Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Herbicide-Resistant Weeds: Management Tactics and Practices

  • Hugh J. Beckie (a1)

In input-intensive cropping systems around the world, farmers rarely proactively manage weeds to prevent or delay the selection for herbicide resistance. Farmers usually increase the adoption of integrated weed management practices only after herbicide resistance has evolved, although herbicides continue to be the dominant method of weed control. Intergroup herbicide resistance in various weed species has been the main impetus for changes in management practices and adoption of cropping systems that reduce selection for resistance. The effectiveness and adoption of herbicide and nonherbicide tactics and practices for the proactive and reactive management of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds are reviewed. Herbicide tactics include sequences and rotations, mixtures, application rates, site-specific application, and use of HR crops. Nonherbicide weed-management practices or nonselective herbicides applied preplant or in crop, integrated with less-frequent selective herbicide use in diversified cropping systems, have mitigated the evolution, spread, and economic impact of HR weeds.

Corresponding author
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M. P. Anderson and J. W. Gronwald 1991. Atrazine resistance in a velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) biotype due to enhanced glutathione S-transferase activity. Plant Physiol. 96:104109.

H. J. Beckie , K. N. Harker , L. M. Hall , S. I. Warwick , A. Légère , P. H. Sikkema , G. W. Clayton , A. G. Thomas , J. Y. Leeson , G. Séguin-Swartz , and M. J. Simard 2006. A decade of herbicide-resistant crops in Canada. Can. J. Plant Sci. (in press).

H. J. Beckie , I. M. Heap , R. J. Smeda , and L. M. Hall 2000. Screening for herbicide resistance in weeds. Weed Technol. 14:428445.

H. J. Beckie and F. A. Holm 2002. Response of wild oat (Avena fatua) to residual and non-residual herbicides in canola (Brassica napus) in western Canada. Can. J. Plant Sci. 82:797802.

H. J. Beckie and S. Jana 2000. Selecting for triallate resistance in wild oat. Can. J. Plant Sci. 80:665667.

H. J. Beckie and K. J. Kirkland 2003. Implication of reduced herbicide rates on resistance enrichment in wild oat (Avena fatua). Weed Technol. 17:138148.

H. J. Beckie , A. G. Thomas , and F. C. Stevenson 2002. Survey of herbicide-resistant wild oat (Avena fatua) in two townships in Saskatchewan. Can. J. Plant Sci. 82:463471.

L. Bourgeois , I. N. Morrison , and D. Kelner 1997b. Field and grower survey of ACCase resistant wild oat in Manitoba. Can. J. Plant Sci. 77:709715.

P. Boutsalis and S. B. Powles 1995. Resistance of dicot weeds to acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides in Australia. Weed Res. 35:149155.

P. Boutsalis and S. B. Powles 1998. Seedbank characteristics of herbicide-resistant and susceptible Sisymbrium orientale . Weed Res. 38:389395.

K. W. Bradley and E. S. Hagood Jr. 2001. Identification of a Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) biotype resistant to aryloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione herbicides in Virginia. Weed Technol. 15:623627.

M. W. M. Burnet , B. R. Loveys , J. A. M. Holtum , and S. B. Powles 1993a. Increased detoxification is a mechanism of simazine resistance in Lolium rigidum . Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 46:207218.

M. W. M. Burnet , B. R. Loveys , J. A. M. Holtum , and S. B. Powles 1993b. A mechanism of chlorotoluron resistance in Lolium rigidum . Planta 190:182189.

G. Cavan , P. Biss , and S. R. Moss 1998. Herbicide resistance and gene flow in wild-oats (Avena fatua and Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana). Ann. Appl. Biol. 133:207217.

B. Chauvel and J. Gasquez 1994. Relationships between genetic polymorphism and herbicide resistance within Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. Heredity 72:336344.

B. Chauvel , J. P. Guillemin , N. Colbach , and J. Gasquez 2001. Evaluation of cropping systems for management of herbicide-resistant populations of blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds). Crop Prot. 20:127137.

