Skip to main content

Effect of Fall-Applied Residual Herbicides on Rice Growth and Yield

  • Benjamin H. Lawrence (a1), Jason A. Bond (a2), Henry M. Edwards (a3), Bobby R. Golden (a4), Garret B. Montgomery (a5), Thomas W. Eubank (a6) and Timothy W. Walker (a7)...

Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Italian ryegrass is one of the most troublesome weeds in Mississippi row crop production. Fall-applied residual herbicide applications are recommended for control of GR Italian ryegrass. However, carryover of residual herbicides applied in fields for rice production can have a negative impact on rice performance. Field studies were conducted in Stoneville, MS, to determine the effects of fall-applied residual herbicides on rice growth and yield. Herbicide treatments included suggested use rates (1×) of clomazone at 840 g ai ha–1, pyroxasulfone 170 g ai ha–1, S-metolachlor 1,420 g ai ha–1, and trifluralin 1,680 g ai ha–1, and two times (2×) the suggested use rates in the fall before rice seeding. Pooled across application rate, pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin injured rice to an extent 28% to 36% greater than clomazone 14 d after emergence (DAE). Rice seedling density and height 14 DAE and rice maturity were negatively affected by all fall-applied herbicides except clomazone. Applications at 2× rates reduced rough rice yields in plots treated with pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin compared with clomazone. Pyroxasulfone applied at the 2× rate reduced rough rice yield 22% compared with the 1× rate. Rough rice yield was 90% or greater of the nontreated control in plots treated with either rate of S-metolachlor, and these were comparable with rough rice yields from plots treated with both rates of trifluralin and the 1× rate of pyroxasulfone. Early-season injury and reductions in seedling density and height 14 DAE, would preclude even 1× applications of pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin from being viable options for residual herbicide treatments targeting GR Italian ryegrass in the fall before rice seeding. Of the herbicides evaluated, only clomazone should be utilized as a fall-applied residual herbicide treatment targeting GR Italian ryegrass before seeding rice.

Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Jason A. Bond, Research/Extension Professor, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Delta Research and Extension Center, P.O. Box 197, Stoneville, MS 38776. (E-mail:
Hide All
Anonymous (2010) Treflan 4 EC herbicide label. Accessed: January 31, 2018
Anonymous (2013) Command herbicide label. Accessed: January 31, 2018
Anonymous (2015) Dual Magnum herbicide label. Accessed: January 31, 2018
Anonymous (2016) Zidua herbicide label. Accessed: January 31, 2018
Barnes, CJ, Lavy, TL (1991) Injury and yield response of selected crops to imazaquin and norflurazon residues. Weed Technol 5:598606
Bell, CE (1995) Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) yield loss from Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne) interference. Weed Sci 43:117120
Blouin, DC, Webster, EP, Bond, JA (2011) On the analysis of combined experiments. Weed Technol 25:165169
Bond, JA, Bollich, PK (2007) Yield and quality response of rice cultivars to preflood and late-season nitrogen. Online. Crop Management doi: 10.1094/CM-2007-0122-03-RS
Bond, JA, Dodds, DM, Golden, BR, Irby, JT, Larson, EJ, Lawrence, BH, Reynolds, DB, Sarver, JM (2017) 2018 Weed Management Suggestions for Mississippi Row Crops. Starkville, MS: Mississippi State University Extension Service and Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Experiment Station. 80 p
Bond, JA, Eubank, TW, Bond, RC, Golden, BR, Matthew, H (2014) Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) control with fall-applied residual herbicides. Weed Technol 28:361370
Bond, JA, Stephenson, DO IV, Barnes, JB, Bararpour, MT, Oliver, LR (2005a) Diclofop-resistant Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) control in imidazolinone-tolerant wheat. Weed Technol 19:437–422
Bond, JA, Walker, TW, Bollich, PK, Koger, CH, Gerard, P (2005b) Seeding rates for stale seedbed rice production in the midsouthern United States. Agron J 97:15601563
Braverman, MP, Lavy, TL, Talbert, TE (1985) Effects of metolachlor residues on rice (Oryza sativa). Weed Sci 33:819824
Brewer, F, Lavy, TL, Talbert, RE (1982) Effect of three dinitroaniline herbicides on rice (Oryza sativa) growth. Weed Sci 30:153158
Bryson, CT, DeFelice, MS, eds (2009) Weeds of the South. 1st edn. Athens, GA: Southern Weed Science Society. P 309
Buehring, NW, ed (2008) Mississippi Rice Grower’s Guide. Starkville, MS: Mississippi State University Extension Service. 80 p
Buehring, NW, Bond, JA (2008) Rice Weed Control. In Buehring NW (ed.) Mississippi Rice Grower’s Guide. Starkville, MS: Mississippi State University Extension Service. Pp 3443
Buehring, NW, Walker, TW, Bond, JA (2008) Rice stand establishment. In Buehring NW (ed.) Mississippi’s Rice Growers’ Guide. Starkville, MS: Mississippi State University Extension Service. Pp 915
Culpepper, SA, Webster, TM, Sosnoskie, LM, York, AL (2010) Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in the United States. In Nandula VK (ed.) Glyphosate resistance in crops and other weeds. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 207 P
Dickson, JW, Scott, RC, Burgos, NR, Salas, RA, Smith, KL (2011) Confirmation of glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) in Arkansas. Weed Technol 25:674679
Golden, BR, Lawrence, BH, Bond, JA, Edwards, HM, Walker, TW (2017) Clomazone and starter nitrogen fertilizer effects on growth and yield of hybrid and inbred rice cultivars. Weed Technol 31:207216
Hashem, A, Radosevich, SR, Roush, ML (1998) Effect of proximity factor on competition between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). Weed Sci 46:412419
Hasty, RF, Sprague, CL, Hager, HG (2004) Weed control with fall and early-preplant herbicide applications in no-till soybean. Weed Technol 18:887892
Heap, IM (2017) International survey of herbicide resistant weeds. Accessed: April 23, 2017
Johnson, DH, Jordan, DL, Johnson, WG, Talber, RE, Frans, RE (1993) Nicolsulfuron, primusulfuron, imazethapyr, and DPX-PE350 injury to succeeding crops. Weed Technol 7:641644
Johnson, DH, Beaty, JK, Horton, DK, Talbert, RE, Guy, CB, Mattice, JD, Lavy, TL Jr., Smith, RJ (1995) Effects of rotational crop herbicides on rice (Oryza sativa). Weed Sci 43:648654
Jones, DB, Snyder, GH (1987) Seeding rate and row spacing effects on yield and yield components of drill-seeded rice. Agron J 79:623626
Nandula, VK (2014) Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) and corn (Zea mays) competition. Am J Plant Sci 5:39143924
Nandula, VK, Poston, DH, Eubank, TW, Koger, CH, Reddy, RN (2007) Differential response to glyphosate in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) populations from Mississippi. Weed Technol 21:477482
Rogers, CB, Talbert, E, Frans, R (1986) Effect of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) herbicide carryover on subsequent crops. Weed Sci 34:756760
Saxton, AM (1998) A macro for converting mean separation output to letter groupings in Proc Mixed. In Proceedings of the 23rd SAS Users Group International, Nashville, TN, March 22–25. Cary, NC: SAS Institute. Pp 1243–1246
Scherder, EF, Talbert, RE, Clark, SD (2004) Rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar tolerance to clomazone. Weed Technol 18:140144
Shaner, DL, ed (2014a) Herbicide Handbook (10th edn, Lawrence, KS: Weed Science Society of America. Pp 295296
Shaner, DL, ed (2014b) Herbicide Handbook (10th edn, Lawrence, KS: Weed Science Society of America. Pp 465467
Shaner, DL, ed (2014c) Herbicide Handbook (10th edn, Lawrence, KS: Weed Science Society of America. Pp 455–408
Slaton, NA, Linscombe, SD, Norman, RJ, Gbur, EE Jr (2003) Seeding date effect on rice grain yields in Arkansas and Louisiana. Agron J 95:218223
Stougaard, RN, Kapusta, G, Roskamp, G (1984) Early preplant herbicide applications with no-till soybean (Glycine max) weed control. Weed Sci 32:293298
Taylor, JM, Coats, GE (1996) Identification of sulfometuron-resistant Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) selections. Weed Technol 10:943946
Webster, TM (2012) Weed survey–southern states grass crops subsection. In Proceedings of the 2013 Southern Weed Science Society Annual Meeting, Houston, TX, January 28–30. Westminster, CO: Southern Weed Science Society. Pp 275–287
Zhang, W, Webster, EP, Blouin, DC, Linscombe, SD (2004) Differential tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa) varieties to clomazone. Weed Technol 18:7376
Zhang, W, Webster, EP, Braverman, MP (2000) Effect of rotational crop herbicides on water- and dry-seeded Oryza sativa . Weed Sci 48:755760
Zhang, W, Webster, EP, Braverman, MP (2002) Rice (Oryza sativa) response to rotational crop and herbicide combinations. Weed Technol 16:340345
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Technology
  • ISSN: 0890-037X
  • EISSN: 1550-2740
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-technology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed