Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • This chapter is unavailable for purchase
  • Cited by 16
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Jucks, Regina Schulte-Löbbert, Petra and Bromme, Rainer 2007. Supporting Experts’ Written Knowledge Communication Through Reflective Prompts on the Use of Specialist Concepts. Zeitschrift für Psychologie / Journal of Psychology, Vol. 215, Issue. 4, p. 237.

    Kellogg, Ronald T. and Raulerson, Bascom A. 2007. Improving the writing skills of college students. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Vol. 14, Issue. 2, p. 237.

    Mieg, Harald A. 2009. Two factors of expertise? Excellence and professionalism of environmental experts. High Ability Studies, Vol. 20, Issue. 1, p. 91.

    Baron, Robert A. and Henry, Rebecca A. 2010. How entrepreneurs acquire the capacity to excel: insights from research on expert performance. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, p. 49.

    Jucks, Regina and Bromme, Rainer 2011. Perspective Taking in Computer-Mediated Instructional Communication. Journal of Media Psychology, Vol. 23, Issue. 4, p. 192.

    Carter, Nari 2012. Action research: improving graduate-level writing. Educational Action Research, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, p. 407.

    Proske, Antje Narciss, Susanne and McNamara, Danielle S. 2012. Computer-based scaffolding to facilitate students' development of expertise in academic writing. Journal of Research in Reading, Vol. 35, Issue. 2, p. 136.

    Hudd, Suzanne S. Sardi, Lauren M. and Lopriore, Maureen T. 2013. Sociologists as Writing Instructors. Teaching Sociology, Vol. 41, Issue. 1, p. 32.

    Park, Youngmin Warschauer, Mark Collins, Penelope Hwang, Jin Kyoung and Vogel, Charles 2014. Exploring Technology for Writing and Writing Instruction. p. 21.

    Ericsson, K. Anders 2014. The Wiley Handbook of Genius. p. 321.

    Park, Youngmin Warschauer, Mark Collins, Penelope Hwang, Jin Kyoung and Vogel, Charles 2014. Computational Linguistics. p. 640.

    Allen, Laura K. Mills, Caitlin Jacovina, Matthew E. Crossley, Scott D'Mello, Sidney and McNamara, Danielle S. 2016. Investigating boredom and engagement during writing using multiple sources of information. p. 114.

    Swartz, Carl W. Hanlon, Sean T. Childress, E. Lee and Stenner, A. Jackson 2016. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development. p. 284.

    Harvey, Dominic G. Davidson, Jane W. and Nair, Chenicheri S. 2016. Music Undergraduates' Usefulness and Importance Expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian University Perspective. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7, Issue. ,

    Kleinmintz, Oded M. 2017. Exploring the Benefits of Creativity in Education, Media, and the Arts. p. 67.

    Deane, Paul 2018. The Challenges of Writing in School: Conceptualizing Writing Development Within a Sociocognitive Framework. Educational Psychologist, Vol. 53, Issue. 4, p. 280.

    ×
  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: June 2012

22 - Professional Writing Expertise

from PART V.A - PROFESSIONAL DOMAINS

Summary

Keywords: planning, translating, reviewing, deliberate practice, ten-year rule, flow states, working memory, long-term working memory, domain-specific knowledge, verbal ability, concrete language, strategies, rituals, work environment, work schedule.

Introduction

Writing extended texts for publication is a major cognitive challenge, even for professionals who compose for a living. Serious writing is at once a thinking task, a language task, and a memory task. A professional writer can hold multiple representations in mind while adeptly juggling the basic processes of planning ideas, generating sentences, and reviewing how well the process is going. This chapter will open with the question of how to define the concept of professional writing and an explanation of the demands that writing processes make on cognitive resources. The characteristics of professional-level writers and writing expertise are then enumerated and explored. In the final section, the acquisition of writing skill will be discussed, with comparisons and contrasts to other kinds of expertise highlighted. Much remains to be learned, but the lessons from the state-of-the-art research literature can be helpful to aspiring professional writers.

