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Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) Management as Influenced by Herbicide Selection and Application Timing

  • Dennis B. Johnson (a1) and Jason K. Norsworthy (a1)
Abstract

Field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2012 at Fayetteville, AR, to compare four herbicides across three application timings for johnsongrass control and to evaluate the effect of late-season herbicide applications on johnsongrass control, fecundity, seed viability, and progeny emergence. In the first experiment, glyphosate at 840 g ae ha−1 and clethodim at 68 and 136 g ai ha−1 provided 75 to 94% control of 15- to 60-cm tall johnsongrass and up to 98% stand reduction 4 wk after treatment (WAT). Glufosinate and nicosulfuron were generally effective on ≤30-cm tall johnsongrass; however, efficacy declined as johnsongrass size increased. In the second experiment, glyphosate at 840 g ha−1 provided at least 89% johnsongrass control when applied at boot or after panicle emergence and up to 95% stand reduction 3 WAT. Applications of glyphosate at 420 and 840 g ha−1, clethodim at 68 and 136 g ha−1, and glufosinate at 740 g ai ha−1 at the boot stage reduced viable seed production of treated plants 94 to 99%. Irrespective of rate, glyphosate and clethodim applied at boot stage reduced progeny emergence by 77 to 95% and 100-seed weight of treated plants 62 to 96% compared to the nontreated check. This research demonstrates the importance of herbicide selection, particularly for controlling johnsongrass plants larger than 30 cm. Additionally, the results demonstrate the benefits of a single application of glyphosate or clethodim at the boot stage of johnsongrass for decreasing the soil seedbank and reducing the success of johnsongrass progeny in future years.

En 2009 y 2012, se realizaron experimentos de campo en Fayetteville, AR, para comparar cuatro herbicidas y tres momentos de aplicación para el control de Sorghum halepense y para evaluar el efecto de aplicaciones tardías de herbicidas durante la temporada de crecimiento sobre el control, la fecundidad, la viabilidad de las semillas, y la emergencia de la progenie de S. halepense. En el primer experimento, glyphosate a 840 g ae ha−1 y clethodim a 68 y 136 g ai ha−1 brindaron 75 y 94% de control de S. halepense de 15 a 60 cm de altura, y hasta un 98% de reducción en el número de plantas establecidas a 4 semanas después del tratamiento (WAT). Glufosinate y nicosulfuron fueron generalmente efectivos en plantas de S. halepense de ≤30 cm de altura. Sin embargo, la eficacia disminuyó al aumentar la altura de S. halepense. En el segundo experimento, glyphosate a 840 g ha−1 brindó al menos 89% de control de S. halepense cuando se aplicó en el estado de engrosamiento por floración o después de la emergencia de la panícula y hasta 95% de reducción en el número de plantas establecidas a 3 WAT. Las aplicaciones de glyphosate a 420 y 840 g ha−1, clethodim a 68 y 136 g ha−1, y glufosinate a 740 g ai ha−1 en el estado de engrosamiento por floración redujeron la producción de semilla viable en 94 a 99%. Sin importar la dosis, glyphosate y clethodim aplicados en el estado de engrosamiento por floración redujeron la emergencia de la progenie en 77 a 95% y el peso de 100 semillas de las plantas tratadas en 62 a 96% al compararse con el testigo no-tratado. Esta investigación demuestra la importancia en la selección de herbicidas, particularmente para controlar plantas de S. halepense de más de 30 cm de altura. Adicionalmente, los resultados demuestran los beneficios de una aplicación sencilla de glyphosate o clethodim en el estadio de engrosamiento por floración para disminuir el banco de semillas y reducir el éxito de la progenie de S. halepense en los años siguientes.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author's E-mail: dbj03@uark.edu.
References
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  • ISSN: 0890-037X
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