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Winter Annual Broadleaf Weeds and Winter Wheat Response to Postemergence Application of Two Saflufenacil Formulations

  • John C. Frihauf (a1), Phillip W. Stahlman (a2), Patrick W. Geier (a2) and Dallas E. Peterson (a1)
Abstract

Field experiments in winter wheat were initiated at two locations in the fall of 2006 and 2007 to evaluate winter annual broadleaf weeds and winter wheat response to POST applications of two saflufenacil formulations applied alone and in combination with 2,4-D amine. Emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and water-dispersible granule (WG) formulations of saflufenacil at 13, 25, and 50 g ai ha−1 were applied with 1.0% (v/v) crop oil concentrate (COC) and mixed with 2,4-D amine at 533 g ae ha−1 without adjuvant. Regardless of rate or formulation, saflufenacil plus COC and saflufenacil plus 2,4-D amine controlled blue mustard ≥ 91% at 17 to 20 d after treatment (DAT) compared with ≤ 50% control with 2,4-D amine alone. At least 25 g ha−1 of saflufenacil EC was necessary to control flixweed > 90%. Excluding COC from saflufenacil plus 2,4-D amine reduced flixweed control from the saflufenacil WG formulation more than the EC formulation. Most saflufenacil treatments did not control henbit satisfactorily (≤ 80%). Wheat foliar necrosis increased with increasing saflufenacil rate to as high as 30% at 3 to 6 DAT, but declined to < 15% at 10 to 20 DAT and was not evident at 30 DAT. Saflufenacil rate, formulation, and mixing with 2,4-D amine also influenced wheat stunting, but to a lesser extent than foliar necrosis. Saflufenacil EC consistently caused greater foliar necrosis and stunting on wheat than saflufenacil WG. Leaf necrosis and stunting were reduced by tank-mixing saflufenacil formulations with 2,4-D amine without COC. Grain yields of most saflufenacil treatments were similar to 2,4-D amine under weedy conditions and herbicide treatments had no effect on grain yield in weed-free experiments. Saflufenacil formulations at 25 to 50 g ha−1 with 2,4-D amine and saflufenacil WG at 25 to 50 g ha−1 with COC can control winter annual broadleaf weeds with minimal injury (< 15%) and no grain yield reductions. The addition of saflufenacil as a POST-applied herbicide would give wheat growers another useful tool to control annual broadleaf weeds, including herbicide-resistant weed species.

Se iniciaron experimentos de campo en cultivos de Triticum aestivum L., en dos locaciones en el otoño de 2006 y 2007, para evaluar las malezas anuales de hoja ancha de invierno y la respuesta del cultivo a las POST aplicaciones de dos fórmulas de saflufenacil aplicadas individualmente o en combinación con 2,4-D amina. Las fórmulas de saflufenacil concentrado ó emulsificable (EC) y granulado soluble en agua (WG) a 13, 25, y 50 g ia ha−1 se aplicaron con 1.0% v/v de concentrado de aceite(COC) y se mezcló con 2,4-D amina a 533 g ea ha−1 sin adyuvante. Sin importar la dosis o la fórmula, el saflufenacil más COC y el saflufenacil más 2,4-D amina controlaron la Chorispora tenella (Pallas) ≥ 91% entre los 17 a 20 días después del tratamiento, comparado con ≤ 50% de control con sólo el 2,4-D amina. Para controlar la Descurainia sophia L. Webb en > 90%. se necesitó al menos 25 g ha−1 de saflufenacil EC. La eliminación COC de la fórmula de saflufenacil más 2,4-D amina redujo el control de Descurainia sophia L. Webb, a partir de la fórmula de saflufenacil WG más que la fórmula con EC. La mayoría de los tratamientos de saflufenacil no controlaron satisfactoriamente el Lamium amplexicaule L., LAMAM (≤ 80%). La necrosis foliar del Triticum aestivum L., se incrementó con una mayor dosis de saflufenacil hasta alcanzar 30% de los 3 a 6 DAT, pero disminuyó a < 15% de los 10 a los 20 DAT y no fue evidente a los 30 DAT. La dosis de saflufenacil, su fórmula y la mezcla con el 2,4-D amina también tuvo influencia en el achaparramiento del Triticum aestivum L., pero en menor grado que la necrosis foliar. El Saflufenacil EC consistentemente causó mayor necrosis foliar y acaparamiento en la gramínea que el saflufenacil WG. La necrosis de la hoja y el achaparramiento disminuyeron cuando se mezcló la fórmula de saflufenacil con el 2,4-D amina sin COC. Los rendimientos del grano en la mayoría de los tratamientos de saflufenacil fueron similares a los obtenidos con el 2,4-D amina bajo condiciones de maleza abundante y los tratamientos de herbicida no afectaron el rendimiento del grano en experimentos libres de malezas. Las fórmulas de saflufenacil de 25 a 50 g ha−1 con 2,4-D amina y el saflufenacil WG de 25 a 50 g ha−1 con COC, pueden controlar las malezas anuales de hoja ancha de invierno con daño mínimo de (< 15%) y sin disminución del rendimiento del grano. La adición de saflufenacil como un herbicida POST aplicado podría proporcionar a los productores de Triticum aestivum L., de otra herramienta útil para controlar las malezas de hoja ancha incluyendo especies de maleza resistentes al herbicida.

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Corresponding author's E-mail: john.frihauf@basf.com.
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J. C. Frihauf , P. W. Stahlman , K. Al-Khatib , and L. D. Charvat 2010. Saflufenacil absorption and translocation in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. In press.

J. C. Frihauf , P. W. Stahlman , and P. W. Geier 2010. Winter wheat and weed response to postemergence saflufenacil alone and in mixtures. Weed Technol. 24:262268.

P. W. Geier , P. W. Stahlman , and L. D. Charvat 2009. Dose response of five broadleaf weeds to saflufenacil. Weed Technol. 23:313316.

K. Grossmann , R. Niggweg , N. Christiansen , R. Looser , and T. Ehrhardt 2010. The herbicide saflufenacil (Kixor™) is a new inhibitor of protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase activity. Weed Sci. 58:19.

S. Z. Knezevic , A. Datta , J. Scott , and L. D. Charvat 2010a. Application timing and adjuvant type affected saflufenacil efficacy on selected broadleaf weeds. Crop Prot. 29:9499.

S. Z. Knezevic , A. Datta , J. Scott , and L. D. Charvat 2010b. Tolerance of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to pre-emergence and post-emergence application of saflufenacil. Crop Prot. 29:148152.

W. T. Molin and K. Hirase 2004. Comparison of commercial glyphosate formulations for control of prickly sida, purple nutsedge, morningglory, and sicklepod. Weed Biol. Manag. 4:136141.

K. N. Reddy and R. M. Zablotowicz 2003. Glyphosate-resistant soybean response to various salts of glyphosate and glyphosate accumulation in soybean nodules. Weed Sci. 51:496502.

P. H. Sikkema , C. Shropshire , and N. Soltani 2008. Tolerance of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oats (Avena sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to saflufenacil. Crop Prot. 27:14951497.

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Weed Technology
  • ISSN: 0890-037X
  • EISSN: 1550-2740
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-technology
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