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The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Multi-Competence
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    LÓPEZ, BELEM G. and VAID, JYOTSNA 2017. Fácil or A piece of cake: Does variability in bilingual language brokering experience affect idiom comprehension?. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, p. 1.

    DUFF, PATRICIA A. 2017. Commentary: Motivation for Learning Languages Other Than English in an English-Dominant World. The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 101, Issue. 3, p. 597.

    USHIODA, EMA 2017. The Impact of Global English on Motivation to Learn Other Languages: Toward an Ideal Multilingual Self. The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 101, Issue. 3, p. 469.

    Gross, Barbara and Dewaele, Jean-Marc 2017. The relation between multilingualism and basic human values among primary school children in South Tyrol. International Journal of Multilingualism, p. 1.

    Brown, Amanda and Ruiz, Heather 2016. Equity and enrichment in the TESOL practicum. ELT Journal, p. ccw092.

    Gass, Susan 2016. The path I took. Language Teaching, Vol. 49, Issue. 04, p. 578.

  • Edited by Vivian Cook, University of Newcastle upon Tyne , Li Wei, Institute of Education, University College London

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Book description

How are two or more languages learned and contained in the same mind or the same community? This handbook presents an up-to-date view of the concept of multi-competence, exploring the research questions it has generated and the methods that have been used to investigate it. The book brings together psychologists, sociolinguists, Second Language Acquisition (SLA) researchers, and language teachers from across the world to look at how multi-competence relates to their own areas of study. This comprehensive, state-of-the-art exploration of multi-competence research and ideas offers a powerful critique of the values and methods of classical SLA research, and an exciting preview of the future implications of multi-competence for research and thinking about language. It is an essential reference for all those concerned with language learning, language use and language teaching.


‘… a true tour de force. Its broad scope, covering everything from methodology to learning and teaching and representing a variety of original approaches to traditional language learning research, makes it a must read for anyone interested in what it means to know more than one language.’

Susan M. Gass - Distinguished University Professor, Michigan State University

‘… constitutes a major landmark that will help shift assumptions away from thinking of monolingualism as the norm to accepting multilingualism as the default condition for human language ability. The chapters are written by top scholars in all aspects of the language sciences, producing a collection that is compulsory reading for researchers, educators, and clinicians.'

Ellen Bialystok - Distinguished Research Professor of Psychology, York University, Toronto

'… wonderfully rich in its state-of-the-art delineation of linguistic multi-competence approaches to study of individuals and communities previously known as merely 'bilingual'. From translanguaging to creativity in language use, language acquisition to attrition, syntax to emotion and personality, the range of the topics (and the authors) reflects the broad extension Cook's concept of multi-competence has achieved. I plan to use this book regularly in the neurolinguistics classes I teach on bilingualism.’

Loraine K. Obler - Distinguished Professor, City University of New York Graduate Center

‘Vivian Cook's inspiring notion of multi-competence has sown seeds in many different areas of language research and this collection that Li Wei and he have put together provides ample proof of that. This should rapidly become standard reading for all these interested in enlightened approaches to language use and language users, monolinguals and multilinguals alike.’

Mike Sharwood Smith - Emeritus Professor of Languages, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh and Honorary Professorial Fellow, University of Edinburgh

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Page 1 of 2

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Compiled by Goro Murahata, Yoshiko Murahata and Vivian Cook

This bibliography brings together books and papers that either explicitly mention multi-competence or are closely related to the multi-competence perspective.

Agrillo C. and Roberson D. 2008. ‘Colour language and colour cognition: Brown and Lenneberg revisited’, Visual Cognition 17, 412430.
Akamatsu N. 2010. Nihonjin Eigo Gakushusha no Kanshi Shiyo to Ninchi [The use of the English articles by Japanese learners of English and their cognition]. Paper read at the 36th Annual Conference of The Society of English Language Education, Kansai University, Osaka, Japan.
Akamatsu N. 2011. ‘Does a foreign language affect cognition? Re-evaluating evidence for L2 effects on bilinguals’ object classification’, Studies in English Language Teaching (The Kansai English Language Education Society) 34, 110.
Akbar F. S. 2013. ‘The case against Monolingual Bias in Multilingualism’, Teachers College, Columbia University Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics 13 (2), 4244.
Alotaib H. 2014. ‘The validity of likeability as a new construct of ESL pronunciation’, Advances in Language and Literary Studies 5, 4858.
Alptekin C. 2010. ‘Redefining multi-competence for bilingualism and EFL’, International Journal of Applied Linguistics 20, 95110.
Ameel E., Storms G., Malt B. C. and Sloman S. A. 2005. ‘How bilinguals solve the naming problem’, Journal of Memory and Language 53, 6080.
Andrews D. 1994. ‘The Russian color categories sinij and goluboj: an experimental analysis of their interpretation in the standard and émigré languages’, Journal of Slavic Linguistics 2, 928.
Aronin L. and Singleton D. 2012. Multilingualism. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Athanasopoulos P. 2006. ‘Effects of grammatical representation of number on cognition in bilinguals’, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 9, 8996.
Athanasopoulos P. 2009. ‘Cognitive representation of color in bilinguals: the case of Greek blues’, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 12, 8395.
Athanasopoulos P. 2011a. ‘Color and bilingual cognition’, in Cook V. J. and Bassetti B. (eds), pp. 241261.
Athanasopoulos P. 2011b. ‘Cognitive restructuring in bilingualism’, in Pavlenko A. (ed.), pp. 2965.
Athanasopoulos P. and Aveledo R. 2012. ‘Linguistic relativity and bilingualism’, in Altarriba J. and Isurin L. (eds), Memory, Language, and Bilingualism: Theoretical and Applied Approaches, pp. 236255. Cambridge University Press.
Athanasopoulos P., Damjanovic L., Krajciova A. and Sasaki M. 2011. ‘Representation of colour concepts in bilingual cognition: the case of Japanese blues’, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 14 (special issue), 917.
Athanasopoulos P., Dering B., Wiggett A., Kuipers J. R. and Thierry G. 2010. ‘Perceptual shift in bilingualism: brain potentials reveal plasticity in pre-attentive colour perception’, Cognition 116, 437443.
Athanasopoulos P. and Kasai C. 2008. ‘Language and thought in bilinguals: the case of grammatical number and nonverbal classification preferences’, Applied Psycholinguistics 29, 105123.
Athanasopoulos P., Sasaki M. and Cook V. J. 2004. Do bilinguals think differently from monolinguals? Evidence from colour categorization by speakers of Japanese. Paper presented at the 14th European Second Language Association Conference, San Sebastian, Spain.
Azuma S. 2000. Bailingalizumu [Bilingualism]. Tokyo: Kodansha.
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Balcom P. 1995. ‘Argument structure and multi-competence’, Linguistica Atlantica (Memorial University of Newfoundland) 17, 117.
Balcom P. 1999. ‘These constructions don’t acquire easily: middle constructions and multi-competence’, Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics 2, 520.
Balcom P. 2003. ‘Cross-linguistic influence of L2 English on Middle Constructions in L1 French’, in Cook V. J. (ed.), pp. 168192.
Bassetti B. 2007. ‘Bilingualism and thought: grammatical gender and concepts of objects in Italian–German bilingual children’, International Journal of Bilingualism 11, 251273.
Bassetti B. 2011. ‘The grammatical and conceptual gender of animals in second language users’, in Cook V. J. and Bassetti B. (eds), pp. 357384.
Bassetti B. 2014. ‘Is grammatical gender considered arbitrary or semantically motivated? Evidence from young adult monolinguals, second language learners and early bilinguals’, British Journal of Psychology 105 (2), 273297.
Bassetti B. and Cook V. J. 2011. ‘Relating language and cognition: the second language user’, in Cook V. J. and Bassetti B. (eds), pp. 143190.
Bialystok E. 2001. Bilingualism in Development: Language, Literacy and Cognition. Cambridge University Press.
Bialystok E., Craik F. I. M. and Freedman M. 2007. ‘Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia’, Neuropsychologia 45, 459464.
Birdsong D. 2005. ‘Nativelikeness and non-nativelikeness in L2A research’, IRAL 43, 319328.
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Boroditsky L., Ham W. and Ramscar M. 2002. ‘What is universal in event perception? Comparing English & Indonesian speakers’, in Gray W. D. and Schunn C. D. (eds), Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 136141. Lawrence Erlbaum.
