Skip to main content

Weed Control with Halauxifen-Methyl Applied Alone and in Mixtures with 2,4-D, Dicamba, and Glyphosate

  • Marcelo Zimmer (a1), Bryan G. Young (a2) and William G. Johnson (a3)

Synthetic auxin herbicides such as 2,4-D and dicamba are often utilized to control broadleaf weeds in preplant burndown applications to soybean. Halauxifen-methyl is a new synthetic auxin herbicide for broadleaf weed control in preplant burndown applications to corn, cotton, and soybean at low use rates (5 g ae ha–1). Field experiments were conducted to evaluate efficacy and weed control spectrum of halauxifen-methyl applied alone and in mixtures with 2,4-D (560 g ae ha–1), dicamba (280 g ae ha–1), and glyphosate (560 g ae ha–1). Glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed was controlled with halauxifen-methyl applied alone (90% control) and in mixtures (87% to 97% control) 35 d after treatment (DAT). Common ragweed was controlled 93% with halauxifen-methyl applied alone and 91% to 97% in mixtures 35 DAT. Halauxifen-methyl applied alone resulted in poor giant ragweed control 21 DAT (73% control); however, mixtures of halauxifen-methyl with 2,4-D, dicamba, or glyphosate controlled giant ragweed (86% to 98% control). Halauxifen-methyl alone resulted in poor redroot pigweed control (62% control) 21 DAT; however, mixtures of halauxifen-methyl with dicamba, 2,4-D, or glyphosate controlled redroot pigweed (89% to 98% control). Halauxifen-methyl controls GR horseweed and common ragweed applied alone and in mixtures with other synthetic auxin herbicides and glyphosate. Furthermore, mixing 2,4-D or dicamba with halauxifen-methyl can increase the weed control spectrum in preplant burndown applications.

Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Marcelo Zimmer, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. (E-mail:
Hide All
Ali, A, Streibig, JC, Duus, J, Andreasen, C (2013) Use of image analysis to assess color response on plants caused by herbicide application. Weed Technol 27:604611
Anonymous (2010) Clarity® herbicide. Accessed: September 12, 2017
Anonymous (2013) Shredder® 2,4-D LV6. Accessed: September 12, 2017
Anonymous (2017) ElevoreTM. Accessed: September 12, 2017
Braz, GBP, Oliveira, RS, Zobiole, LHS, Rubin, RS, Voglewede, C, Constantin, J, Takano, HK (2017) Sumatran fleabane (Conyza sumatrensis) control in no-tillage soybean with diclosulam plus halauxifen-methyl. Weed Technol 31:184192
Brown, LR, Shropshire, C, Sikkema, PH (2016) Control of glyphosate-resistant Canada fleabane in corn with preplant herbicides. Can J Plant Sci 96:932934
Bruce, JA, Kells, JJ (1990) Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) control in no-tillage soybeans (Glycine max) with preplant and preemergence herbicides. Weed Technol 4:642647
Byker, HP, Soltani, N, Robinson, DE, Tardif, FJ, Lawton, MB, Sikkema, PH (2013) Control of glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) with dicamba applied preplant and postemergence in dicamba-resistant soybean. Weed Technol 27:492496
[EFSA] European Food Safety Authority (2014) Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance halauxifen‐methyl (XDE‐729 methyl). EFSA J 12:3913 93 p
Epp, JB, Alexander, AL, Balko, TW, Buysse, AM, Brewster, WK, Bryan, K, Daeuble, JF, Fields, SC, Gast, RE, Green, RA, Irvine, NM, Lo, WC, Lowe, CT, Renga, JM, Richburg, JS, Ruiz, JM, Satchivi, NM, Schmitzer, PR, Siddall, TL, Webster, JD, Weimer, MR, Whiteker, GT, Yerkes, CN (2016) The discovery of Arylex TM active and Rinskor TM active: Two novel auxin herbicides. Bioorg Med Chem 24:362371
Ferreira, T, Rasband, W (2012) ImageJ user guide (IJ 1.46r). Accessed: October 9, 2017
Ganie, ZA, Jhala, AJ (2017) Glyphosate-resistant common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in Nebraska: confirmation and response to postemergence corn and soybean herbicides. Weed Technol 31:225237
Gibson, KD, Johnson, WG, Hillger, DE (2005) Farmer perceptions of problematic corn and soybean weeds in Indiana. Weed Technol 19:10651070
Heap, I (2017) The international survey of herbicide resistant weeds. Accessed: September 13, 2017
Johnson, B, Loux, M, Nordby, D, Sprague, C, Nice, G, Westhoven, A, Stachler, J (2006) The glyphosate, weeds, and crops series: biology and management of giant ragweed. Accessed: October 15, 2017
Jordan, T, Nice, G, Smeda, R, Sprague, C, Loux, M, Johnson, B (2007) The glyphosate, weeds, and crops series: biology and management of common ragweed. Purdue Ext Publ GWC-14. https// Accessed: September 15, 2017
Landini, G (2009) Threshould colour: ImageJ. Accessed: October 13, 2017
Kruger, GR, Davis, VM, Weller, SC, Johnson, WG (2010a) Control of horseweed (Conyza canadensis) with growth regulator herbicides. Weed Technol 24:425429
Kruger, GR, Davis, VM, Weller, SC, Johnson, WG (2010b) Growth and seed production of horseweed (Conyza canadensis) populations after exposure to postemergence 2,4-D. Weed Sci 58:413419
Loux, M, Stachler, J, Johnson, B, Nice, G, Davis, V, Nordby, D (2006) Biology and management of horseweed. The glyphosate, weeds, and crops series. Purdue Extension. Accessed: September 11, 2017
Loux, MM, Doohan, D, Dobbles, AF, Johnson, WG, Young, BG, Legleiter, TR, Hager, A (2017) 2017 Weed control guide for Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. Accessed: September 8, 2017. 216 p
Mahoney, KJ, Shropshire, C, Sikkema, PH (2017) Post-emergence herbicides for control of glyphosate- resistant Canada fleabane in corn. Can J Plant Sci 97:206209
Mithila, J, Hall, JC, Johnson, WG, Kelley, KB, Riechers, DE (2011) Evolution of resistance to auxinic herbicides: Historical perspectives, mechanisms of resistance, and implications for broadleaf weed management in agronomic crops. Weed Sci 59:445457
Montgomery, GB, Treadway, JA, Reeves, JL, Steckel, LE (2017) Effect of time of day of application of 2,4-D, dicamba, glufosinate, paraquat, and saflufenacil on horseweed (Conyza canadensis) control. Weed Technol 31:550556
Payne, KK, Sleugh, BB, Bradley, KW (2010) Impact of herbicides and application timing on weed control, yield, and nutritive value of tall fescue pastures and hayfields. Weed Technol 24:515522
Schmitzer, PR, Balko, TW, Daeuble, JF, Epp, JB, Satchivi, NM, Siddall, TL, Weimer, MR, Yerkes, CN (2015) Discovery and SAR of halauxifen methyl: a novel auxin herbicide. Pages 247260 in Maienfisch P & Stevenson TM eds., Discovery and Synthesis of Crop Protection Products. ACS Symposium Series. American Chemical Society. New York: Oxford University Press
Thompson, MA, Steckel, LE, Ellis, AT, Mueller, TC (2007) Soybean tolerance to early preplant applications of 2,4-D ester, 2,4-D amine, and dicamba. Weed Technol 21:882885
Vink, JP, Soltani, N, Robinson, DE, Tardif, FJ, Lawton, MB, Sikkema, PH (2012a) Glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) control with preplant herbicides in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Can J Plant Sci 92:913922
Vink, JP, Soltani, N, Robinson, DE, Tardif, FJ, Lawton, MB, Sikkema, PH (2012b) Glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) control in dicamba-tolerant soybean. Weed Technol 26:422428
Wilson, JS, Worsham, DA (1988) Combinations of nonselective herbicides for difficult to control weeds in no-till corn, Zea mays, and soybeans, Glycine max . Weed Sci 36:648652
Van Wychen, L (2016) 2016 Survey of the most common and troublesome weeds in broadleaf crops, fruits, & vegetables in the United States and Canada. Weed Science Society of America National Weed Survey Dataset. Accessed: October 15, 2017
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Technology
  • ISSN: 0890-037X
  • EISSN: 1550-2740
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-technology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed