Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Effects of Low-Dose Applications of 2,4-D and Dicamba on Watermelon

  • A. Stanley Culpepper (a1), Lynn M. Sosnoskie (a2), John Shugart (a3), Nicole Leifheit (a4), Michael Curry (a5) and Thomas Gray (a6)...
Abstract

The commercial release of crops with engineered resistance to 2,4-D and dicamba will alter the spatial and temporal use of these herbicides. This, in turn, has elicited concerns about off-target injury to sensitive crops. In 2014 and 2015, studies were conducted in Tifton, GA, to describe how herbicide (2,4-D and dicamba), herbicide rate (1/75 and 1/250 field use), and application timing (20, 40, and 60 DAP) influence watermelon injury, vine development, yield, and the accumulation of herbicide residues in marketable fruit. In general, greater visual injury and reductions in vine growth, relative to the non-treated check, were observed when herbicide applications were made before watermelon plants had begun to flower. Although the main effects of herbicide and rate were less influential than the timing of applications with respect to plant development, the 1/75 rates were more injurious than the 1/250 rates; dicamba was more injurious than 2,4-D. In 2014, the 1/75 and 1/250 rates of each herbicide reduced marketable fruit numbers 13 to 20%, but only for the 20 DAP application. The 1/75 rate of each herbicide when applied at either 20 or 40 DAP reduced the number of fruit harvested per plot in 2015. Dicamba residues were detected in marketable fruit when the 1/75 rate in 2014 and 2015 and the 1/250 rate in 2015 was applied to plants at 40 or 60 DAP. Residues of 2,4-D were detected in 2015 when the 1/75 and 1/250 rates were applied at 60 DAP. Across both years, the maximum level of residue detected was 0.030 ppm. While early season injury may reduce watermelon yields, herbicide residue detection is more likely in marketable fruit when an off-target contact incident occurs closer to harvest.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Lynn M. Sosnoskie, University of California Cooperative Extension, Merced, CA 95341. (E-mail: lynn.weed.science@gmail.com)
References
Hide All
Al-Khatib, K, Peterson, D (1999) Soybean (Glycine max) response to simulated drift from selected sulfonylurea herbicides, dicamba, glyphosate, and glufosinate. Weed Technol 13:264270
Beckie, HJ, Hall, LM (2014) Genetically-modified herbicide-resistant (GMHR) crops a two-edged sword? An Americas perspective on development and effect on weed management. Crop Protect 66:4045
Behrens, MR, Mutlu, N, Chakraborty, S, Dumitru, R, Jiang, WZ, LaVallee, BJ, Herman, PL, Clemente, TE, Weeks, DP (2007) Dicamba resistance: enlarging and preserving biotechnology-based weed management strategies. Science 316:11851188
Byker, HP, Soltani, N, Robinson, DE, Tardif, FJ, Lawton, MB, Sikkema, PH (2013) Control of glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) with dicamba applied preplant and postemergence in dicamba-resistant soybean. Weed Technol 27:492496
Byrd, S, Collins, G, Culpepper, S, Dodds, D, Edmisten, K, Wright, D, Morgan, G, Baumann, P, Dotray, P, Manuchehri, M, Jones, A, Grey, T, Webster, T, Davis, J, Whitaker, J, Roberts, P, Snider, J, Porter, W (2016) Cotton stage of growth determines sensitivity to 2,4-D. Weed Technol 30:601610
Cahoon, CW, York, AC, Jordan, DL, Everman, WJ, Seagroves, RW, Culpepper, AS, Eure, PM (2015) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) management in dicamba-resistant cotton. Weed Technol 2975829770
Colquhoun, JB, Heider, DJ, Rittmeyer, RA (2014) Relationship between visual injury from synthetic auxin and glyphosate herbicides and snap bean and potato yield. Weed Technol 28:671678
Dittmar, PJ, Ferrell, JA, Fernandez, JV, Smith, H (2016) Effect of glyphosate and dicamba drift timing and rates in bell pepper and yellow squash. Weed Technol 30:217223
Everitt, JD, Keeling, JW (2009) Cotton growth and yield response to simulated 2, 4-D and dicamba drift. Weed Technol 23:503506
Flessner, ML, McElroy, JS, McCurdy, JD, Toombs, JM, Wehtje, GR, Burmester, CH, Price, AJ, Ducar, JT (2015) Glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) control with dicamba in Alabama. Weed Technol 29:633640
Ford, L, Soltani, N, Robinson, DE, Nurse, RE, McFadden, A, Sikkema, PH (2014) Canada fleabane (Conyza canadensis) control with preplant applied residual herbicides followed by 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA applied postemergence in corn. Can J Plant Sci 94:12311237