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Brown A. 2013. ‘Multi-competence and second language assessment’, Language Assessment Quarterly 10, 219235.
Brown A. and Gullberg M. 2008. ‘Bidirectional crosslinguistic influence in L1–L2 encoding of manner in speech and gesture: a study of Japanese speakers of English’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition 30, 225251.
Brown A. and Gullberg M. 2011. ‘Bidirectional cross-linguistic influence in event conceptualization? Expressions of Path among Japanese learners of English’, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 14, 7994.
Brown A. and Gullberg M. 2012. ‘Multi-competence and native speaker variation in clausal packaging in Japanese’, Second Language Research 28 (4), 415442.
Brown A. and Gullberg M. 2013. ‘L1–L2 convergence in clausal packaging in Japanese and English’, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 16, 477494.
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Brutt-Griffler J. 2002. World English: A Study of its Development. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Bylund E. 2011. ‘Language-specific patterns in event conceptualization: insights from bilingualism’, in Pavlenko A. (ed.), pp. 108142.
Bylund E. and Athanasopoulos P. (eds) 2015. Cognitive SLA: The Language and Thought of Motion in Second Language Speakers, special issue of Modern Language Journal 99.
Bylund E. and Jarvis S. 2011. ‘L2 effects on L1 event conceptualization’, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 14, 4759.
Chang C. B. 2011. ‘Systemic drift of L1 vowels in novice L2 learners’, in Lee W.-S. and Zee E. (eds), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, pp. 428431. City University of Hong Kong.
Chang C. B. 2012. ‘Rapid and multifaceted effects of second-language learning on first-language speech production’, Journal of Phonetics 40 (2), 249268.
Chang C. B. and Mishler A. 2012. ‘Evidence for language transfer leading to a perceptual advantage for non-native listeners’, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 132 (4), 27002710.
Choong K. P. 2006. ‘Multi-competence and second language teaching’, Teachers College, Columbia University Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics 6, 1.
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Cook V. J. 1992. ‘Evidence for multi-competence’, Language Learning 42, 557591. Reprinted in Ortega L. (ed.) 2010, Second-Language Acquisition: Critical Concepts, vol. I: Foundations of Second Language Acquisition. Routledge.
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Cook V. J. 1996. ‘Competence and multi-competence’, in Brown G., Malmkjaer K. and Williams J. (eds), Performance and Competence in Second Language Acquisition, pp. 5769. Cambridge University Press.
Cook V. J. 1997. ‘Monolingual bias in second language acquisition research’, Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 34, 3550.
Cook V. J. 1999. ‘Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching’. TESOL Quarterly 33, 185209.
Cook V. J. 2001a. ‘Linguistics and second language acquisition: one person with two languages’, in Aronoff M. and Rees-Miller J. (eds), The Handbook of Linguistics, pp. 488511. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Cook V. J. 2001b. ‘Using the first language in the classroom’, Canadian Modern Language Review 57, 402423.
Cook V. J. (ed.) 2002a. Portraits of the L2 User. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Cook V. J. 2002b. ‘Background to the L2 user’, in Cook V. J. (ed.), pp. 128.
Cook V. J. 2002c. ‘Language teaching methodology and the L2 user perspective’, in Cook V. J. (ed.), pp. 327343.
Cook V. J. (ed.) 2003a. Effects of the Second Language on the First. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Cook V. J. 2003b. ‘The changing L1 in the L2 user’s mind’, in Cook V. J. (ed.), pp. 118.
Cook V. J. 2006. ‘Interlanguage, multi-competence and the problem of the “second” language’, Rivista di Psicolinguistica Applicata 6, 3952.
Cook V. J. 2007a. ‘The nature of the L2 user’, EUROSLA Yearbook 7, 205220. Reprinted in Wei Li (ed.) 2011, The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader, pp. 7789. Routledge.
Cook V. J. 2007b. ‘The goals of ELT: reproducing native-speakers or promoting multi-competence among second language users?’, in Cummins J. and Davidson C. (eds), International Handbook of English Language Teaching, pp. 237248. Boston, MA: Kluwer.
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Cook V. J. 2009c. ‘The multi-competence perspective and the teaching of British Sign Language’, in Mertanzi M. (ed.), Sign Language Teaching and Learning, pp. 135143. Centre for Deaf Studies, University of Bristol.
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