Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Testing Control Options for Western Salsify (Tragopogon dubius) on Conservation Reserve Program Lands

  • Jane M. Mangold (a1) and Allison L. Lansverk (a1)
Abstract

Western salsify has recently formed dense stands in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands in north-central Montana. Our objective was to test the effects of various herbicide treatments and mowing on western salsify and associated vegetation in CRP lands. Six herbicide treatments and one mowing treatment were applied at three sites in 2010. Herbicide treatments included combinations of glyphosate, 2,4-D, dicamba, and/or metsulfuron-methyl applied when western salsify was either in the rosette or early flowering stage. Mowing was applied at the early flowering stage. Herbicide treatments reduced western salsify and increased perennial grass at one of the three sites, which was the site most dominated by western salsify. When dicamba (0.14 kg ae ha−1) plus 2,4-D (0.48 kg ae ha−1) was applied at the rosette stage, western salsify adult plant density and biomass were reduced to zero and perennial grass biomass increased by 108% in 2010. In 2011, western salsify adult plant density was lower across all herbicide treatments compared to the mowed and nontreated plots. Annual grass density increased by up to 400% when herbicide applications including metsulfuron-methyl were applied at the early flowering stage. Mowing did not control western salsify. Results suggest dicamba plus 2,4-D applied at the rosette stage can provide effective control of western salsify and increase perennial grasses without stimulating the emergence of annual grasses.

Recientemente, Tragopogon dubius ha formado poblaciones densas en tierras del Programa de Reservas para la Conservación (CRP) en el centro-norte de Montana. Nuestro objetivo fue el evaluar los efectos de varios tratamientos de herbicidas y chapia sobre T. dubius y vegetación asociada en tierras de CRP. Seis tratamientos de herbicidas y un tratamiento de chapia fueron aplicados en tres sitios en 2010. Los tratamientos de herbicidas incluyeron combinaciones de glyphosate, 2,4-D, dicamba, y/o metsulfuron-methyl aplicadas cuando T. dubius estuvo en el estado de roseta o de floración temprana. La chapia fue aplicada en el estado de floración temprana. Los tratamientos de herbicidas redujeron T. dubius e incrementaron las gramíneas perennes en uno de los tres sitios, el cual fue el sitio dominado por T. dubius. Cuando se aplicó dicamba (0.14 kg ae ha−1) más 2,4-D (0.48 kg ae ha−1) en el estado de roseta, la densidad y biomasa de plantas adultas de T. dubius se redujeron a cero, y la biomasa de gramíneas perennes incrementó 108% en 2010. En 2011, la densidad de plantas adultas de T. dubius fue menor en todos los tratamientos de herbicidas en comparación con las parcelas con chapia o sin tratamiento. La densidad de gramíneas anuales incrementó en 400% cuando las aplicaciones de herbicidas incluyeron metsulfuron-methyl y fueron realizadas en el estado de floración temprana. La chapia no controló T. dubius. Los resultados sugieren que dicamba más 2,4-D aplicados en el estado de roseta pueden brindar un control efectivo de T. dubius e incrementar las poblaciones de gramíneas perennes sin estimular la emergencia de gramíneas anuales.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author's E-mail: jane.mangold@montana.edu
References
Hide All
Anonymous. 2001. Escort® herbicide product label. DuPont Publication No. H-65521. Wilmington, DE: E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company.
Beck, K. G. 1999. Biennial thistles. Pages 145161 in Sheley, R. L. and Clark, J. K., eds. Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Corvallis, OR Oregon State University Press.
Clements, D. R., Upadhyaya, M. K., and Bos, S. J. 1999. The biology of Canadian weeds. 110. Tragopogon dubius Scop., Tragopogon pratensis L., and Tragopogon porrifolius L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 79: 153163.
Cranston, R. S., Woods, J. A., and Blumenauer, D. 1986. Meadow goatsbeard control on rangeland. Expert Committee on Weeds−Western Canada. 1986 Res. Rep. 3:69.
Crawford, J. A., VanDyke, W., and Meyers, S. M. 1986. Fall diet of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscures pallidus) in Oregon. Great Basin Nat. 46:123127.
Dickerson, J. R. and Fay, P. K. 1982. Biology and control of houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale). Proc. Western Soc. Weed Sci. 35:8385.
Gross, K. L. and Werner, P. 1982. Colonizing abilities of “biennial” plant species in relation to ground cover: implications for the distributions in a successional sere. Ecology. 63:921931.
Haferkamp, M. R. 2001. Annual bromes—good or bad? Rangelands. 23:3235.
Haferkamp, M. R., Velsky, J. D., Borman, M. M., and Heitschmidt, R. K., and Currie, P. O. 1993. Effects of mechanical treatments and climatic factors on the productivity of Northern Great Plains rangelands. J. Range. Manage. 46:346350.
Knezevic, S. 2009. Controlling common mullein in pastures. University of Nebraska-Lincoln CropWatch. http://cropwatch.unl.edu/web/cropwatch/archive?articleId=.ARCHIVES.2009.CROP12.WEEDS_COMMON_MULLEIN.HTM. Accessed: September 13, 2012.
Mack, R. N. 2011. Fifty years of 'waging war on cheatgrass', research advances, while meaningful control languishes. Pages 253265 in Richardson, D. M., ed. Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology: The Legacy of Charles Elton. Oxford, UK Wiley-Blackwell.
Mueggler, W. F. and Stewart, W. L. 1980. Grassland and shrubland habitat types of western Montana. United States Department of Agriculture -Forest Service General Technical Report INT-66. Pages 154 p.
National Climatic Data Center. 2013. www.noaa.gov. Accessed: January 9, 2013.
Novak, S. J., Soltis, D. E., and Soltis, P. S. 1991. Ownbey's Tragopogons: 40 years later. Am. J. Bot. 37:487499.
Rice, P.M. 2012. INVADERS Database System. (http://invader.dbs.umt.edu). Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812-4824. Accessed: April 27, 2012.
Rinella, M. J., Mangold, J. M., Espeland, E. K., Sheley, R. L., and Jacobs, J. S. 2012. Long-term population dynamics of seeded plants in invaded grasslands. Ecol. Applic. 22:13201329.
Software, SAS. 2010. Version 9.3 of the SAS System for Microsoft Windows. Cary, NC SAS Institute Inc.
Sheley, R. L. and Jacobs, J. S. 1997. Response of spotted knapweed and grass to picloram and fertilizer combinations. J. Range Manage. 50:263267.
Sheley, R. L., Jacobs, J. S., Halstvedt, M. B., and Duncan, C. A. 2000. Spotted knapweed and grass response to herbicide treatments. J. Range Manage. 53:176182.
Sheley, R. L., Martin, J. M., and Jacobs, J. S. 2004. Integrating 2, 4-D and sheep grazing to rehabilitate spotted knapweed infestations. J. Range Manage. 57:371375.
Upadhyaya, M. K., Qi, M. Q., Furness, N. H., and Cranston, R. S. 1993. Meadow salsify and western salsify: two rangeland weeds of British Columbia. Rangelands. 15:148150.
(USDA-FSA) United States Department of Agriculture Farm Service Agency. 2012. https://www.fsa.usda.gov/FSA/webapp?area=home&subject=copr&topic=crp. Accessed September 13, 2012.
Whitson, T. D. and Koch, D. W. 1998. Control of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) with herbicides and perennial grass competition. Weed Technol. 12:391396.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Technology
  • ISSN: 0890-037X
  • EISSN: 1550-2740
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-technology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed