Physics

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JPP Q&A with Wonho Choe

Wonho Choe – Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) was recently appointed as an editorial board member of the Journal of Plasma Physics. To celebrate, Wonho participated in a Q&A with the Journal.

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Charles Meneveau wins the Batchelor Prize 2024

The 2024 Batchelor Prize has been awarded to Cambridge Author, Professor Charles Meneveau, Johns Hopkins University.  Professor Meneveau will receive the plaudit in recognition of his high-impact fundamental contributions to the study of turbulence and wall-bounded flows, and for bringing insightful and rigorous fluid mechanics to the science of wind turbines and wind farms for the benefit of society. …

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Blog upload: Q&A with Quantitative Plant Biology Associate Editor Felix Hartmann

I have a background in physics. As a young student, I was fascinated by quantum mechanics, especially experiments with entangled photons. But when it became clear to me that my physical disability was not compatible with experimental works, I developed a new interest in modeling and simulations. Instead of the fundamental laws of physics, I turned to complex systems, mostly at the interface with biology.

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On the Cover of HPL: Optical control of transverse motion of ionization injected electrons in a laser plasma accelerator

In recent years, the plasma wakefield acceleration driven by ultra-short and ultra-intense laser pulses has become increasingly mature, which can produce electron beams with ultra-high beam density and femtosecond beam duration; By using this electron beam, a new table-top radiation light source with collimation, ultrafast and high brightness can be produced.…

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10 PW peak power femtosecond laser pulses at ELI-NP

The first 1PW laser was commissioned in the USA in the late 1990s with many systems globally coming on-line throughout the 2000s opening up new and exciting areas of science. In the following years many laboratories strived to increase the power, and hence the focussed intensity, to the 10PW regime, to realise new theoretical thresholds of fundamental science. Several lasers throughout the world, are in the process of construction/commissioning to achieve this goal in China, Romania, Czech Republic, and France with others planned in Japan, USA, Russia and the UK. The first of these systems, ELI-NP in Romania, has recently been the first to demonstrate this landmark achievement.

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The long search for Martian life

Life on Mars is the hot topic of the decade. The NASA missions Mars Science Laboratory in Gale Crater and Mars 2020 in Jezero Crater are searching for traces of martian life. The European/Russian rover mission ExoMars 2022 will be launched in September 2022 to search for life in Oxia Planum. In fact, we have been looking for life on Mars since the 1970s when the two Viking landers touched down on the surface of the planet in 1976.

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On the Cover of HPL: Ultra-broadband near-infrared NOPAs based on the nonlinear crystals BiBO and YCOB

Ultrashort and broadband laser sources are formidable tools for a wide range of scientific areas. In the field of ultrafast science, laser pulses lasting only a few optical cycles are used to generate secondary sources employed in probing matter at atomic scales. Such sources are also widely adopted in applications in ultrafast spectroscopy, pump-probe in chemistry, and optical coherence tomography among many other fields.

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Scientists present a comprehensive physics basis for a new fusion reactor design

“JPP is proud to host this set of important papers, which lay out how to use state-of-the-art plasma physics science to design and engineer a fusion reactor experiment. Plasma physicists are part of a vibrant scientific community that is driven by technological advances. We are excited to be the platform chosen by the SPARC team for this set of important scientific publications. This reinforces a standard for the way in which new experiments can be proposed: in an open-access, peer-reviewed format."” – William Dorland

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Introducing QRB Discovery

On the 51st anniversary of Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics (QRB) and on my 4th year as Editor-in-Chief, it is with pleasure that I announce the new open access journal, QRB Discovery from Cambridge University Press that will provide an outlet for exciting new discoveries in the burgeoning field of biophysics.…

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International Women’s Day 2020: Influential women in STEM

International Women’s Day 2020 falls on Sunday, 8th March this year. In the run up to this date, each week day we’ll be highlighting one woman whose accomplishments in science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics not only elevated their fields but also took us one step closer to a gender-equal world.…

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Watch: How to Reduce Drag when Cycling

Cyclists can use up to 90% of their energy overcoming drag, which was the motivation behind the work of Ivaylo Nedyalkov at the University of New Hampshire, who was able to measure the force on each individual cyclist in a train formation to determine the best position to reduce your overall drag.…

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On the Cover of HPL: Petawatt and exawatt class lasers worldwide

An international team of scientific experts has gathered to examine the current status of ultra-high-powered lasers around the world and look to the future to predict what the next generation of laser systems will offer. The culmination of their work is a major review paper ‘Petawatt and Exawatt Class Lasers Worldwide’, which looks at the historical context of this technology, its current and future use, and direction.

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‘Great things are done when (Wo)Men & Mountains meet’. Cécile Morette and the Les Houches Summer School for Theoretical Physics (1951-1972)

This article explores the history of what was surely one of the strongest elements of that social apparatus, and one of the most innovative: the first and most effective ‘crash course’ in theoretical physics, the Les Houches School of Theoretical Physics, a summer school founded in 1951 by the young Cécile Morette (1922-1971), in a small alpine village.

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On the Cover of HPL: Bremsstrahlung emission from high power laser interactions with constrained targets for industrial radiography

Due to the range of size, density, and resolution demands associated with industrial X-ray radiography, there is not a source that is “one-size fits all”... Altering the source characteristics to deliver what is needed requires continued study. This publication explores the X-ray emission from spatially constrained targets compared to standard foil targets. The research results are published in High Power Laser Science and Engineering, Volume 7, No. 2, 2019 (Armstrong, C. D. , et al. Bremsstrahlung emission from high power laser interactions with constrained targets for industrial radiography.)

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2018 JMR Paper of the Year: 3D-printed micro-trusses point the way toward stronger high-temperature ceramics

Congratulations to Huachen Cui, Ryan Hensleigh, Hongshun Chen and Xiaoyu Zheng of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University for their article, Additive Manufacturing and size-dependent mechanical properties of three-dimensional microarchitected, high-temperature ceramic metamaterials (published February 14, 2018 in Volume 33, Issue 3 (Focus Issue on Architected Materials).

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Watch: How does stone skipping work?

By bouncing elastic spheres across the surface of Bear Lake in Utah, researchers have discovered the physics behind stone skipping. The mechanism of ‘water walking’ occurs when a deformed sphere rotates continuously across the surface of the water giving the appearance that the sphere is literally walking on water.…

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JPP board member elected to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

“I feel deeply honoured and I am looking forward to contributing to the important task of the Academy – to promote science and strengthen its role and influence in our society. It will also be interesting to exchange experiences and ideas with the other members,” Professor Tünde Fülöp, of the Division of Subatomic and Plasma Physics at Chalmers University of Technology, and editorial board member of the Journal of Plasma Physics

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MRS Advances Editor’s Choice for Free Access

MRS Advances is community driven, basing our special issue topics on feedback from the community that participates in the Materials Research Society meetings. We look to Society members to propose topics that matter to their materials field and apply a spotlight on a particular aspect of materials research that is tied to a community of scholars who publish, present, and share their results with one another.

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Call for Papers: Early Career Scholars in Materials Science 2020

Journal of Materials Research (JMR) publishes an Annual Issue that is devoted to early career scholars in Materials Science. The Issue invites full length research and review articles by materials researchers, who have completed their Ph.D but not yet achieved full professorship, or senior scientist, at the time of submission.  It also provides a unique opportunity to be highlighted and promoted early in one’s research career and in order to increase attention to these papers, the issue is fully open access.

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Nobel Prize in Physics 2018 awarded for pioneering laser work

(note: this has been adapted from the Nobel Prize committees press release) The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physics 2018“for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics” with one half to Arthur Ashkin, Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, USA “for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems” and the other half jointly to Gérard Mourou, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France & University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA and Donna Strickland, University of Waterloo, Canada “for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses”.

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Analytical Mechanics

Professor Nivaldo A. Lemos takes part in a Q&A "It is hoped that, besides imparting the fundamental notions of analytical mechanics to fill the needs of most students, the book may prepare and persuade some readers to immerse themselves more deeply in, what I believe to be, a beautiful subject."

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Quantum Field Theory for Economics and Finance

Author Belal Baaquie discusses his new book: Quantum Field Theory for Economics and Finance: "Quantum field theory (QFT) has been my primary domain of research. I was inspired to look beyond its applications in physics by the work of K. G. Wilson, who applied QFT to the classical phenomenon of phase transitions. I was convinced that uncertainty in the social sciences could also be similarly modeled by QFT".

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Q&A with Tünde Fülöp

Professor Tünde Fülöp, of the Division of Subatomic and Plasma Physics at Chalmers University of Technology, the newly appointed editorial board member of the Journal of Plasma Physics, participates in a Q&A with the Journal.

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On the Cover of HPL: Research on cleanliness optimization of multisegment disk amplifier based on vectorized flow mode

Rigorous cleanliness on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is essential to assure that 99.5% optical efficiency is maintained on each of its 192 beam lines by minimizing obscuration and contamination-induced laser damage.” said James A. Pryatel and William H. Gourdin from Akima Infrastructure Services and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

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In memory of Prof. Zunqi Lin

Prof. Zunqi Lin, co-editor-in-chief of HPL, passed away aged 76 in Shanghai, China, on 28th May. He was one of the pioneers of inertial confinement fusion science in China, and a well-respected scientist in high power laser from Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics. He was elected the academician of CAS in 2003.

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We think we’re the first advanced earthlings—but how do we really know?

Imagine if, many millions of years ago, dinosaurs drove cars through cities of mile-high buildings. A preposterous idea, right? Over the course of tens of millions of years, however, all of the direct evidence of a civilization—its artifacts and remains—gets ground to dust. How do we really know, then, that there weren’t previous industrial civilizations on Earth that rose and fell long before human beings appeared? It’s a compelling thought experiment, and one that Adam Frank, a professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Rochester, and Gavin Schmidt, the director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, take up in a paper published in the International Journal of Astrobiology.

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The end of the universe

Manu Paranjape, author of The Theory and Applications of Instanton Calculations, discusses the potential end of the universe. Recently, reports in the media have warned that our universe could be destroyed abruptly in a collision with a bubble of negative energy, and that the process may have already started!…

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Materials Science to Empower Quantum Information Technologies

Quantum materials have exotic physical properties that arise from quantum mechanical or topological properties of their electrons. These materials display novel surface properties, magnetic effects, and optical properties, and are expected to lead to, for example, qubits with enhanced coherence times and sensors with unprecedented accuracy.

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On the Cover of HPL: Assembly and Metrology of NIF target subassemblies using robotic systems

When the first targets for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were built to be fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the late 2000’s, the assemblies were handcrafted, meticulously measured, and carefully tested. The resulting assemblies were literally one-of-a-kind and fairly fragile pieces of art, as well as fully functional high energy density physics targets. They were true engineering marvels.

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JFM Symposium Bangalore

As the Social Media Editor for JFM, I was kindly asked to document the first-ever JFM Symposia: From Fundamentals to Applied Fluid Mechanics that took place in the three Indian cities of Mumbai, Bangalore and Chennai in December 2017.…

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JMR: Supporting Early Career Scholars in Materials Science

Journal of Materials Research (JMR) publishes an annual Issue that is devoted to early career scholars in Materials Science. The Issue provides a unique opportunity to be highlighted and promoted early in one’s research career and in order to increase attention to these papers, the issue is fully open access. 

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MRS Bulletin Postdoctoral Publication Prize: inaugural recipient announced

MRS Bulletin is pleased to announce that Andy Tay Kah Ping, Stanford University, has been selected to receive the inaugural MRS Bulletin Postdoctoral Publication Prize. Andy was selected from more than 120 well-qualified applicants and nominations. He is being recognized for his combination of outstanding academic credentials, scientific publications, and science communication efforts.

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Exploring astronomical evolution with SPICA

Understanding the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planets are among the most fundamental objectives of Astronomy. Although a suite of space and ground-based telescopes have allowed impressive advances in recent years, our knowledge is still far from complete. In a suite of whitepapers for PASA we explore some of the key scientific breakthroughs that could be made with the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA).

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Understanding Vortex Reconnection

A new paper published recently in Journal of Fluid Mechanics (JFM) looked at numerical simulations of a blade slicing through a vortex and understanding how this action affects the flow field could lead to the design of safer helicopters.

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2016 JMR Paper of the Year awarded

Gayle and Cook have won the 2016 JMR Paper of the Year, for the development and modeling of an indentation method for mapping the time-dependent viscoelastic and time-independent plastic properties of polymeric-based materials.

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