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As in Chapter 4, the list of Proverbial virtues produced in Chapter 3 is again compared with Aristotle’s list of moral virtues in order to discover the underlying factors that explain both. Assessing in depth the similarities and differences between the virtue lists of Proverbs and Aristotle, this chapter focuses on their notions of courage, work, speech and friendship. I examine apparent and actual differences in these virtues and discuss the historical, social and doctrinal factors that underlie them. Why, for instance, do Aristotle and Proverbs show marked interest in honor? Or how might Proverbs’ focus on work and Aristotle’s omission of the subject be explained?
Suppose you are a reporter in London, England. You are covering a hotly contested general election for parliament. Someone tells you at a social event that there are allegations that John Jones, the Conservative Party leader, has sexually harassed women on his office staff. That “someone” is Jason, a senior election worker for the Labour Party. Jason mentions that a woman in Jones’s office, Martha, has told fellow staffers about his actions. You contact Martha by telephone. She confirms she was sexually harassed by Jones. She hints there may be other victims but refuses to go into detail. Martha says she is considering laying a complaint with the police. “Please don’t use my name,” she asks.
Media ethics, the study and application of the norms of journalism, should confront the most important questions that swirl around contemporary practice.
Today, these normative questions arise from a revolutionary change in journalism and information media in general: the evolution of a digital media that is global in reach, use, and impact. Journalism is now distributed along global, digital networks. Moreover, journalism is created by individuals who are not professional, mainstream journalists. The capacity to publish to a public is now in the hands of anyone with access to the Internet. Professional journalists, who once dominated the media sphere, now share the space with tweeters, bloggers, citizen journalists, and social media users around the world.
This introductory chapter introduces the topics of the book and its main purposes in light of past scholarship. It emphasises how people hold contrasting perspectives and assumptions about the place of emotions in human social life. These contrasting orientations unfold into different approaches to educating emotions, and for how teachers should treat students, in relation to their emotional experiences and expressions. It first examines some possible assumptions that readers may have about the role of emotions in education. These assumptions are examples of contrasting perspectives about emotions and education. These are (1) that education does not particularly involve emotions, and (2) that emotions are a part of education, but this is non-controversial, with a consensus on the topic established. The chapter explores these assumptions and challenges them. The last section of the chapter explains the goals of this book, and gives an overview of the main contents of the chapters that follow.
The problem we address in this chapter is easy enough to state: Relatively simple algorithms, when duplicated many-fold and arrayed in parallel, produce systems capable of generating highly creative and nuanced solutions to real-world challenges. The catch is that the autonomy and architecture that make these systems so powerful also makes them difficult to control or even understand.
Automated systems that process vast amounts of data about individuals and communities have become a transformative force within contemporary societies and institutions. Governments and businesses, which adopt and develop new techniques of collecting and analyzing information, rely on algorithms in the decision-making process in various sectors: like banking, political marketing, health, and criminal justice. One of the early adopters of the automated systems are also welfare agencies responsible for the distribution of welfare benefits and management of social policies. These new ways of using technology highlight efficiency, standardization, and resource optimization as benefits. However, the debate about artificial intelligence (AI) and algorithms should not be limited to questions about its technical capabilities and functionalities. So too is the creation and implementation of technological innovations a significant normative and ethical challenge for our society. The decision to process data and use certain algorithms is structured and motivated by specific political and economic factors. Therefore, just as argued by Winner, technical artifacts pose political qualities and are far from being neutral.
This chapter introduces the book’s argument and provide the necessary context for it, addressing ethics in the Old Testament, virtue ethics, objections to this project, the moral philosophers used therein, including Aristotle, Aquinas and MacIntyre, as well as an outline of chapters and methodology.
Happiness has been a major topic of philosophical and other forms of investigation throughout history. Happiness has often been held as an end and a means to good life. People have generally sought happiness, and happiness is related in common and academic discourse to progress, success, and value. However, not all traditions prize happiness, and the definition of happiness and its implications for social life and education are contested. How to measure it, whether one can measure it, and how to know it when you see it, are some puzzles psychologists and philosophers (among others) grapple with. This chapter gives a brief history of the concept of happiness alongside other concepts, of eudemonia and well-being, from philosophical orientations, in psychology, and from the perspective of the politics of emotions. It traces how these views have shaped educational aims and strategies. The analysis here emphasises the need for consideration of more critical approaches to happiness as an educational aim, despite the praise of happiness as a good in itself in much of western philosophy and psychology.