Frisvold, GB, Reeves, JM (2014) Herbicide resistant crops and weeds: implications for herbicide use and weed management. Pages 331354 in Pimentel D, Peshin R, eds. Integrated Pest Management. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer
Green, JM (2012) The benefits of herbicide‐resistant crops. Pest Manag Sci 68:13231331
Heap, I (2017) The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. http://www.weedscience.org. Accessed: July 9, 2017
Inman, MD, Jordan, DL, York, AC, Jennings, KM, Monks, DW, Everman, WJ, Bollman, SL, Fowler, JT, Cole, RM, Soteres, JK (2016) Long-term management of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in dicamba-tolerant cotton. Weed Sci 64:161169
Jhala, AJ, Sandell, LD, Kruger, GR (2014) Control of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) with 2, 4-D followed by pre-emergence or post-emergence herbicides in glyphosate-resistant soybean (Glycine max L.). Am J Plant Sci 15:22892297
Johnson, VA, Fisher, LR, Jordan, DL, Edmisten, KE, Stewart, AM, York, AC (2012) Cotton, peanut, and soybean response to sublethal rates of dicamba, glufosinate, and 2, 4-D. Weed Technol 26:195206
Livingston, M, Fernandez-Cornejo, J, Unger, J, Osteen, C, Schimmelpfennig, D, Park, T, Lambert, DM (2015) The Economics of Glyphosate Resistance Management in Corn and Soybean Production. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture. 52 p
Mahoney, KJ, McNaughton, KE, Sikkema, PH (2016) Herbicide tank mixtures to control co-existing glyphosate-resistant Canada fleabane and giant ragweed in soybean. Can J Plant Sci 96:657661
Meyer, CJ, Norsworthy, JK, Young, BG, Steckel, LE, Bradley, KW, Johnson, WG, Loux, MM, Davis, VM, Kruger, GR, Bararpour, MT, Ikley, JT (2015) Herbicide program approaches for managing glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus and Amaranthus rudis) in future soybean-trait technologies. Weed Technol 29:716729
Mohseni-Moghadam, M, Wolfe, S, Dami, I, Doohan, D (2016) Response of wine grape cultivars to simulated drift rates of 2,4-D, dicamba, and glyphosate. Weed Technol 30:807814
Riar, DS, Norsworthy, JK, Steckel, LE, Stephenson, DO, Eubank, TW, Bond, J, Scott, RC (2013) Adoption of best management practices for herbicide-resistant weeds in midsouthern United States cotton, rice, and soybean. Weed Technol 27:788797
Robinson, AP, Davis, VM, Simpson, DM, Johnson, WG (2013) Response of soybean yield components to 2, 4-D. Weed Sci 61:6876
Simpson, DM, Rune, DC, Scherder, EF, Peterson, MA, Ditmars, SC, Ellis, JM, Richburg, JS, Ellis, DT (2009) Performance of Dow AgroSciences herbicide tolerance trait in soybean. Page 21 in Proceedings of the North Central Weed Science Society. Kansas City, MO: North Central Weed Science Society.
Solomon, CB, Bradley, KW (2014) Influence of application timings and sublethal rates of synthetic auxin herbicides on soybean. Weed Technol 28:454464
Sosnoskie, LM, Culpepper, AS (2014) Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) increases herbicide use, tillage, and hand-weeding in Georgia cotton. Weed Sci 62:393402
[USDA ERS] United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (2017) Data Products. http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/. Accessed: July 9, 2017
Van Wychen, L (2016) 2015 Baseline Survey of the Most Common and Troublesome Weeds in the United States and Canada. http://wssa.net/wp-content/uploads/2015_Weed_Survey_Final.xlsx. Accessed: July 9, 2017
Wolfe, K, Stubbs, K (2015) 2014 Georgia Farm Gate Value Report. The Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia. AR-15-01. 180 p
Wright, TR, Shan, G, Walsh, TA, Lira, JM, Cui, C, Song, P, Zhuang, M, Arnold, NL, Lin, G, Russell, SM, Cicchillo, RM, Peterson, MA, Simpson, DM, Zhou, N, Ponsamuel, J, Yau, K, Zhang, Z (2010) Robust crop resistance to broadleaf and grass herbicides provided by aryloxalkanoate dioxygenase transgenes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:2024020245
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Technology
  • ISSN: 0890-037X
  • EISSN: 1550-2740
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-technology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 49 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 266 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 3rd April 2018 - 19th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.