J. T. Christopher , C. Preston , and S. B. Powles 1994. Malathion antagonizes metabolism-based chlorsulfuron resistance in Lolium rigidum . Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 49:172182.

K. M. Cocker , J. O. D. Coleman , A. M. Blair , J. H. Clarke , and S. R. Moss 2000. Biochemical mechanisms of cross-resistance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione herbicides in populations of Avena spp. Weed Res. 40:323334.

R. K. Coleman , G. S. Gill , and G. J. Rebetzke 2001. Identification of quantitative trait loci for traits conferring weed competitiveness in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Aust. J. Agric. Res. 52:12351246.

D. Coupland , P. J. W. Lutman , and C. Heath 1990. Uptake, translocation and metabolism of mecaprop in a sensitive and resistant biotype of Stellaria media . Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 36:6167.

H. J. Cranston , A. J. Kern , J. L. Hackett , E. K. Miller , B. D. Maxwell , and W. E. Dyer 2001. Dicamba resistance in kochia. Weed Sci. 49:164170.

I. Cummins , S. R. Moss , J. D. Cole , and R. Edwards 1997. Glutathione transferases in herbicide-resistant and herbicide-susceptible black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides). Pestic. Sci. 51:244250.

R. De Prado , N. López-Martínez , and J. Gonzalez-Gutierrez 1999. Identification of two mechanisms of atrazine resistance in Setaria faberi and Setaria viridis biotypes. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 67:114124.

C. Délye , A. Matéjicek , and J. Gasquez 2002. PCR-based detection of resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase-inhibiting herbicides in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds) and ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud). Pest Manage. Sci. 58:474478.

C. Délye and S. Michel 2005. ‘Universal’ primers for PCR-sequencing of grass chloroplastic acetyl-CoA carboxylase domains involved in resistance to herbicides. Weed Res. 45:323330.

C. Délye , C. Straub , A. Matéjicek , and S. Michel 2003. Multiple origins for black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds) target-site-based resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Pest Manage. Sci. 60:3541.

A. J. Diggle , P. B. Neve , and F. P. Smith 2003. Herbicides used in combination can reduce the probability of herbicide resistance in finite weed populations. Weed Res. 43:371382.

A. J. Fischer , D. E. Bayer , M. D. Carriere , C. M. Ateh , and K. O. Yim 2000. Mechanisms of resistance to bispyribac-sodium in an Echinochloa phyllopogon accession. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 68:156165.

M. I. Fraga and M. G. Tasende 2003. Mechanism of resistance to simazine in Sonchus oleraceus . Weed Res. 43:333340.

L. F. Friesen , T. L. Jones , R. C. Van Acker , and I. N. Morrison 2000. Identification of Avena fatua populations resistant to imazamethabenz, flamprop, and fenoxaprop-P. Weed Sci. 48:532540.

G. Gadamski , D. Ciarka , J. Gressel , and S. W. Gawronski 2000. Negative cross-resistance in triazine-resistant biotypes of Echinochloa crus-galli and Conzya canadensis . Weed Sci. 48:176180.

S. N. Gardner , J. Gressel , and M. Mangel 1998. A revolving dose strategy to delay the evolution of both quantitative vs major monogene resistances to pesticides and drugs. Int. J. Pest Manag. 44:161180.

G. S. Gill 1995. Development of herbicide resistance in annual ryegrass populations (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) in the cropping belt of Western Australia. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 35:6772.

G. S. Gill 1997. Prevention and control of herbicide resistant weeds in Australia. in R. De Prado , J. Jorrín , and L. García-Torres eds. Weed and Crop Resistance to Herbicides. London: Kluwer Academic. Pp. 305313.

G. S. Gill and J. E. Holmes 1997. Efficacy of cultural control methods for combating herbicide-resistant Lolium rigidum . Pestic. Sci. 51:352358.

R. J. Gorddard , D. J. Pannell , and G. Hertzler 1996. Economic evaluation of strategies for management of herbicide resistance. Agric. Syst. 51:281298.

J. Gressel 1997. Burgeoning resistance requires new strategies. in R. De Prado , J. Jorrín , and L. García-Torres eds. Weed and Crop Resistance to Herbicides. London: Kluwer Academic. Pp. 314.