Philosophers throughout history have pondered the relationship between emotions, rationality, and morality, and their implications for education. This chapter presents an overview of basic points and issues of contention within and across philosophical perspectives related to these topics. It considers particularly deontology, consequentialism, virtue ethics, care ethics and other relational views, and existentialism. A significant part of the chapter explores virtue ethics, as virtue ethics is seen to philosophically undergird the majority of morally-oriented social and emotional learning and character education approaches in western societies . The role in virtue ethics of emotions in moral and social life overlaps in some cases with those found in the social sciences, as well as those seen within some eastern traditions. Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism will also be discussed here. The chapter thus summarises major insights and points of debate across philosophies related to educating emotions.
Global media ethics is the study and application of the norms that should guide the responsible use of informational, public media that is now global in content, reach, and impact. Global media ethics is not the empirical study of globalization as a complex phenomenon affecting culture, economics, and communication. It is the analysis of the ethical impact of globalization on news media, whose original codes of ethics were codified about a century ago when journalism was non-digital and non-global.
The list of Proverbial virtues produced in Chapter 3 is compared with Aristotle’s list of moral virtues in order to discover the underlying factors that explain both. Assessing in depth the similarities and differences between the virtue lists of Proverbs and Aristotle, this chapter focuses on their notions of honor, shame, humility and pride. I examine apparent and actual differences in these virtues and discuss the historical, social and doctrinal factors that underlie them. Why, for instance, do Aristotle and Proverbs show marked interest in honor? Or how might Proverbs’ focus on work and Aristotle’s omission of the subject be explained?
Western news journalism is more than 600 years old, first appearing as newsbooks and one-page broadsides in late sixteenth-century Europe, several decades after Gutenberg’s printing press. The ethics of journalism – debate about journalism’s purpose and practice – began almost immediately. What was this brash new intruder into the highly censored public spheres of England, France, Germany, the lowlands, and beyond? The focus on journalism in the centuries ahead would only intensify, as the press became “the media,” and the media became a global and digital behemoth.
In this text, the role of emotions in education and society has been examined from various perspectives, particularly from psychological, philosophical, and other theoretical and political views. To develop more in-depth understanding about emotions in social life, a number of emotional virtues have also been explored at length. These include basic emotions, like happiness, sadness, and fear; emotional virtues often idealised, such as gratitude and compassion; and more complex emotional and cognitive-based dispositions prized in contemporary education and society, like resilience, grit, and mindfulness. A complicated account has been given, based on an interdisciplinary orientation toward emotional virtues and educating emotions in society. As seen here, the means and ends of educating emotional virtues are not simple and straightforward, given diversity in experiences, identities, and norms around emotional expectations in society. While educational implications have been discussed across chapters, thus far such considerations have been specific to particular emotional domains and contexts. This conclusion elaborates further on a more global perspective on educating emotional virtues in schools and society.
The chapter summarizes the argument made throughout the book: Symbols mediate our relationship to physical facts and material culture; The use of symbols enables us to construct and thus manipulate social reality; Symbolic forms have symbolic functions that are multiple, changing and conflictual; Symbolic power can turn into symbolic violence; and Language as symbolic power has been transformed by the use of symbolic systems like the Internet. It then discusses the implications of viewing language as symbolic power both for applied linguistic research and for communicative language teaching. It reflects on the role symbolic power plays in educational practice and it examines the challenging issue of how to deal with politics in the language classroom and the ethical questions this raises. The chapter ends with an analysis of Toni Morrison’s Nobel lecture and her memorable statement: “We die. That may be the meaning of life. But we do language. That may be the measure of our lives.”
