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Naval maritime operations entail a permanent concern for safety, ensuring that all crew members receive the necessary information on time. This implies the existence of specific training for improving non-technical skills (NTS). This paper proposes that bridge resource management (BRM) may be determinant for the success of naval maritime operations. Through a literature review on NTS, maritime team training and BRM, the paper presents insights about the way the level of NTS, inherent to BRM, may be determinant for naval officers to operate in safety. We propose that human error may be minimised and safety maximised in military teams operating in the maritime environment through the implementation of an NTS training programme. The paper offers an insight into the importance of safety during maritime operations, focusing on recent international orientations about training requirements, proposing that implementing BRM will be pivotal for the future of the military navy context.
This paper investigates cost-share program attributes that would affect producers' willingness to enroll in a cost-share program to fund the adoption of best management practices to improve water quality and decrease water use. Through a survey administered to Florida agricultural producers, we conducted choice experiments to assess farmers’ preferences for cost-share programs using five attributes: contracting agency, length of contract, annual verification process, costs included, and percent of costs covered. Results suggest that producers prefer cost-share programs with shorter contract lengths, self-monitoring, and administration by agricultural (as opposed to environmental) agencies. Our findings suggest the importance of an existing trust between the local communities and the contracting agencies for higher enrollment rates in cost –share programs. Our results can inform policymakers on ways to increase enrollment rates that move towards long-term environmental goals.
There have been multiple inconsistencies in the manner the COVID-19 pandemic has been investigated and managed by countries. Population-based management (PBM) has been inconsistent, yet serves as a necessary first step in managing public health crises. Unfortunately, these have dominated the landscape within the United States and continue as of this writing. Political and economic influences have greatly influenced major public health management and control decisions. Responsibility for global public health crises and modeling for management are the responsibility of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Health Regulations Treaty (IHR). This review calls upon both to reassess their roles and responsibilities that must be markedly improved and better replicated world-wide in order to optimize the global public health protections and its PBM.
Regional anesthesia has many applications in the emergency department (ED). It has been shown to reduce general anesthetic dose, requirement for post-procedural opioids, and recovery time. We sought to characterize the use of regional anesthesia by Canadian emergency physicians, including practices, perspectives and barriers to use in the ED.
A cross-sectional survey was administered to members of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP), consisting of sixteen multiple choice and numerical response questions. Responses were summarized descriptively as percentages and as the median and inter quartile range (IQR) for quantitative variables.
The survey was completed by 149/1144 staff emergency physicians, with a response rate of 13%. Respondents used regional anesthesia a median of 2 (IQR 0–4) times in the past ten shifts. The most broadly used applications were soft tissue repair (84.5% of respondents, n = 126), fracture pain management (79.2%, n = 118) and orthopedic reduction (72.5%, n = 108). Respondents agreed that regional anesthesia is safe to use in the ED (98.7%) and were interested in using it more frequently (78.5%). Almost all (98.0%) respondents had point of care ultrasound available, however less than half (49.0%) felt comfortable using it for RA. Respondents indicated that they required more training (76.5%), a departmental protocol (47.0%), and nursing assistance (30.2%) to increase their use of RA.
Canadian emergency physicians use regional anesthesia infrequently but express an interest in expanding their use. While equipment is available, additional training, protocols, and increased support from nursing staff are modifiable factors that could facilitate uptake.