A. Hashem , D. Bowran , T. Piper , and H. Dhammu 2001a. Resistance of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides in the Western Australia wheat belt. Weed Technol. 15:6874.

A. Hashem , H. S. Dhammu , S. B. Powles , D. G. Bowran , T. J. Piper , and A. H. Cheam 2001b. Triazine resistance in a biotype of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) in Australia. Weed Technol. 15:636641.

I. Hidayat and C. Preston 2001. Cross-resistance to imazethapyr in a fluazifop-P-butyl-resistant population of Digitaria sanguinalis . Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 71:190195.

J. S. Holt , S. B. Powles , and J. A. M. Holtum 1993. Mechanisms and agronomic aspects of herbicide resistance. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 44:203229.

K. Itoh , G. X. Wang , and S. Ohba 1999. Sulfonylurea resistance in Lindernia micrantha, an annual paddy weed in Japan. Weed Res. 39:413423.

N. Jordon , M. Kelrick , J. Brooks , and W. Kinerk 1999. Biorational management tactics to select against triazine-resistant Amaranthus hybridus: a field trial. J. Appl. Ecol. 36:123132.

M. S. Kemp , S. R. Moss , and T. H. Thomas 1990. Herbicide resistance in Alopecurus myosuroides . in M. B. Green , H. M. LeBaron , and W. K. Moberg , eds. Managing Resistance to Agrochemicals: From Fundamental Research to Practical Strategies. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. Pp. 376393.

E. Kremer and L. A. P. Lotz 1998. Germination and emergence characteristics of triazine-susceptible and triazine-resistant biotypes of Solanum nigrum . J. Appl. Ecol. 35:302310.

P. Kudsk , S. K. Mathiassen , and J. C. Cotterman 1995. Sulfonylurea resistance in Stellaria media [L.] Vill. Weed Res. 35:1924.

H. M. LeBaron and J. McFarland 1990. Herbicide resistance in weeds and crops. in M. B. Green , H. M. LeBaron , and W. K. Moberg , eds. Managing Resistance to Agrochemicals: From Fundamental Research to Practical Strategies. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. Pp. 336352.

A. Légère , H. J. Beckie , F. C. Stevenson , and A. G. Thomas 2000. Survey of management practices affecting the occurrence of wild oat (Avena fatua) resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors. Weed Technol. 14:366376.

A. Letouzé and J. Gasquez 1999. A pollen test to detect ACCase target-site resistance within Alopecurus myosuroides populations. Weed Res. 40:151162.

A. Letouzé and J. Gasquez 2003. Enhanced activity of several herbicide-degrading enzymes: a suggested mechanism responsible for multiple resistance in blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds). Agronomie 23:601608.

R. S. Llewellyn , R. K. Lindner , D. J. Pannell , and S. B. Powles 2002. Resistance and the herbicide resource: perceptions of Western Australian grain growers. Crop Prot. 21:10671075.

R. S. Llewellyn , R. K. Lindner , D. J. Pannell , and S. B. Powles 2004. Grain grower perceptions and use of integrated weed management. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 44:9931001.

R. S. Llewellyn and S. B. Powles 2001. High levels of herbicide resistance in rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) in the wheat belt of Western Australia. Weed Technol. 15:242248.

C. A. Mallory-Smith and E. J. Retzinger Jr. 2003. Revised classification of herbicides by site of action for weed resistance management strategies. Weed Technol. 17:605619.

C. Maneechote , C. Preston , and S. B. Powles 1997. A diclofop-methyl-resistant Avena sterilis biotype with a herbicide-resistant acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and enhanced metabolism of diclofop-methyl. Pestic. Sci. 49:105114.

R. W. Medd , B. A. Auld , D. R. Kemp , and R. D. Murison 1987. The influence of wheat density and spatial arrangement on annual ryegrass, Lolium rigidum Gaudin, competition. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 36:361371.

J. Menendez and R. De Prado 1996. Diclofop-methyl cross-resistance in a chlorotoluron-resistant biotype of Alopecurus myosuroides . Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 56:123133.