As arbitration specialists (arbitrators and practicing lawyers) build their credentials, their paths often cross in scholarship, conferences, and arbitral proceedings. Depending on their relationships with one another, both professional and personal, an appearance of impropriety (conflict of interest) may appear. This appearance is often more an illusion than reality because to the uninitiated the arbitral process seems to be the domain of a secretive group of insiders. In fact, there is a high level of transparency in the selection of arbitrators. Required disclosures flesh out any potential conflict of interest between the arbitrators and the parties. Most arbitrators will voluntarily remove themselves from consideration in order to ensure their professional integrity in the arbitration community. This is especially the case when there are justifiable doubts as to their independence and impartiality. Also, parties may challenge the appointment or retention of an arbitrator in cases of apparent bias.
Family physicians are role models for their societies in disaster management and have an important place in it. This study was carried out during the specialty training of the residents, who are currently family physicians fighting against COVID-19 in the field, and was aimed to identify the awareness levels of residents regarding the roles and duties of family physicians before, during, and after disasters and to increase their awareness of disaster medicine and management.
The duties and responsibilities of a family physician in disasters should be a part of their specialty training. This study has contributed to the limited literature, increased awareness, and opened a new avenue of research for studies to be conducted with family physicians by demonstrating the current situation of family physicians in disaster management.
This is an observational and descriptive study. The knowledge, experience, opinions, willingness, attitudes of the residents, and the awareness levels of the residents regarding their roles and duties in a disaster were evaluated along with their sociodemographic information. The surveys were applied in the family medicine clinics of the all residents by the interview method (n = 233).
Only 9.2% of the residents stated that they had received training on disaster medicine where they currently work. The knowledge level of the residents on this subject was found as ‘Unsure’. In total, 80% of the residents stated that family physicians should have a role in disasters. It was found that 83.3% of the residents had never joined a disaster drill, 94.3% had never participated in making or applying a disaster plan, and 97.7% had never worked in any disaster.
The residents participating in the study lacked not only information on disaster management but also experience. The residents’ willingness to receive training, work voluntarily, significantly question the curriculum, and specialize in disaster medicine were a positive outcome.
Integration of ethics into technology assessment in healthcare (HTA) reports is directly linked to the need of decision makers to provide rational grounds justifying their social choices. In a decision-making paradigm, facts and values are intertwined and the social role of HTA reports is to provide relevant information to decision makers. Since 2003, numerous surveys and discussions have addressed different aspects of the integration of ethics into HTA. This study aims to clarify how HTA professionals consider the integration of ethics into HTA, so an international survey was conducted in 2018 and the results are reported here.
A survey comprising twenty-two questions was designed and carried out from April 2018 to July 2018. Three hundred and twenty-eight HTA agencies from seventy-five countries were invited to participate in this survey.
Eighty-nine participants completed the survey, representing a participation rate of twenty-seven percent. As to how HTA reports should fulfill their social role, over 84 percent of respondents agreed upon the necessity to address this role for decision makers, patients, and citizens. At a lower level, the same was found regarding the necessity to make value-judgments explicit in different report sections, including ethical analysis. This contrasts with the response-variability obtained on the status of ethical analysis with the exception of the expertise required. Variability in stakeholder-participation usefulness was also observed.
This study reveals the importance of a three-phase approach, including assessment, contextual data, and recommendations, and highlights the necessity to make explicit value-judgments and have a systematic ethical analysis in order to fulfill HTA's social role in guiding decision makers.
This chapter shows that in the German intellectual tradition, Kant, followed by Fichte and Hegel, saw the reliance upon the opinion of others (“recognition”) in a completely different way than the French and British traditions. Specifically, in Germany recognition was seen as a condition not only for self-control, but also for individual self-determination. The chapter provides a detailed explanation of how this shift in orientation became possible, its connection with the “idealistic” presuppositions of German philosophy at the end of the eighteenth century, and the broader political claims of this new interpretation of “recognition”.
Adopting a human rights approach to human subjects research entails shifting an ethic of “avoiding harm” to one of “actively promoting good,” especially in international contexts. The implications for research procedures are discussed as a series of steps in research planning and implementation, selection of participants, and community involvement. Special issues in research with vulnerable populations and in “big data” research are addressed.