Veterinarians often give advice in a persuasive form, a style that has been shown to evoke resistance to change in clients experiencing psychological ambivalence (i.e. those who see both advantages and disadvantages to changing). With this style of communication, veterinarians run the risk of counteracting their purpose to encourage clients to follow recommendations. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centered communication methodology that aims to facilitate clients’ internal motivation to change. In MI, Change Talk represents clients’ own statements expressing consideration of, motivation for or commitment to behavior change and has been shown to be strongly correlated with behavior change. Sustain Talk is corresponding statements related to maintaining the status quo. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the potential of MI to facilitate behavior change in veterinary herd health management (VHHM) by investigating the effect of dairy cattle veterinarians’ MI skills on client Change and Sustain Talk. We recorded VHHM consultancies on 170 Swedish cattle farms performed by 36 veterinarians, randomly distributed into 2 groups: MI veterinarians (n = 18) had received 6-month training in MI and control veterinarians (n = 18) had not received any training. Veterinarians’ MI skills were assessed using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity coding system 4.2.1 and categorized as poor_untrained, poor_trained, near moderate and moderate. Client communication was coded using the Client Language Easy Rating coding system. The effect of MI skills on Change Talk, Sustain Talk and Proportion of Change Talk(Change Talk divided by the sum of Sustain Talk plus Change Talk) was investigated using cross-classified regression models with random intercepts for veterinarian and client (farm). The models also included additional explanatory variables (e.g. type of veterinarian and client’s satisfaction with the consultation). The veterinarian’s MI skills were associated with the client’s Change Talk, but results regarding Sustain Talk or Proportion of Change Talk were inconclusive. Clients of veterinarians reaching the highest (i.e. moderate) MI skills expressed 1.5 times more Change Talk than clients of untrained veterinarians. Clients of general large animal practitioners expressed less Sustain Talk than clients of animal health veterinarians and had higher Proportion of Change Talk. Results indicate that learning to practice MI may be one means to improve adherence to veterinary recommendations and to improve efficiency in VHHM services.
Technical and technological progress in the 21st century, especially emerging geographic information system (GIS) technology, offers new and unprecedented opportunities to counteract the impact of crisis situations and emergencies. Computerization and development of GIS enabled the digital visualization of space for interactive analysis of multiple data in the form of models or simulations. Additionally, computerization, which gives rise to a new quality of database management, requires continuous modernization of computer hardware and software. This study examines selected examples of the implications and impact of the GIS commonly used in Poland.
Dietary patterns more closely resemble actual eating behaviours because multiple food groups, not a single food group or nutrient, are considered. The present study aimed to identify and assess changes of dietary patterns in Fukushima residents.
Dietary data were collected using a short-form FFQ in annual Fukushima Health Management Survey between 2011 and 2013 after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Year- and sex-specific dietary patterns were determined by the principal component analysis.
Evacuation and nonevacuation zones in Fukushima, Japan.
Eligible participants aged ≥16 years answered the FFQ (n 67 358 in 2011, n 48 377 in 2012 and n 40 742 in 2013).
Three identified dietary patterns were assessed similarly in men and women and among years: typical, juice and meat. In total participants, the Spearman’s correlation coefficients between two survey years were 0·70–0·74 for the typical, 0·58–0·66 for the juice and 0·50–0·54 for the meat pattern scores. Adjusted for sociodemographic factors, evacuees had lower typical pattern scores, higher juice pattern scores and the same meat pattern scores compared with non-evacuees. The means of typical pattern scores in evacuees and it of juice pattern scores in non-evacuees continued declining over years. Similar profiles of dietary patterns and trends of pattern scores were observed in participants (n 22 805) who had provided three dietary assessments.
Changes of dietary patterns have been observed between 2011 and 2013. Careful investigation of those with low intake of typical pattern foods and promotion of them, particularly in evacuees, are needed.
Currently, dengue control relies largely on reactive vector control programmes. Proactive vector-control using a rational, well-balanced integrated vector management approach may prove more successful for dengue control. As part of the development of a cluster randomized controlled epidemiological trial, a study was conducted in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The study included one control site (three buildings) and three intervention sites which were treated as follows: targeted outdoor residual spraying only (TORS site, two buildings); deployment of autodissemination devices only (ADD site, four buildings); and the previous two treatments combined (TORS + ADD site, three buildings). The primary entomological measurement was per cent of positive ovitraps—ovitrap index (OI). The effect of each intervention on OI was analyzed by a modified ordinary least squares regression model. Relative to the control site, the TORS and ADD sites showed a reduction in the Aedes OI (−6.5%, P = 0.04 and −8.3%, P = 0.10, respectively). Analysis by species showed that, relative to control, the Ae. aegypti OI was lower in ADD (−8.9%, P = 0.03) and in TORS (−10.4%, P = 0.02). No such effect was evident in the TORS + ADD site. The present study provides insights into the methods to be used for the main trial. The combination of multiple insecticides with different modes of action in one package is innovative, although we could not demonstrate the additive effect of TORS + ADD. Further work is required to strengthen our understanding of how these interventions impact dengue vector populations and dengue transmission.
This final chapter summarizes the insights gained and discusses how far they travel beyond the coffee sector. It first concludes that market-driven schemes only show partial effectiveness – and even then only when allowing the goal posts of a ‘sustainable coffee sector’ to be moved a considerable distance from its original definition. In a second step, it discusses the generalizability of the book’s results. It reiterates that the coffee sector – with a relatively easy-to-trace value chain, a consumer-facing product, and a long history of awareness raising in both industry and civil society – exhibits many features that should benefit the proper operation of market-driven regulatory governance. The fact that it did not appear to succeed in this best-case scenario raises serious questions about the ability of private governance to show better results in other supply chains. It closes by putting the book into conversation with recent work and suggesting implications for academics, practitioners, governments, and consumers.
Changes in soil bulk density (BD), soil organic carbon (SOC) content, SOC stocks and soil labile organic C fractions (mineralizable C (Cmin), microbial biomass C (MBC), dissolved organic C (DOC), particulate organic C (POC), light fraction organic C (LFOC) and permanganate oxidizable C (KMnO4-C)) were explored over 3 years in a double-cropping rice system of southern China. Five organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) inputs were used: (1) 100% from chemical fertilizer (M0), (2) 30% from organic manure, 70% from chemical fertilizer (M30), (3) 50% from organic manure, 50% from chemical fertilizer (M50), (4) 100% from organic manure (M100) and (5) without N fertilizer input, as control (CK). All organic manure treatments decreased BD significantly in the 0–20 cm soil layer compared with CK. The SOC content and stocks with organic manure were significantly higher than in M0 or CK; also, the cumulative amount of SOC stocks in M30 and M50 increased at the plough layer, compared with CK. The non-labile C content increased significantly and the percentage of labile C were significantly higher with organic manure application than in M0 or CK. The soil carbon management index (CMI) also increased significantly under the application of organic manure. Therefore, application of organic manure can increase the pool of stable C in surface layers, and increase content and percentage of labile C. Based on soil carbon storage and CMI, the combined application of 30 or 50% N of organic manure with chemical fertilizer improves carbon cycling services and soil quality in southern China paddy soil.
Palmer amaranth, an annual weed, and Verticillium dahliae, a fungal pathogen, can substantially reduce chile pepper yield. This study clarified implementation strategies for a potential management tactic for Palmer amaranth and V. dahliae in chile pepper — mustard seed meal (MSM). The objectives were to: (1) determine MSM effects on Palmer amaranth seedbanks under different moisture levels, (2) measure glucosinolate degradation in soil hydrated to saturation and field capacity, and (3) determine the effects of decreasing moisture availability on MSM control of Palmer amaranth and V. dahliae. To address Objective 1, seedbanks with and without MSM were hydrated to levels expected to both inhibit and promote germination (flooded, saturated, -0.03, -0.6 MPa). For Objective 2, soil columns with MSM were held at different moisture levels and sampled over time. For Objective 3, Palmer amaranth seeds were incubated with and without MSM, and with polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions comprising a range of water potentials (0, -0.03, -0.6, -1.0, -2.0 MPa). These PEG solutions were also used to hydrate MSM under agar plates with plugs of V. dahliae. All experiments were performed in growth chambers with temperatures and light conditions conducive to Palmer amaranth germination and V. dahliae mycelial growth. MSM-induced mortality in Palmer amaranth seedbanks was greater in soil at field capacity than in saturated soil and flooded soil; however, rates of glucosinolate degradation were greatest in saturated soil. Decreasing water availability progressively decreased the efficacy of MSM on Palmer amaranth because MSM was ineffective on non-germinated seeds. When incubated with PEG solutions with water potentials 0, -0.03 and 0.6 MPa, MSM stopped growth of V. dahliae; however, MSM-induced control of V. dahlae was reduced by water potentials -1.0 and -2.0 MPa. The results of this study indicated that soils hydrated to field capacity maximize MSM-induced control of Palmer amaranth and V. dahliae.
