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Volunteer Corn (Zea mays) Interference in Dry Edible Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

  • Gustavo M. Sbatella (a1), Andrew R. Kniss (a1), Emmanuel C. Omondi (a1) and Robert G. Wilson (a2)
Abstract

Volunteer corn can affect dry bean by reducing yields; expanding the life cycle of insects, mites, and pathogens; interfering with harvest; and contaminating bean seed. Field studies were conducted at Lingle, WY, and Scottsbluff, NE, to determine the relationship between volunteer corn density and dry bean yield, establish the proper time of volunteer corn removal, and determine whether dry bean yield was affected by the method used to remove volunteer corn. Volunteer corn reduced dry bean yields, as recorded in other crops. Growing conditions for each location were different, as indicated by the accumulated growing degree days (GDD): Lingle 2008 (990), Lingle 2009 (780), and Scottsbluff 2009 (957). No difference in dry bean yields was observed between hand removal of volunteer corn and herbicide application. Dry bean yield loss increased with longer periods of volunteer corn competition and ranged from 1.2 to 1.8% yield loss for every 100 GDD that control was delayed. Control measures should be implemented 15 to 20 d after planting when volunteer corn densities are close to 1 plant m−2. Dry bean yield losses also increased as volunteer corn densities increased, with losses from 6.5 to 19.3% for 1 volunteer corn plant m−2. Based on 2015 prices, the cost of controlling volunteer corn would be the equivalent of 102 kg ha−1 of dry bean, and potential losses above 4% would justify control and should not be delayed beyond 15 to 20 d after planting.

El maíz voluntario puede afectar al frijol común al reducir su rendimiento, al expandir el ciclo de vida de insectos, ácaros y patógenos, al interferir con la cosecha, y al contaminar la semilla de frijol. Se realizaron estudios de campo en Lingle, Wyoming, y en Scottsbluff, Nebraska, para determinar la relación entre la densidad de maíz voluntario y el rendimiento del frijol, para establecer el momento apropiado de remoción del maíz voluntario, y para determinar si el rendimiento del frijol fue afectado por el método usado para remover el maíz voluntario. El maíz voluntario redujo los rendimientos del frijol como ha sido documentado en otros cultivos. Las condiciones de crecimiento fueron diferentes para cada localidad, como lo indicó el acumulado de grados día de crecimiento (GDD): Lingle 2008 (990), Lingle 2009 (780), and Scottsbluff 2009 (957). No se observó ninguna diferencia en el rendimiento del frijol entre la remoción manual del maíz voluntario o con aplicaciones de herbicida. La pérdida en el rendimiento del frijol aumentó con períodos más largos de competencia con el maíz voluntario y varió desde 1.2 a 1.8% de pérdida de rendimiento por cada 100 GDD de retraso en el control. Las medidas de control deberían ser implementadas 15 a 20 d después de la siembra cuando las densidades del maíz voluntario están cerca de 1 planta m−2. Las pérdidas de rendimiento también incrementaron al aumentarse la densidad del maíz voluntario, con pérdidas desde 6.5 a 19.3% para 1 planta de maíz voluntario m−2. Con base en los precios de 2015, el costo de controlar maíz voluntario sería equivalente a 102 kg ha−1 de frijol, y pérdidas potenciales superiores a 4% justificarían el control y este no debería ser retrasado más allá de 15 a 20 d después de la siembra.

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Corresponding author
Corresponding author's E-mail: gustavo@uwyo.edu
Footnotes
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Current address: Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA 19530.
Associate Editor for this paper: Prashant Jha, Montana State University.
Footnotes
References
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Weed Technology
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