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Effect of Pendimethalin Formulation and Application Rate on Cotton Fruit Partitioning

  • Darrin M. Dodds (a1), Daniel B. Reynolds (a1), Jonathan A. Huff (a1) and J. Trenton Irby (a1)

Because of the development of glyphosate-resistant weed species, the lack of new herbicide chemistry, and the late-season emergence of annual grass species, efforts are underway to expand the use of currently available herbicides for use in cotton. Field studies were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate the effect of POST-applied pendimethalin formulation and application rate on cotton fruit partitioning. Oil- and water-based pendimethalin formulations as well as S-metolachlor were applied to cotton that had four true leaves. All pendimethalin and S-metolachlor applications included glyphosate for broad-spectrum weed control. Pendimethalin formulation and application rate had no effect on seed-cotton partitioning to horizontal fruiting zones, on second- or third-position horizontal fruiting sites, or on monopodial branches. However, increased seed-cotton partitioned to plants that had lost apical dominance was observed when the water-based pendimethalin formulation was applied at rates of 1.7 kg ai/ha and higher as well as when the oil-based pendimethalin formulation was applied at 3.3 kg ai/ha. Application of water-based pendimethalin at rates of 1.7 and 3.4 kg ai/ha and oil-based pendimethalin at rates of 0.8, 1.7, and 3.3 kg ai/ha resulted in reduced seed-cotton located at position 1 fruiting sites compared with the untreated check. POST application of S-metolachlor had no effect on fruit partitioning to horizontal fruiting positions or vertical fruiting zones. Minor differences in seed-cotton partitioning to cohorts and individual fruiting nodes were observed from application of glyphosate, pendimethalin, and S-metolachlor. However, no differences in seed-cotton yield were observed from application of glyphosate, S-metolachlor, or pendimethalin, regardless of formulation or application rate. POST pendimethalin application at rates less than 1.7 kg ai/ha is relatively safe and should provide cotton producers with an additional tool for herbicide-resistant weeds and late-season annual grasses.

Debido al desarrollo de especies de maleza resistentes a glifosato, a la falta de un nuevo conocimiento químico en la producción de herbicidas y a la emergencia de zacates anuales al final de la época, actualmente hay intentos importantes para expandir el uso de herbicidas ya disponibles en el cultivo de algodón. En 2005 y 2006 se condujeron estudios de campo para evaluar el efecto de la aplicación tardía de pendimetalín en diferentes formulaciones y dosis en el inicio de la fructificación de la bellota de algodón. Igualmente fueron utlilizadas en algodón con 4 hojas formulaciones de pendimetalín en base de agua y aceite, y de S-metolachlor, incluyendo glifosato de amplio espectro para el control de maleza. La fórmula y dosis de pendimetalín no tuvo impacto alguno en el inicio de la producción ni de la primera, segunda o tercera posición de las zonas de fructificación horizontal ni en las ramas monopódicas. Sin embargo, un incremento en la separación o división del fruto fue observado en plantas que habían perdido la dominancia apical, cuando la fórmula de pendimetalín en base de agua fue aplicada en rangos de 1.7 kg ia/ha o más, así como también la fórmula pendimetalín en base de aceite aplicada en dosis de 3.3 ia/ha. Aplicaciones de pendimetalín en base de agua en una dosis de 1.7 y 3.4 kg ia/ha y pendimetalín en base de aceite en dosis de 0.8, 1.7 y 3.3 kg ia/ha dieron como resultado una reducción en la producción de semilla en el primer nivel de fructificación comparado con el testigo no tratado. Aplicaciones postemergentes de S-metolaclor no tuvieron efecto en la separación o división del fruto en las posiciones horizontal o vertical. Diferencias menores fueron observadas en la división o separación de las semillas de algodón, en frutos que están en grupos y en forma individual en los nudos de las plantas, debido a la aplicación de glifosato, pendimetalín y S-metolaclor. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias en los rendimientos de semilla de algodón, debido a la aplicación de glifosato, S-metolaclor, o pendimetalín, independientemente de la fórmula y la dosis de aplicación. La aplicación postemergente de pendimetalín en dosis menores de 1.7 kg ia/ha es relativamente segura y se debería proporcionar a los productores de algodón, como una herramienta adicional para el control de malezas resistente a herbicidas y zacates anuales tardíos.

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