In the present study, a new method for a decision-support system for fungicide administration against the pathogen Botrytis cinerea in vineyards was developed based on Integrated Pest Management principles which identified an infection risk before the appearance of disease symptoms. The proposed method is based on the combination of (i) the phenological observations of the main susceptible stages to infection, (ii) the airborne spores monitoring, (iii) the forecasting of the suitable meteorological conditions for B. cinerea spore germination during the subsequent 4–6 days after the spore detection. Aerobiological, phenological and meteorological analyses were carried out using data from 2008 to 2015 in a vineyard of Northwestern Spain. Aerobiological spore data were obtained using a Lanzoni VPPS-2000 pollen-spore trap. Phenological observations were conducted on 22 plants of Treixadura cultivar following the BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land und Forstwirtschaft, Bundessortenamt und CHemische Industrie) scale. The Magarey generic fungal model was applied for the identification of the main meteorological suitable periods for infection within the susceptible phenological stages of flowering and ripening of berries. Our results showed that climatic conditions favoured fungal development during flowering, although a higher incidence of B. cinerea infection risk-periods occurred during the prior-to-harvest stage of ripening of berries, the most susceptible phenological stage to B. cinerea infection obtained by the proposed methodology. This approach enables more precise targeting in pesticide spraying and reduction in pesticide application from 4–5 to 2–3 times per year at our commercial study. It also illustrates the real-world benefits of integrated disease risk modelling.
This commentary extends on Dixon-Gordon, Conkey, and Woods’ (this volume) review of studies on brief personality disorder treatments by exploring two ways in which this evidence base advances the state of personality disorder treatment, and, relatedly, ways in which findings from short-term and long-term treatment studies might be productively integrated toward the development and testing of better treatments. First, these studies improve the accessibility of personality disorder treatment by testing specific interventions of limited intensity and duration that may be implemented with greater ease by generalist clinicians with less specialized training, time, and program resources. Good Psychiatric Management for borderline personality disorder is offered as an example of a “stepped-care model” in which the delivery of specific short-term interventions could be stratified according to an evidence-based algorithm yielding maximal benefit for the largest number of patients within the shortest amount of time. Second, brief personality disorder treatment studies suggest ways to conceptualize change processes at the level of structural features of treatments and at the level of what is happening in patients’ minds. Change models derived from studies on longer-term personality disorder treatments, such as the generation of “epistemic trust” as posited by the developers of Mentalization-Based Treatment, might be productively applied and empirically evaluated in the setting of short-term treatments.
Our workplace has changed so dramatically that a new term for this chapter was created to describe it, electronicized. This chapter will focus on the associated issues of distraction due to personal electronic devices (PEDs), electronic medical records (EMRs), EMR’s OR equivalent, anesthesia information management systems (AIMS), and alarms. The digital distraction due to the combination of these devices will be described. Specific concerns will be raised regarding PED’s ubiquity as a distinct threat to vigilance that has the potential to be significantly disruptive and potentially injurious. Alarm fatigue due to the quantity and large number of false alarms will also be reviewed in detail
The anesthesia record is more than just a historic snapshot of clinical care. It also serves as a clinical monitor in itself. In electronic form, and as a component of an electronic health record (EHR), its utility is extended to provide data to drive clinical decision support, compliance, research, administrative, and human resource functions with an overall goal of performance improvement.
This chapter examines the importance of geomorphic understanding of river dynamics for managing, restoring, and naturalizing rivers to achieve environmental objectives. Many management efforts are based on the concept of equilibrium adjustments among flow, sediment transport, and channel morphology that presumably lead to the development of stable channel forms. Overviews are provided of geomorphic assessment methods to inform management. Management of rivers is linked to human processes, especially within the context of stream naturalization, which emphasizes the social nature of policy and decision-making that underpins management. The discussion highlights how the setting of goals for management and actual management outcomes are fundamentally social processes. It also emphasizes that factors other than geomorphological considerations are vital considerations in environmental decision-making related to river management. The Natural Channel Design approach to river restoration is compared with process-based approaches. How rivers respond to the removal of dams is also considered. The discussion emphasizes the importance of a watershed perspective on river management.