Defining Professional Writing

Defining expertise in writing is difficult because the task is ill structured (Simon, 1973) and because the types of texts generated by professionals are so varied. An expert in chess successfully checkmates the opponent, and the allowable moves in the game are defined clearly.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance
  • Online ISBN: 9780511816796
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816796
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
References
Adams, K. H. (1993). A history of professional writing instruction in American colleges. Dallas: Southern Methodist Press.
Amabile, T. M. (1985). Motivation and creativity: Effects of motivational orientation on creative writers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 393–399.
Asimov web site. (n.d.). Retrieved December 6, 2003 from http:www.asimovonline.com/.
Berninger, V. W., & Swanson, H. L. (1994). Modifying Hayes and Flower's model of skilled writing to explain beginning and developing writing. In Butterfield, E. C. (Ed.), Children's writing: Toward a process theory of the development of skilled writing (pp. 57–81). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Bereiter, S., & Scardamalia, M. (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bock, J. K., & Levelt, W. (1994). Language production: Grammatical encoding. In Gernsbacher, M. (Ed.), Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 945–984). San Diego: Academic Press.
Boice, R. (1985). Cognitive components of blocking. Written Communication, 2, 91–104.
Boice, R. (1994). How writers journey to comfort and fluency: A psychological adventure. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Boice, R. (1997). Which is more productive, writing in binge patterns of creative illness or in moderation? Written Communication, 14, 435–459.
Boice, R., & Johnson, K. (1984). Perception and practice of writing for publication by faculty at a doctoral-granting university. Research in Higher Education, 21, 33–43.
Bourdin, B., & Fayol, M. (1994). Is written language production more difficult than oral language production: A working memory approach. International Journal of Psychology, 29, 591–620.
Brand, A. G. (1989). The psychology of writing: The affective experience. New York: Greenwood Press.
Brand, A. G., & Leckie, P. A. (1989). The emotions of professional writers. The Journal of Psychology, 122, 421–439.
Bridwell-Bowles, L., Johnson, P., & Brehe, S. (1987). Composing and computers: Case studies of experienced writers. In Matsuhashi, A. (Ed.), Writing in real time: Modeling production processes (pp. 81–107). London: Longman.
Britton, B. K., & Tessor, A. (1982). Effects of prior knowledge on use of cognitive capacity in three complex cognitive tasks. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 21, 421–436.
Caramazza, A. (1991). Issues in reading, writing, and speaking: A neuropsychological perspective. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
Carter, M. (1996). What is advanced about advanced composition: A theory of expertise in writing. In Olson, G. A. & Drew, J. (Eds.), Landmark essays on advanced composition (pp. 71–80). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Chenoweth, N. A., & Hayes, J. R. (2001). The inner voice in writing. Written Communication, 20, 99–118.
Couture, B. (1992). Categorizing professional discourse: Engineering, administrative, technical/professional writing. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 6, 5–7.
Couture, B., & Rymer, J. (1993). Situational exigence: Composing processes on the job by writer's role and task value. In Spilka, R. (Ed.), Writing in the workplace: Now research perspectives (pp. 4–55). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Cowley, M. (Ed.) (1958). Writers at work: The Paris Review interviews (Vol. 1). New York: Viking Press.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row.
Dowdy, D. (1984, March). The trying out of the essay: How six scientific essayists compose. Paper presented at the 35th annual meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication. New York. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED243150)
Duffy, T., Curran, T., & Sass, D. (1983). Document design for technical job tasks: An evaluation. Human Factors, 25, 143–160.
Epel, N. (1993). Writers dreaming. New York: Carol Southern Books.
Ericsson, K. A., & Kintsch, W. (1995). Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 102, 211–245.
Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100, 363–406.
Ericsson, K. A., & Smith, J. (Eds.) (1991). Toward a general theory of expertise: Prospects and limits. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fitzgerald, J. (1987). Research on revision in writing. Review of Educational Research, 57, 481–506.
Flower, L. S., & Hayes, J. R. (1980). The dynamics of composing: Making plans and juggling constraints. In Gregg, L. W. & Steinberg, E. R. (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing (pp. 31–50). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Flower, L. S., & Hayes, J. R. (1984). Images, plans, and prose: The representation of meaning in writing. Written Communication, 1, 120–160.
Geisler, C., Rogers, E. H., & Haller, C. R. (1998). Disciplining discourse: Discourse practice in the affilitated professions of software engineering design. Written Communication, 15, 3–24.
Givon, T. (1995). Coherence in the text and coherence in the mind. In Gernsbacher, M. A. & Givon, T. (Eds.), Coherence in spontaneous text (pp. 139–160). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Glynn, S. M., Britton, B. K., Muth, D., & Dogan, N. (1982). Writing and revising persuasive documents: Cognitive demands. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 557–567.
Grobe, C. (1981). Syntactic maturity, mechanics, and vocabulary as predictors of quality ratings. Research in the Teaching of English, 15, 75–85.
Hartley, J. (2000). Legal ease and ‘legalese.’ Psychology, Crime, and Law, 6, 1–20.
Hartley, J., & Branthwaite, A. (1989). The psychologist as wordsmith: A questionnaire study of the writing strategies of productive British psychologists. Higher Education, 18, 423–452.
Hayes, J. R. (1985). Three problems in teaching general skills. In Chipman, S. F., Segal, J. W., & Glaser, R. (Eds.), Thinking and learning skills: Vol. 2. Research and open questions (pp. 391–405). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hayes, J. R., & Flower, L. S. (1980). Identifying the organization of writing processes. In Gregg, L. W. & Steinberg, E. R. (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing (pp. 3–30). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hayes, J. R., Flower, L. S., Schriver, K. S., Stratman, J., & Carey, L. (1987). Cognitive approaches in revision. In Rosenberg, S. (Ed.), Advances in applied psycholinguistics: Vol. 2. Reading, writing, and language processing (pp. 176–240). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hayes, J. R., & Flower, L. S. (1986). Writing research and the writer. American Psychologist, 41, 1106–1113.
