Skip to main content

Glyphosate-Resistant Waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) Control and Economic Returns with Herbicide Programs in Soybean

  • Travis R. Legleiter (a1), Kevin W. Bradley (a1) and Raymond E. Massey (a2)

Field experiments were conducted in Platte County, Missouri, during 2006 and 2007 to evaluate PRE, POST, and PRE followed by (fb) POST herbicide programs for the control of glyphosate-resistant waterhemp in soybean. All PRE fb POST treatments resulted in at least 66 and 70% control of glyphosate-resistant waterhemp in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Control of glyphosate-resistant waterhemp was less than 23% with lactofen and acifluorfen in 2006, but at least 64% in 2007. Variability in control likely resulted from differences in trial locations and a population of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)–resistant waterhemp at the Platte County site in 2006 compared with 2007. In both years, glyphosate resulted in less than 23% control of glyphosate-resistant waterhemp and provided the least control of all herbicide programs. Programs containing PRE herbicides resulted in waterhemp densities of less than 5 plants/m2, whereas the POST glyphosate treatment resulted in 38 to 70 plants/m2. Waterhemp seed production was reduced at least 78% in all PRE fb POST programs, from 55 to 71% in POST programs containing lactofen and acifluorfen and by only 21% in the POST glyphosate treatment. Soybean yields corresponded to the level of waterhemp control achieved in both years, with the lowest yields resulting from programs that provided poorest waterhemp control. PRE applications of S-metolachlor plus metribuzin provided one of the highest net incomes in both years and resulted in $271 to $340/ha greater net income than the glyphosate-only treatment. Collectively, the results from these experiments illustrate the effectiveness of PRE herbicides for the control of glyphosate-resistant waterhemp in glyphosate-resistant soybean and the inconsistency of PPO-inhibiting herbicides or PPO-inhibiting herbicide combinations for the control of waterhemp populations with multiple resistance to glyphosate and PPO-inhibiting herbicides.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author's E-mail:
Hide All
Bensch, C. N., Horak, M. J., and Peterson, D. 2003. Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), Palmer amaranth (A. palmeri), and common waterhemp (A. rudis) in soybean. Weed Sci 51:3743.
Bradley, K. W., Legleiter, T., Hunter, L., Nichols, C., and Foresman, C. 2007. The status of glyphosate-resistant waterhemp in Missouri. Proc. N. Cent. Weed Sci. Soc 62:192. [Abstract].
Bradley, K. W., Li, J., and Monnig, N. H. 2006. Greenhouse investigations of suspected glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp populations form Missouri. Weed Sci. Soc. Am. Abstr. no. 206. [CD-ROM computer file]. Lawrence, KS: Weed Sci. Soc. Am.
Dirks, J. T., Johnson, W. G., Smeda, R. J., Wiebold, W. J., and Massey, R. E. 2000. Use of preplant sulfentrazone in no-till, narrow-row, glyphosate-resistant Glycine max . Weed Sci 48:628639.
[FAPRI] Food and Agriculture Policy Research Institute 2008a. US Baseline Briefing Book March 2008. Columbia, MO: Food and Agriculture Policy Research Institute at the University of Missouri. 27.
[FAPRI] Food and Agriculture Policy Research Institute 2008b. Missouri Crop Budget for 2008. Accessed: April 23, 2008.
Foes, M. J., Liu, L., Tranel, P. J., Wax, L. M., and Stoller, E. W. 1998. A biotype of common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) resistant to triazine and ALS herbicides. Weed Sci 46:514520.
Hager, A. and Sprague, C. 2002. Weeds on the horizon. in Steffey, K., editor. The Pest Management and Crop Development Bulletin, 6. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois.
Hager, A., Wax, L., and McGlamery, M. 1997. Waterhemp—biology of a troublesome species. in. The Pest Management and Crop Development Bulletin, 4. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois.
Hager, A. G., Wax, L. M., Bollero, G. A., and Simmons, F. W. 2002a. Common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer) management with soil-applied herbicides in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Crop Prot 21:277283.
Hager, A. G., Wax, L. M., Stoller, E. W., and Bollero, G. A. 2002b. Common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) interference in soybean. Weed Sci 50:607610.
Hartzler, R. G. and Battles, B. A. 2004. Effect of common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) emergence date on growth and fecundity in soybean. Weed Sci 52:242245.
Hartzler, R. G., Buhler, D. D., and Stoltenberg, D. E. 1999. Emergence characteristics of four annual weed species. Weed Sci 47:578584.
Heap, I. 2008. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. Accessed: March 26, 2008.
Horak, M. J. and Peterson, D. E. 1995. Biotypes of palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) are resistant to imazethapyr and thifensulfuron. Weed Technol 9:192195.
Johnson, W. G., Bradley, P. R., Hart, S. E., Buesinger, M. L., and Massey, R. E. 2000. Efficacy and economics of weed management in glyphosate-resistant corn (Zea mays). Weed Technol 14:5765.
Krausz, R. F., Kapusta, G., and Matthews, J. L. 1998. Sulfentrazone for weed control in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol 12:684689.
Legleiter, T. R. and Bradley, K. W. 2008. Glyphosate and multiple herbicide resistance in waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) populations from Missouri. Weed Sci 56:582587.
Lovell, S. T., Wax, L. M., Horak, M. J., and Peterson, D. E. 1996. Imidazolinone and sulfonylurea resistance in a biotype of common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis). Weed Sci 44:789794.
Patzoldt, W. L., Tranel, P. J., and Hager, A. G. 2005. A waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) biotype with multiple resistance across three herbicide sites of action. Weed Sci 53:3036.
Reddy, K. N. and Whiting, K. 2000. Weed control and economic comparisons of glyphosate-resistant, sulfonylurea-resistant, and conventional soybean (Glycine max) systems. Weed Technol 14:204211.
Shoup, D. E., Al-Khatib, K., and Peterson, D. E. 2003. Common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicides. Weed Sci 51:145150.
Steckel, L. E. and Sprague, C. L. 2004. Late-season common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) interference in narrow- and wide-row soybean. Weed Technol 18:947952.
Steckel, L. E., Sprague, C. L., Simmons, F. W., Bollero, G., Hager, A., Stoller, E. W., and Wax, L. M. 2001. Tillage and cropping effects on common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) emergence and seed bank distribution over four years. Weed Sci. Soc. Am. Abstr 41:321. [Abstract].
Sweat, J. K., Horak, M. J., Peterson, D. E., Lloyd, R. W., and Boyer, J. E. 1998. Herbicide efficacy on four Amaranthus species in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol 12:315321.
[USDA] United States Department of Agriculture 2008. National Agriculture Statistics Service. Agriculture Chemical Use Database. Accessed: March 26, 2008.
VanGessel, M. J. 2001. Glyphosate-resistant horseweed in Delaware. Weed Sci 49:703705.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Technology
  • ISSN: 0890-037X
  • EISSN: 1550-2740
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-technology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 12 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 64 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 18th June 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.