Field experiments were conducted to standardize protocols for site-specific fertilizer nitrogen (N) management in Bt cotton using Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) chlorophyll meter. Performance of different SPAD-based site-specific N management scenarios was evaluated vis-à-vis blanket fertilizer N recommendation. The N treatments comprised a no-N (control), four fixed-time and fixed N doses (60, 90, 120, and 150 kg N ha-1) including the recommended dose (150 kg ha-1), and eight fixed-time and adjustable N doses based on critical SPAD readings of 45 and 41 at first flowering and boll formation stages, respectively. The results revealed that by applying 45 or 60 kg N ha-1 at thinning stage of the crop and critical SPAD value-guided dose of 45 or 30 kg N ha-1 at first flowering stage resulted in yields similar to that recorded by applying the recommended dose of 150 kg N ha-1. However, significantly higher N use efficiency as well as 30–40% less total fertilizer N use was recorded with site-specific N management. Applying 30 kg N ha-1 at thinning and SPAD meter-guided 45 kg N ha-1 at first flowering were not enough and required additional SPAD meter-guided 45 kg N ha-1 at boll formation for sustaining yield levels equivalent to those observed by following blanket recommendation but resulted in 20% less fertilizer N application. Our data revealed that SPAD meter-based site-specific N management in Bt cotton results in optimum yield with dynamic adjustment of fertilizer N doses at first flowering and boll formation stages. The total amount of N fertilizer following site-specific management strategies was substantially less than the blanket recommendation of 150 kg N ha-1, but the extent may vary in different fields.
Humans are contributing to large carnivore declines around the globe, and conservation interventions should focus on increasing local stakeholder tolerance of carnivores and be informed by both biological and social considerations. In the Okavango Delta (Botswana), we tested new conservation strategies alongside a pre-existing government compensation programme. The new strategies included the construction of predator-proof livestock enclosures, the establishment of an early warning system linked to GPS satellite lion collars, depredation event investigations and educational programmes. We conducted pre- and post-assessments of villagers’ livestock management practices, attitudes towards carnivores and conservation, perceptions of human–carnivore coexistence and attitudes towards established conservation programmes. Livestock management levels were low and 50% of farmers lost livestock to carnivores, while 5–10% of owned stock was lost. Respondents had strong negative attitudes towards lions, which kill most depredated livestock. Following new management interventions, tolerance of carnivores significantly increased, although tolerance of lions near villages did not. The number of respondents who believed that coexistence with carnivores was possible significantly increased. Respondents had negative attitudes towards the government-run compensation programme, citing low and late payments, but were supportive of the new management interventions. These efforts show that targeted, intensive management can increase stakeholder tolerance of carnivores.
Parthenium weed is an invasive species in a growing number of countries where it infests numerous crop fields, including sorghum. Two field studies were conducted to quantify the effect of parthenium weed on the performance of grain sorghum at different weed densities (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 plants m−2) and durations of weed-crop competition (season-long weed-free, weed-free after 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks, and season-long weedy). Our aim was to identify the density threshold and ideal duration to control parthenium weed in sorghum fields. Both field experiments were planned in a randomised complete block design each with three replications in 2016 and were repeated in 2017. Parthenium weed biomass increased significantly with increasing density and competition duration. The increasing parthenium weed density had a linear negative effect on sorghum growth, yield and yield-contributing traits. The highest yield loss, of up to 66%, was recorded at the highest parthenium weed density of 20 plants m−2 when compared to weed-free treatment. In addition, the season-long competition of this weed with sorghum caused 81% reduction in grain yield over weed-free treatment. According to our results, parthenium weed should be managed below a density of 5 plants m−2 and throughout the crop growth duration in grain sorghum fields as it can cause serious yield losses even at low densities and through strong competition at early as well as late growth stages of the crop.