Henry, J. (2000). Writing workplace cultures: An archeology of professional writing. Carbondale, IL: Southen Illinois University Press.
Hyland, K. (2001). Bringing in the reader: Addressee features in academic articles. Written Communication, 18, 549–574.
John-Steiner, V. (1985). Notebooks of the mind: Explorations of thinking. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Kaufman, J. C., & Gentile, C. A. (2002). The will, The wit, The judgment: The importance of an early start in productive and successful creative writing. High Ability Studies, 13(2), 115–123.
Kellogg, R. T. (1986). Writing method and productivity of science and engineering faculty. Research in Higher Education, 25, 147–163.
Kellogg, R. T. (1988). Attentional overload and writing performance: Effects of rough draft and outline strategies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 355–365.
Kellogg, R. T. (1994). The psychology of writing. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kellogg, R. T. (2001). Long-term working memory in text production. Memory & Cognition, 29, 43–52.
Kintsch, W. (1998). Comprehension: A paradigm for cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Larsen, R. (1988). Flow and writing. In Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Csikszentmihalyi, I. S. (1988). Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness (pp. 150–171). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lee, K., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1996). The development of external symbol systems: The child as notator. In Gelman, R. & Kit-Fong, T. (Eds.), Perceptual and cognitive development (185–211). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Lemay, J. A. L., & Zall, P. M. (Eds.) (1981). The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin: A genetic text. Knoxville: Univerisity of Tennessee Press.
Amour, L. (1989). Education of a wandering man. New York: Bantam.
Madigan, R., Johnson, S., & Linton, P. (1995). The language of psychology: APA style as epistemology. American Psychologist, 50, 428–436.
Mailer, N. (2003). The spooky art: Some thoughts on writing. New York: Random House.
MacKinnon, J. (1993). Becoming a rhetor: Developing writing ability in a mature, writing intensive organization. In Spilka, R. (Ed.), Writing in the workplace: New research perspectives (pp. 41–55). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
McCutchen, D. (1984). Writing as a linguistic problem. Educational Psychologist, 19, 226–238.
McCutchen, D. (1996). A capacity theory of writing: Working memory in composition. Educational Psychology Review, 8, 299–325.
McCutchen, D. (2000). Knowledge, processing, and working memory: Implications for a theory of writing. Educational Psychologist, 35, 13–23.
Murray, D. M. (1978). Write before writing. College Composition and Communication, 29, 375–381.
Oates, J. C. (2003). The faith of a writer: Life, craft, and art. New York: Harper Collins.
Paradis, J., Dobrin, D., & Miller, R. (1985). Writing at Exxon ITD: Notes on the writing environment of an R&D organization. In Odell, L. & Goswami, D. (Eds.), Writing in nonacademic settings (pp. 281–307). New York: Guilford.
Pearson, M. (1998). Mr. Personalities: A conversation about the writing process with Mark Singer. Creative Nonfiction, 9, 118–125.
Perry, S. K. (1996). When time stops: How creative writers experience entry into the flow state. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58 (8), 4484B. (UMI No. 9805789)
Piirto, J. (2002). “My teeming brain”: Understanding creative writers. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Plimpton, G. (Ed.) (1963). Writers at work: The Paris Review interviews, second series. New York: Penguin.
Plimpton, G. (Ed.) (1989). Women writers at work: The Paris Review interviews. New York: Penguin.
Root, R. L. (1983). The composing processes of professional expository writers. Paper presented at the 34th annual meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication. Detroit. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED232157)
Rymer, J. (1988). Scientific composing processes: How eminent scientists write journal articles. In Jollife, D. A. (Ed.), Advances in writing research, Volume 2: Writing in academic disciplines (pp. 211–250). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Sadoski, M., & Paivio, A. (2001). Imagery and text: A dual coding theory of reading and writing. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Sadoski, M., Goetz, E. T., & Avila, E. (1995). Concreteness effects in text recall: Dual coding or context availability? Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 278–288.
Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1991). Literate expertise. In Ericsson, K. A. & Smith, J. (Eds.), Toward a general theory of expertise: Prospects and limits (pp. 172–194). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schere, J. J. (1998). Effect of engaging in creative activity on the mood of artists and writers: An empirical test of flow theory. (Doctoral Dissertation, The California School of Professional Psychology). Dissertation Abstracts International, 59 (06), 3074B.
Scinto, L. F. M. (1986). Written language and psychological development. Orlando: Academic Press.
Simon, H. A. (1973). The structure of ill-structured problems. Artificial Intelligence, 4, 181–210.
Simon, H. A., & Chase, W. G. (1973). Skill in chess. American Scientist, 61, 394–403.
Stanovich, K. E., & Cunningham, A. E. (1993). Where does knowledge come from? Specific associations between print exposure and information acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 211–229.
Tomlinson, B. (1986). Characters as co-authors: Segmenting the self, integrating the composing process. Written Communication, 3, 421–448.
Traxler, M. J., & Gernsbacher, M. A. (1992). Improving written communication through minimal feedback. Language and Cognitive Processes, 7, 1–22.
Wishbow, N. A. (1988). Studies of creativity in poets. (Doctoral Dissertation, Carnegie Mellon University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 0491A.
Witte, S. P. (1987). Pre-text and composing. College Composition and Communication, 38, 397–425.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Risemberg, R. (1997). Becoming a self-regulated writer: A social cognitive perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 73–101.