Hostname: page-component-7dc689bd49-q9qq5 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-21T06:31:23.004Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Management of Acetolactate Synthase (ALS)–Resistant Common Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) in Soybean

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Lance A. Schmidt
Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701
Ronald E. Talbert*
Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701
Marilyn McClelland
Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701
Corresponding author's E-mail:


A fixed-plot management study for control of acetolactate synthase (ALS)–resistant common cocklebur in soybean was initiated in 1994 at Fayetteville, AR. Three susceptible and three imazaquin-resistant common cocklebur plants were transplanted into the field, and seed (burs) were distributed throughout the plots in the fall of 1994. Herbicide treatments included imazaquin, chlorimuron, and chlorimuron plus metribuzin applied each year from 1995 through 1999 and herbicide rotations containing ALS inhibitors and herbicides with alternative modes of action. Effectiveness of management systems and the dynamics of the development of common cocklebur resistance, including development of resistance to imazaquin and chlorimuron, were evaluated. Imazaquin controlled susceptible common cocklebur populations in 1995 but not the resistant population, resulting in significant soybean yield reduction. By the end of the 1996 season, the resistant biotype dominated imazaquin plots, and a high level of cross-resistance to chlorimuron was observed in the population. Resistant populations were reduced by non-ALS herbicide programs of sulfentrazone plus clomazone applied preemergence (PRE), metribuzin plus clomazone applied PRE followed by bentazon applied postemergence (POST), and transgenic herbicide programs of glyphosate and glufosinate applied POST. Rotating ALS inhibitors with non–ALS-inhibiting heribicides may slow the development of resistance, but resistant individuals may eventually dominate the population.

Copyright © Weed Science Society of America 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Current address: 907 Amy Road, Pocahontas, AR 72455


Literature Cited

Anderson, J. M. and McWhorter, C. G. 1976. The economics of common cocklebur control in soybean production. Weed Sci. 24:397400.Google Scholar
Baldwin, F. L., Boyd, J. W., and Smith, K. L. 2000. Recommended Chemicals for Weed and Brush Control. Cooperative Extension Service Publication. MP-44. Pp. 3347.Google Scholar
Barrentine, W. L. 1974. Common cocklebur competition in soybean. Weed Sci. 22:600603.Google Scholar
Barrentine, W. L. 1989. Minimum effective rate of chlorimuron and imazaquin applied to common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium). Weed Technol. 3:126130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barrentine, W. L. and Kendig, J. A. 1995. Identification and characterization of common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) biotypes resistant to ALS/AHAS inhibiting herbicides. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc 48:173.Google Scholar
Barrentine, W. L. and Oliver, L. R. 1977. Competition, Threshold Levels, and Control of Common Cocklebur in Soybeans. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station and Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 83.Google Scholar
Bloomberg, J. R., Kirkpatrick, B. L., and Wax, L. M. 1982. Competition of common cocklebur (Xanthium pensylvanicum) with soybean (Glycine max). Weed Sci. 30:507513.Google Scholar
Christopher, J. T., Powles, S. B., and Holtum, J. A. 1992. Resistance to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides in annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) involves at least two mechanisms. Plant Physiol 100:19091913.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crow, I. F. 1986. Basic Concepts in Population Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics. New York: W. H. Freeman. 273 p.Google Scholar
Dowler, C. C. 1998. Weed survey—southern states, broadleaf crops subsection. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc 51:299313.Google Scholar
Fehr, W. R. and Caviness, C. E. 1977. Stages of Soybean Development. Iowa State University Experiment Station Special Rep. 80. 11 p.Google Scholar
Ferguson, G. M., Hamill, A. S., and Tardif, F. J. 2001. ALS inhibitor resistance in populations of Powell amaranth and redroot pigweed. Weed Sci. 49:448453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friesen, L. F., Morrison, I. N., Rashid, A., and Devine, M. D. 1993. Response of a chlorsulfuron-resistant biotype of Kochia scoparia to sulfonylurea and alternative herbicides. Weed Sci. 41:100106.Google Scholar
Gerwick, B. C., Mireles, L. C., and Eilers, R. J. 1993. Rapid diagnosis of ALS/AHAS-resistant weeds. Weed Technol. 7:519524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gressel, J. and Segel, L. A. 1990. Modeling the effectiveness of herbicide rotations and mixtures as strategies to delay or preclude resistance. Weed Technol. 4:186198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffin, J. L., Reynolds, D. B., Vidrine, P. R., and Saxton, A. M. 1992. Common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) control with reduced rates of soil and foliar applied imazaquin. Weed Technol. 6:847851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, L. M. and Devine, M. 1990. Cross resistance of a chlorsulfuron resistant biotype of Stellaria media to a triazolopyrimidine herbicide. Plant Physiol 93:962966.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heap, I. 2003. International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. Web page: Accessed: March 2, 2003.Google Scholar
Horak, M. J. and Peterson, D. E. 1995. Biotypes of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) are resistant to imazethapyr and thifensulfuron. Weed Technol. 9:192195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jasieniuk, M. A., Burle-Babel, A. L., and Morrison, I. N. 1996. The evolution and genetics of herbicide resistance in weeds. Weed Sci. 44:176193.Google Scholar
LeBaron, H. M. and McFarland, J. 1990. Herbicide resistance in weeds and crops: an overview and prognosis. in Green, M. B., LeBaron, H. M., and Moberg, W. K., eds. Managing Resistance to Agrochemicals: From Fundamental Research to Practical Strategies. American Chemical Company Symposium Series 421. Washington, DC: American Chemical Company. Pp. 336352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lovell, S. T., Wax, L. M., Simpson, D. M., and McGlamery, M. 1996. Using the in vivo acetolactase synthase (ALS) assay for identifying herbicide-resistant weeds. Weed Technol. 10:936942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mallory-Smith, C. A., Thill, D. C., Dial, M. J., and Zemetra, R. S. 1990. Inheritance of sulfonylurea herbicide resistance in Lactura spp. Weed Technol. 4:787790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maxwell, B. D., Rough, M. L., and Radosevich, S. T. 1990. Predicting the evolution and dynamics of herbicide resistance in weed populations. Weed Technol. 4:213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ohmes, G. A. Jr. and Kendig, J. A. 1999. Inheritance of an ALS-cross-resistant common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) biotype. Weed Technol. 13:100103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parochetti, J. V., Schnappinger, M. G., Ryan, G. F., and Collins, H. A. 1982. Practical significance and means of control of herbicide-resistant weeds. in LeBaron, H. M. and Gressel, J. S., eds. Herbicide Resistance in Plants. New York: J. Wiley. Pp. 309323.Google Scholar
Primiani, M. M., Cotterman, J. C., and Saari, L. L. 1990. Resistance of kochia (Kochia scoparia) to sulfonylureas and imidazolinone herbicides. Weed Technol. 4:169172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Risley, M. A. and Oliver, L. R. 1991. Efficacy of imazaquin on various weed species. Weed Sci. 39:243250.Google Scholar
Rough, M. L., Radosevich, S. R., and Maxwell, B. D. 1990. Future outlook for herbicide-resistance research. Weed Technol. 4:208214.Google Scholar
Saari, L. L., Cotterman, J. C., and Thill, D. C. 1994. Resistance to acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicides. in Powles, S. B. and Holtum, J.A.M., eds. Herbicide Resistance in Plants: Biology and Biochemistry. Chelsea, MI: Lewis. Pp. 83139.Google Scholar
Saxena, P. R. and King, J. 1988. Herbicide resistance in Datura innoxia. Cross resistance of sulfonylurea resistant cell lines to imidazolinones. Plant Physiol 86:863867.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmidt, L. A. 2000. Management of Acetolactate Synthase-Resistant and Susceptible Common Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium). M.S. thesis. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR. Pp. 115.Google Scholar
Schmidt, L. A. and Talbert, R. E. 1997. Management systems for control of ALS-resistant common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium). Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc 49:24.Google Scholar
Schmitzer, P. R., Eilers, R. J., and Cseke, C. 1993. Lack of cross-resistance of imazaquin-resistant Xanthium strumarium acetolactate synthase to flumetsulam and chlorimuron. Plant Physiol 103:281283.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sprague, C. L., Stoller, E. W., and Wax, L. M. 1997. Response of an acetolactate (ALS)-resistant biotype of Amaranthus rudis to selected ALS-inhibiting and alternative herbicides. Weed Res 37:93101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Subramanian, M. V., Hung, H. Y., Dias, J. M., Miner, V. M., Butler, J. H., and Jachetta, J. J. 1990. Properties of mutant acetolactate synthesis resistant to triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilide. Plant Physiol 94:239244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tierney, M. J. 1996. Confirmation, Characterization, and Control of Common Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) Resistance to ALS Inhibitors. M.S. thesis. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR. 114 p.Google Scholar
Valverde, B. E., Radosevich, S. R., and Appleby, A. P. 1988. Growth and competitive ability of dinitroaniline-herbicide resistant and susceptible goosegrass (Eleusine indica). Proc. West. Weed Sci. Soc 41:81.Google Scholar
Wesley, R. A., Shaw, D. R., and Barrentine, W. L. 1989. Application timing of metribuzin, chlorimuron, and imazaquin for common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) control. Weed Technol. 3:364368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar