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Herbicide-Resistant Weeds in the Canadian Prairies: 2007 to 2011

  • Hugh J. Beckie (a1), Chris Lozinski (a1), Scott Shirriff (a1) and Clark. A. Brenzil (a2)

Abstract

A late-summer survey of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds was conducted in Alberta in 2007, Manitoba in 2008, and Saskatchewan in 2009, totaling 1,000 randomly selected annually cropped fields. In addition, we screened 1,091 weed seed samples (each sample from one field) submitted by Prairie growers between 2007 and 2011. Of 677 fields where wild oat samples were collected, 298 (44%) had an HR biotype. Group 1 (acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor)-HR wild oat was confirmed in 275 fields (41%), up from 15% in previous baseline surveys (2001 to 2003). Group 2 (acetolactate synthase)-HR wild oat was found in 12% of fields (vs. 8% in 2001 to 2003). Group 8 (triallate, difenzoquat)-HR wild oat was identified in only 8% of fields (not tested in 2001 to 2003); the frequency of occurrence of group 1+2-HR wild oat was similar (8%, vs. 3% in 2001 to 2003). Group 1-HR green foxtail was found in 27% of 209 fields sampled for the weed (vs. 6% in 2001 to 2003). Group 2-HR spiny sowthistle was confirmed in all Alberta fields sampled (vs. 67% in 2001); common chickweed was found mainly in Alberta in 40% of fields (vs. 17% in 2001). Group 2-HR weed biotypes not previously detected in the baseline surveys included false cleavers mainly in Alberta (17% of fields) and Saskatchewan (21%), Powell amaranth in Manitoba (16% of fields), wild mustard (three populations in Saskatchewan and Manitoba), and wild buckwheat (one population in Alberta). No sampled weed populations across the Prairies were found to be resistant to herbicides from group 4 (synthetic auxins), group 9 (glyphosate), or group 10 (glufosinate). Based on the proportion of total field area at each site infested with HR weeds, it is estimated that 7.7 million ha (29% of annually cropped land) are infested with HR weeds (eight-fold increase from 2001 to 2003), in a total field area of 9.9 million ha (37%)—over a two-fold increase. Of 816 cases of HR wild oat identified from submitted samples, 69% were group 1-HR, 15% group 2-HR, and 16% group 1+2-HR. Additionally, there were 10 populations of group 1-HR green foxtail in Saskatchewan or Manitoba, and six populations of group 1-HR Persian darnel in southern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Various group 2-HR broadleaf weeds were identified, including 17 wild mustard populations mainly from Saskatchewan and 39 cleavers populations across the three Prairie provinces. Herbicide-use data from 2006 to 2010 indicated continued reliance on group 1 herbicides in cereal crops and group 2 herbicides in pulse crops.

Un estudio observacional sobre malezas resistentes a herbicidas (HR) se realizó al final del verano en Alberta en 2007, Manitoba en 2008 y Saskatchewan en 2009, para un total de 1,000 muestras aleatoriamente seleccionadas de campos cultivados anualmente. Adicionalmente, evaluamos 1,091 muestras de semillas de malezas (cada muestra proveniente de un campo) remitidas por productores de las Praderas entre 2007 y 2011. De 677 campos donde se colectó muestras de Avena fatua, 298 (44%) tuvieron un biotipo HR. Se confirmó Avena fatua HR grupo 1(inhibidores de acetyl CoA carboxylase) en 275 campos (41%), lo cual fue un incremento del 15% con base en estudios de referencia previos (2001–2003). Se encontró A. fatua HR grupo 2 (acetolactate synthase) en 12% de los campos (vs. 8% en 2001 a 2003). A. fatua HR grupo 8 (triallate, difenzoquat) fue identificada en solamente 8% de los campos (no se evaluó en 2001 a 2003). La frecuencia de presencia de A. fatua HR grupos 1+2 fue similar (8%, vs. 3% en 2001 a 2003). Setaria viridis HR grupo 1 fue encontrada en 27% de 209 campos muestreados por esta maleza (vs. 6% en 2001 al 2003). Se confirmó Sonchus asper HR grupo 2 en todos los campos muestreados en Alberta (vs. 67% en 2001); mientras que Stellaria media HR se encontró principalmente en Alberta en 40% de los campos (vs. 17% en 2001). Biotipos de malezas HR grupo 2 que no habían sido detectados en los estudios previos incluyeron Galium spurium principalmente en Alberta (17% de los campos) y en Saskatchewan (21%), Amaranthus powellii en Manitoba (16% de los campos), Sinapis arvensis (tres poblaciones en Saskatchewan y Manitoba) y Polygonum convolvulus (una población en Alberta). De las poblaciones de malezas muestreadas a lo largo de las Praderas, no se encontró ninguna que fuera resistentes a herbicidas del grupo 4(auxinas sintéticas), grupo 9 (glyphosate) o grupo 10 (glufosinate). Basándose en la proporción del área total de campos infestados con malezas HR en cada sitio, se estimó que 7.7 millones ha (29% de la tierra cultivada anualmente) están infestadas con malezas HR (un incremento de ocho veces desde 2001 a 2003), en un área total de 9.9 millones ha (37%)—más del doble de incremento. De 816 casos de A. fatua HR identificados en las muestras remitidas, 69% fueron HR grupo 1, 15% HR grupo 2 y 16% HR grupo 1+2. Adicionalmente, hubo 10 poblaciones de S. viridis HR grupo 1 en Saskatchewan o Manitoba, y seis poblaciones de Lolium persicum HR grupo 1 en el sur de Alberta y Saskatchewan. Varias malezas de hoja ancha HR grupo 2 fueron identificadas, incluyendo 17 poblaciones de S. arvensis predominantemente de Saskatchewan y 39 poblaciones de G. spurium a lo largo de tres provincias de las Praderas. Datos de uso de herbicidas de 2006 a 2010 indicaron que ha continuado la dependencia en herbicidas grupo 1 en cultivos de cereales y de herbicidas grupo 2 en cultivos de granos de especies dicotiledóneas.

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Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: hugh.beckie@agr.gc.ca

References

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Weed Technology
  • ISSN: 0890-037X
  • EISSN: 1550-2740
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