M. Monjardino , D. J. Pannell , and S. B. Powles 2004. The economic value of haying and green manuring in the integrated management of annual ryegrass and wild radish in a Western Australian farming system. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 44:11951203.

S. R. Moss 1997. Strategies for the prevention and control of herbicide resistance in annual grass weeds. in R. De Prado , J. Jorrín , and L. García-Torres eds. Weed and Crop Resistance to Herbicides. London: Kluwer Academic. Pp. 283290.

S. R. Moss 2002. Herbicide-resistant weeds. in R.E.L. Naylor , ed. Weed Management Handbook. British Crop Protection Council. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science. Pp. 225252.

S. R. Moss , K. M. Cocker , A. C. Brown , L. Hall , and L. M. Field 2003. Characterisation of target-site resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in the weed Alopecurus myosuroides (black-grass). Pest Manage. Sci. 59:190201.

O. M. Nazarko , R. C. Van Acker , and M. H. Entz 2005. Strategies and tactics for herbicide use reduction in field crops in Canada: A review. Can. J. Plant Sci. 85:457479.

P. Neve and S. Powles 2005a. Recurrent selection with reduced herbicide rates results in the rapid evolution of herbicide resistance in Lolium rigidum . Theor. App. Genet. 110:11541166.

P. Neve and S. Powles 2005b. High survival frequencies at low herbicide use rates in populations of Lolium rigidum result in rapid evolution of herbicide resistance. Heredity 95:485492.

J. T. O'Donovan , J. C. Newman , R. E. Blackshaw , K. N. Harker , D. A. Derksen , and A. G. Thomas 1999. Growth, competitiveness, and seed germination of triallate/difenzoquat-susceptible and -resistant wild oat populations. Can. J. Plant Sci. 79:303312.

D. J. Pannell , V. Stewart , A. Bennett , M. Monjardino , C. Schmidt , and S. B. Powles 2004. RIM: a bioeconomic model for integrated weed management of Lolium rigidum in Western Australia. Agric. Syst. 79:305325.

K. W. Park , L. Fandrich , and C. A. Mallory-Smith 2004. Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of propoxycarbazone-sodium in ALS-inhibitor resistant Bromus tectorum biotypes. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 79:1824.

D. H. Poston , J. Wu , K. K. Hatzios , and H. P. Wilson 2001. Enhanced sensitivity to cloransulam-methyl in imidazolinone-resistant smooth pigweed. Weed Sci. 49:711716.

S. B. Powles , C. Preston , I. B. Bryan , and A. R. Jutsum 1997. Herbicide resistance: impact and management. Adv. Agron. 58:5793.

C. Preston and S. B. Powles 2002a. Evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds: initial frequency of target site-based resistance to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides in Lolium rigidum . Heredity 88:813.

C. Preston , F. J. Tardif , J. T. Christopher , and S. B. Powles 1996. Multiple resistance to dissimilar herbicide chemistries in a biotype of Lolium rigidum due to enhanced activity of several herbicide degrading enzymes. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 54:123134.

C. R. Riches , J. S. Knights , L. Chaves , J. C. Caseley , and B. E. Valverde 1997. The role of pendimethalin in the integrated management of propanil-resistant Echinochloa colona in Central America. Pestic. Sci. 51:341346.

J. Richter and S. B. Powles 1993. Pollen expression of herbicide target site resistance genes in annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum). Plant Physiol. 102:10371041.

T. J. W. Rotteveel , J. W. F. M. de Goeij , and A. F. van Gemerden 1997. Towards the construction of a resistance risk evaluation scheme. Pestic. Sci. 51:407411.

B. Rubin 1991. Herbicide resistance in weeds and crops, progress and prospects. in J. C. Caseley , G. W. Cussans , and R. K. Atkin , eds. Herbicide Resistance in Weeds and Crops. Oxford, U.K.: Butterworth-Heinemann. Pp. 387414.

