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Mesotrione Activity on Crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) as Influenced by Nitrogen Fertilization Rate, Source, and Timing

  • Leslie L. Beck (a1), Aaron J. Patton (a2), Quincy D. Law (a2), Daniel V. Weisenberger (a2), James T. Brosnan (a3), José J. Vargas Almodóvar (a3), Gregory K. Breeden (a3) and Dean A. Kopsell (a3)...
Abstract

Mesotrione, a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide, is labeled for PRE and POST crabgrass control. It has enhanced efficacy on smooth and large crabgrass when applied in conjunction with soil-applied nitrogen (N). The objectives of this study, using crabgrass as the weed species, were to (1) determine the influence of N rate and tissue N concentration on mesotrione activity, (2) determine the influence of N source on mesotrione activity, and (3) determine the influence of N application timing on mesotrione activity. Large crabgrass plants that received 12 kg N ha−1 or more before mesotrione application had more bleached and necrotic leaves compared with plants that received 0 kg N ha−1 7 d after treatment (DAT) in the greenhouse. Although N application rates as high as 98 kg N ha−1 were tested, 90% leaf bleaching and necrosis were observed with rates of 8.9 or 10.1 kg N ha−1 in Tennessee and Indiana, respectively. Nitrogen concentration in large crabgrass leaf and stem tissue on the day of the mesotrione application was closely related to the bleaching and necrosis symptoms observed 7 DAT. Although N rate influenced mesotrione activity, N source did not. Nitrogen application timing was also important, with N applications 3, 1, and 0 d before a mesotrione application having the highest percentage of bleached and necrotic leaves in greenhouse experiments. Both greenhouse and field trials support the finding that N applications in proximity to the mesotrione application enhance herbicide activity. Thus, practitioners can pair N and POST mesotrione applications together or in proximity to enhance crabgrass control.

Mesotrione es un herbicida inhibidor de 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase que está registrado para el control PRE y POST de especies del género Digitaria. Tiene una actividad mayor en Digitaria ischaemum y Digitiaria sanguinalis cuando se aplica en forma conjunta con nitrógeno aplicado al suelo (N). Los objetivos de este estudio, enfocándose en Digitaria, fueron: (1) determinar la influencia de la dosis de N y la concentración de N en el tejido sobre la actividad de mesotrione, (2) determinar la influencia de la fuente de N sobre la actividad de mesotrione, y (3) determinar la influencia del momento de aplicación de N sobre la actividad de mesotrione. Plantas de D. sanguinalis que recibieron 12 kg N ha−1 o más antes de la aplicación de mesotrione, tuvieron más hojas blanqueadas y necróticas que las plantas que recibieron 0 kg N ha−1 a 7 d después del tratamiento (DAT), en el invernadero. Aunque se evaluaron dosis de aplicación de N de hasta 89 kg N ha−1, con dosis de sólo 8.9 ó 10.1 kg N ha−1 se observó 90% blanqueamiento y necrosis foliar, en Tennessee e Indiana, respectivamente. La concentración de N en el tejido foliar y del tallo de D. sanguinalis, el día de la aplicación de mesotrione, estuvo altamente relacionada a los síntomas de blanqueamiento y necrosis observados a 7 DAT. Aunque la dosis de N influenció la actividad de mesotrione, la fuente de N no lo hizo. El momento de aplicación de N también fue importante. Así, las aplicaciones de N a 3, 1, y 0 d antes de la aplicación de mesotrione tuvieron el mayor porcentaje de hojas blanqueadas y necróticas en experimentos de invernadero. Tanto los estudios de invernadero como los de campo apoyan los resultados de que aplicaciones de N cercanas a la aplicación de mesotrione mejoran la actividad del herbicida. De esta forma, los usuarios pueden combinar aplicaciones de N y mesotrione POST o realizarlas en momentos cercanos para mejorar el control de malezas del género Digitaria.

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Corresponding author
Corresponding author's E-mail: lebeck@nmsu.edu.
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Weed Technology
  • ISSN: 0890-037X
  • EISSN: 1550-2740
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