazone 14 d after emergence (DAE). Rice seedling density and height 14 DAE and rice maturity were negatively affected by all fall-applied herbicides except clomazone. Applications at 2× rates reduced rough rice yields in plots treated with pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin compared with clomazone. Pyroxasulfone applied at the 2× rate reduced rough rice yield 22% compared with the 1× rate. Rough rice yield was 90% or greater of the nontreated control in plots treated with either rate of S-metolachlor, and these were comparable with rough rice yields from plots treated with both rates of trifluralin and the 1× rate of pyroxasulfone. Early-season injury and reductions in seedling density and height 14 DAE, would preclude even 1× applications of pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin from being viable options for residual herbicide treatments targeting GR Italian ryegrass in the fall before rice seeding. Of the herbicides evaluated, only clomazone should be utilized as a fall-applied residual herbicide treatment targeting GR Italian ryegrass before seeding rice.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© Weed Science Society of America, 2018 

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