R. P. Sabba , I. M. Ray , N. Lownds , and T. M. Sterling 2003. Inheritance of resistance to clopyralid and picloram in yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.) is controlled by a single nuclear recessive gene. J. Hered. 94:523527.

D. L. Shaner , D. A. Feist , and E. J. Retzinger 1997. SAMOA: one company's approach to herbicide-resistant weed management. Pestic. Sci. 51:367370.

S. Singh , R. C. Kirkwood , and G. Marshall 1998. Effect of the monooxygenase inhibitor piperonyl butoxide on the herbicidal activity and metabolism of isoproturon in herbicide resistant and susceptible biotypes of Phalaris minor and wheat. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 59:143153.

S. Singh , R. C. Kirkwood , and G. Marshall 1999. Biology and control of Phalaris minor Retz. (littleseed canarygrass) in wheat. Crop Prot. 18:116.

R. J. Smeda , R. S. Currie , and J. H. Rippee 2000. Fluazifop-P resistance expressed as a dominant trait in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Weed Technol. 14:397401.

C. L. Sprague , E. W. Stoller , and L. M. Wax 1997. Response of an acetolactate synthase (ALS)-resistant biotype of Amaranthus rudis to selected ALS-inhibiting and alternative herbicides. Weed Res. 37:93101.

M. Stankiewicz , G. Gadamski , and S. W. Gawronski 2001. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of triazine-resistant and triazine-susceptible biotypes of Solanum nigrum—analysis using RAPD markers. Weed Res. 41:287300.

D. C. Thill , J. T. O'Donovan , and C. A. Mallory-Smith 1994. Integrated weed management strategies for delaying herbicide resistance in wild oats. Phytoprotection 75: (Suppl.). 6170.

B. E. Valverde , L. Chaves , I. Garita , F. Ramírez , E. Vargas , J. Carmiol , C. R. Riches , and J. C. Casely 2001. Modified herbicide regimes for propanil-resistant junglerice control in rain-fed rice. Weed Sci. 49:395405.

M. J. VanGessel 2001. Glyphosate-resistant horseweed from Delaware. Weed Sci. 49:703705.

L. J. Veldhuis , L. M. Hall , J. T. O'Donovan , W. Dyer , and J. C. Hall 2000. Metabolism-based resistance of a wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) biotype to ethametsulfuron-methyl. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48:29862990.

M. M. Vila-Aiub , P. Neve , K. J. Steadman , and S. B. Powles 2005. Ecological fitness of a multiple herbicide-resistant Lolium rigidum population: dynamics of seed germination and seedling emergence of resistant and susceptible phenotypes. J. Appl. Ecol. 42:288298.

S. I. Warwick , H. J. Beckie , M. J. Simard , A. Légère , H. Nair , and G. Séguin-Swartz 2004. Environmental and agronomic consequences of herbicide-resistant (HR) canola in Canada. in H.C.M. den Nijs , D. Bartsch , and J. Sweet , eds. Introgression from Genetically Modified Plants (GMP) into Wild Relatives. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK: CABI Publ. Pp. 323337.

S. I. Warwick , H. J. Beckie , and E. Small 1999. Transgenic crops: new weed problems for Canada? Phytoprotection 80:7184.

S. I. Warwick , M. J. Simard , A. Légère , H. J. Beckie , L. Braun , B. Zhu , P. Mason , G. Séguin-Swartz , and C. N. Stewart 2003. Hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus L. and its wild relatives: Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O. E. Schulz. Theor. Appl. Genet. 107:528539.

A. Weersink , R. S. Llewellyn , and D. J. Pannell 2005. Economics of pre-emptive management to avoid weed resistance to glyphosate in Australia. Crop Prot. 24:659665.

D. Werck-Reichhart , A. Hehn , and L. Didierjean 2000. Cytochromes P450 for engineering herbicide tolerance. Trends Plant Sci. 5:116123.

J. Zhang , S. E. Weaver , and A. S. Hamill 2000. Risks and reliability of using herbicides at below-labeled rates. Weed Technol. 14:106115.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Technology
  • ISSN: 0890-037X
  • EISSN: 1550-2740
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-technology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 13 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 132 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 27th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.