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Volunteer Glyphosate-Resistant Corn Interference and Control in Glyphosate-Resistant Sugarbeet

  • Andrew R. Kniss (a1), Gustavo M. Sbatella (a2) and Robert G. Wilson (a2)

Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugarbeet is commonly grown in rotation with GR corn, but there is limited information relating to volunteer GR corn interference or control in GR sugarbeet. Field studies were conducted near Lingle, WY and Scottsbluff, NE in 2009 and 2010 to quantify sugarbeet yield loss in response to volunteer corn density and duration of interference, and determine appropriate control practices for use in GR sugarbeet. Hybrid corn resulted in a similar competitive effect on sugarbeet sucrose yield as clumps of F2 volunteer corn. Clumps of volunteer corn were controlled 81% compared with 73% for individual plants. Linear regression indicated sucrose yield loss of 19% for each corn plant m−2 up to 1.7 plants m−2 at three of four experimental sites. Pearson correlation coefficients between percentage sucrose yield loss and proportion of sunlight reaching the top of the sugarbeet canopy ranged from −0.42 to −0.92. The duration of corn interference required to cause a 5% sucrose yield loss (Y L5) ranged from 3.5 to 5.9 wk after sugarbeet emergence (WAE) for hand-weeding or herbicide removal, respectively, due to the length of time herbicide-treated volunteer corn continued to shade sugarbeet plants. Differences between herbicide and hand-removal methods were attributed to the time lag between when the treatments were applied and when the corn ceased to block light from the sugarbeet canopy. Sethoxydim generally provided less volunteer corn control compared with either quizalofop or clethodim, and control increased with the addition of an oil adjuvant. If a grower were to implement a volunteer corn control practice 3.5 WAE, economic sugarbeet yield loss would be avoided. In eastern Wyoming and western Nebraska, the sugarbeet crop will typically have between four to eight true leaves at 3.5 WAE, and therefore this would be an optimal time to control volunteer corn. If volunteer corn is being hand weeded, the Y L5 estimate will also increase, and thus the window of time to control volunteer corn would be wider.

La remolacha azucarera resistente al glifosato (GR) es comúnmente cultivada en rotación con maíz GR, pero existe información limitada relacionada a la interferencia o control del maíz voluntario GR en remolacha azucarera GR. En 2009 y 2010 se realizaron estudios de campo cerca de Lingle, Wyoming y Scottsbluff, Nebraska para cuantificar la pérdida en el rendimiento de la remolacha en respuesta a la densidad del maíz voluntario y a la duración de la interferencia, así como para determinar prácticas apropiadas de control para su uso en la remolacha GR. El maíz híbrido tuvo un efecto competitivo similar al de grupos de plantas de maíz voluntario F2 sobre el rendimiento de la sacarosa en la remolacha. Los grupos de plantas de maíz voluntario se controlaron 81% en comparación al 73% de plantas individuales. Una regresión lineal indicó que había una pérdida en el rendimiento de la sacarosa de 19% por cada planta de maíz por m2 hasta 1.7 plantas por m2 en tres de los cuatro sitios experimentales. Los coeficientes de correlación Pearson entre el porcentaje de pérdida de rendimiento de la sacarosa y la porción de luz solar que alcanzó el dosel de la remolacha, variaron de −0.42 a −0.92. La duración de la interferencia de maíz requerida para causar un 5% de pérdida en el rendimiento de la sacarosa (YL5) varió de 3.5 a 5.9 semanas después de la emergencia de la remolacha(WAE) en el caso de remoción por herbicida o deshierba manual, respectivamente, debido a la duración del tiempo que el maíz voluntario tratado con herbicida continuó dando sombra a las plantas de la remolacha. Las diferencias entre el herbicida y la deshierba manual fueron atribuidas al intervalo de tiempo entre cuando los tratamientos se aplicaron y cuando el maíz dejó de bloquear la luz en el dosel de la remolacha. El sethoxydim generalmente proporcionó menor control del maíz voluntariocomparado ya sea con quizalofop o clethodim, y el control se incrementó con la adición de un aceite adyuvante. Si un agricultor fuera a implementar una práctica de control de maíz voluntario 3.5 WAE, la pérdida económica en el rendimiento podría evitarse. En el este de Wyoming y oeste de Nebraska, la remolacha tendría típicamente entre 4 y 8 hojas a las 3.5 WAE, y por lo tanto, este sería un tiempo óptimo para controlar el maíz voluntario. Si el maíz voluntario se elimina manualmente, la estimación YL5 se incrementaría, y por lo tanto, la ventana de oportunidad para controlar el maíz voluntario sería más amplia.

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Weed Technology
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