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Weed Management with Glyphosate- and Glufosinate-Based Systems in PHY 485 WRF Cotton

  • Jared R. Whitaker (a1), Alan C. York (a2), David L. Jordan (a2) and A. Stanley Culpepper (a3)
Abstract

Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth has become a serious pest in parts of the Cotton Belt. Some GR cotton cultivars also contain the WideStrike™ insect resistance trait, which confers tolerance to glufosinate. Use of glufosinate-based management systems in such cultivars could be an option for managing GR Palmer amaranth. The objective of this study was to evaluate crop tolerance and weed control with glyphosate-based and glufosinate-based systems in PHY 485 WRF cotton. The North Carolina field experiment compared glyphosate and glufosinate alone and in mixtures applied twice before four- to six-leaf cotton. Additional treatments included glyphosate and glufosinate mixed with S-metolachlor or pyrithiobac applied to one- to two-leaf cotton followed by glyphosate or glufosinate alone on four- to six-leaf cotton. All treatments received a residual lay-by application. Excellent weed control was observed from all treatments on most weed species. Glyphosate was more effective than glufosinate on glyphosate-susceptible (GS) Palmer amaranth and annual grasses, while glufosinate was more effective on GR Palmer amaranth. Annual grass and GS Palmer amaranth control by glyphosate plus glufosinate was often less than control by glyphosate alone but similar to or greater than control by glufosinate alone, while mixtures were more effective than either herbicide alone on GR Palmer amaranth. Glufosinate caused minor and transient injury to the crop, but no differences in cotton yield or fiber quality were noted. This research demonstrates glufosinate can be applied early in the season to PHY 485 WRF cotton without concern for significant adverse effects on the crop. Although glufosinate is often less effective than glyphosate on GS Palmer amaranth, GR Palmer amaranth can be controlled with well-timed applications of glufosinate. Use of glufosinate in cultivars with the WideStrike trait could fill a significant void in current weed management programs for GR Palmer amaranth in cotton.

El Amaranthus palmeri resistente al glifosato (GR) se ha convertido en un serio problema en algunas partes de la Faja Algodonera. Algunos de los cultivares de algodón GR también contienen la característica de resistencia a insectos WideStrike™, la cual confiere tolerancia al glufosinato. El uso de sistemas de manejo con base en glufosinato en este tipo de cultivares podría ser una opción para el manejo de Amaranthus palmeri GR. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la tolerancia del cultivo y el control de malezas con sistemas a base de glifosato y a base de glufosinato en algodón PHY 485 WRF. El experimento de campo en Carolina del Norte comparó glifosato y glufosinato por sí solos y en mezclas aplicadas al algodón dos veces antes de la etapa de 4- a 6-hojas. Tratamientos adicionales incluyeron glifosato y glufosinato mezclados con S-metolachlor o pyrithiobac aplicados en la etapa de 1- a 2-hojas, seguidos por glifosato o glufosinato solo, en la etapa de 4- a 6-hojas. Todos los tratamientos recibieron una aplicación residual final. Se observó un excelente control de malezas en la mayoría de las especies en todos los tratamientos. El glifosato fue más efectivo que el glufosinato en Amaranthus palmeri susceptible al glifosato (GS) y zacates anuales, mientras que el glufosinato fue más efectivo en Amaranthus palmeri GR. El control de zacates anuales y Amaranthus palmeri GS con glifosato más glufosinato fue frecuentemente menor que con glifosato aplicado solo, pero fue similar o mayor que el control con glufosinato solo. Sin embargo, las mezclas fueron más efectivas que cualquier herbicida aplicado solo para el control de Amaranthus palmeri GR. El glufosinato causó un daño mínimo y pasajero al cultivo, pero no se notaron diferencias en el rendimiento o en la calidad de la fibra. Esta investigación demuestra que el glufosinato puede ser aplicado temprano durante la temporada de crecimiento del algodón PHY 485 WRF, sin tener que preocuparse por los efectos adversos significativos en el cultivo. Aunque el glufosinato es frecuentemente menos efectivo que el glifosato en Amaranthus palmeri GS, el Amaranthus palmeri GR puede ser controlado con aplicaciones oportunas de glufosinato. El uso de glufosinato en cultivares con la característica WideStrike podría llenar un vacío en los actuales programas de manejo de malezas para Amaranthus palmeri GR en el cultivo del algodón.

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Corresponding author's E-mail: jared@uga.edu.
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Weed Technology
  • ISSN: 0890-037X
  • EISSN: 1550-2740
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-technology
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