Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Karttunen, Klaus and Falk, Harry 2004. Herrscherchronologien der antiken Welt. p. 127.

    ×
  • Print publication year: 1983
  • Online publication date: March 2008

5 - THE HISTORY OF EASTERN IRAN

from PART 1 - POLITICAL HISTORY
Summary
It was during the campaigns of Alexander the Great, after the Macedonians had overrun the western provinces of the Persian empire, that the eastern Iranian element became especially prominent in the Persian camp. The majority of the eastern Iranian troops had been mustered by Bessus, who after the Persian defeat quickly emerged as the most powerful of the Persian leaders under Darius III. After the assassination of the king, it was Bessus who assumed the royal prerogatives, and retired to his satrapy of Bactria to carry on the struggle against Alexander in eastern Iran. The complex and disturbed succession of the later Indo-Bactrian rulers was to a large extent the consequence of a far-reaching event. After the fall of the Kushan dynasty in AD 225, the provinces of Gandhara, Bactria and Sogdiana passed under the rule of Sasanian governors who bore the title of Kushanshah 'King of the Kushans'. This Persian administration continued until about AD 360.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge History of Iran
  • Volume 3: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanid Periods, Part 1
  • Edited by E. Yarshater
  • Online ISBN: 9781139054942
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521200929
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
Abul-Faraj al-'Ush, Muhammad, “Rare Islamic coins: Additions”, in Kouymjian, D. K. (ed.). Near Eastern Numismatics, Iconographyy Epigraphy and History: Studies in Honor of George C. Miles (Beirut, 1974).
Agrawala, V. S. Matura Museum Catalogue, vols 1–. Lucknow, 1948– (U.P. Historical Society).
Baghchi, P. C., “Sangharaksa, the chaplain of Kani⊡ka”, in Commemoration Essays Presented to Professor K. B. Pathak (Poona, 1934).
Bailey, D. R. Shackleton, The “Satapañcāśatka” of Mātrceta, (Cambridge, 1951).
Bailey, H. W., “Kanaiska”, JRAS 1942.
Bailey, H. W., “Two Kharosthī casket inscriptions from Avaca”, JRAS 1978.
Bailey, Shackleton, “The Varnārhavarna Stotra of Mātrceta (I)”, BSOAS XIII (1950)
Bailey, H. W.Kaṇiaiska”, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (London) 1942
Bailey, H. W. Hārahūna” in Asiatica: Festschrift Friedrich Weller (Leipzig, 1954)
Bailey, H. W.Languages of the Saka”, in Iranistik I, Linguistik (Leiden, 1958) (HO I.IV. I).
Barrett, D., Sculptures from Amaravati in the British Museum (London, 1954).
Basham, A. L. (ed.), Papers on the date of Kani⊡ka, Leiden, 1968.
Benveniste, E.La ville de Cyreschata”, Journal Asiatique (Paris) 1943–5.
Bernard, P. et al. Fouilles d' Aï Khanoum 1, pts 1 and 2. Paris, 1973 (MDAFA XXI).
Bivar, A. D. H.The Kani⊡ka dating from Surkh Kotal”, BOSOAS XXVI (1963).
Bivar, A. D. H.Indo-Bactrian problems”, Numismatic Chronicle (London) 1965.
Bivar, A. D. H.The sequence of Menander's drachmae”, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (London) 1970.
Bivar, A. D. H.Hāritī and the chronology of the Ku⊡āṇas”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies (University of London) XXXIII (1970).
Bivar, , “A Sasanian Hoard from Hilla”, NC 1963, 159.
Bosworth, C. E.The armies of the Ṣaffārids”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies (University of London) XXXI (1968).
Bosworth, C. E.The Turks in the Islamic lands up to the mid-11th Century”, Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta III, pt. 1 (Wiesbaden, 1970).
Brough, J. The Gandhari Dharmapada, London, 1962.
Caroe, Olaf, The Pathans (London, 1958).
Chavannes, E., “Les Pays d'Occident d'après le Heou Han Chou”, T'oung Pao VIII (1907).
Contra, Lévi, “Encore Aśvaghosa“, JA 1928.
Cowley, A. E., Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century B.C. (Oxford, 1923).
Curiel, R. and Fussman, G. L.e trésor monétaire de Qunduvz, Paris, 1965 (MDAFA XX).
Dalton, O. M. The treasure of the Oxus, with other examples of early Oriental metalworky 3rd ed. London, 1964.
Dani, A. H., “The Mathura Lion Capital Inscription (A Palaeographical Study)”, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Pakistan v (1960).
Demiéville, P., “La Yogācārabhūmi de Sangharaksa”, BEFEO XLIV (1954)
Demiéville, P., “Sur I'authenticité du ‘Ta tch'eng k'i sin louenrsquo;“. Bulletin de la Maison Franco-Japonaise 11. 2 (Tokyo, 1929).
Dobbins, K. W. The Stūpa and Vihāra of Kanishka I. Calcutta, 1971. (The Asiatic Society Monograph Series 18).
Doerfer, G. et al, Khalaj Materials, Bloomington, Ind., 1971.
Doerfer, G., “Das Chaladsch eine archaische Türksprache in Zentralpersien”, ZDMG CXVIII (1968).
Dupont-Sommer, A., “Une nouvelle inscription araméene d'Asoka trouvé dans la vallée de Laghman (Afghanistan)“, CRAI 1970.
Enoki, K.On the nationality of the Ephthalites”, Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko XVIII (1959).
Fettich, Nándor, “Le Trouvaille de tombe princeère hunnique à Szeged-Nagyszék-sós”, Arcbaeologia Hungarica XXXII (Budapest, 1953).
Foucher, A., La Vieille Route de l'Inde de Bactres à Taxila 1 (Paris, 1942).
Frauwallner, E., “Die buddhistischen Konzile”, ZDMG CII (1952)
Frye, R. N. The Heritage of Persia, London, 1962.
Frye, R. N. and Sayili, A. M.Turks in the Middle East before the Saljuqs”, Journal of the American Oriental Society (New York) LXIII (1943).
Fussman, G.Documents épigraphiques kouchans”, Bulletin de l'École Française d'Extrême Orient (Hanoi-Paris) LXI (1974).
Ghirshman, R. Les Chionites-Hephthalites. Cairo, 1948. (MDAFA XIII).
Göbl, R. Dokumente zur Geschichte der Iranischen Hunnen in Baktrien und Indien, 4 vols. Wiesbaden, 1967. The plates are comprehensive illustrations of the coins, but the text and interpretations should be used with caution.
Grousset, R., L'Empire des steppes, Paris, 1939;
Hackin, J. R. Nouvelles recherches archéologiques à Begram (1939–40), Paris, 1954 (MDAFA XI).
Hambly, G. (ed.) Central Asia, London, 1969. Chapter 2, The nomad empires and the expansion of Buddhism. Chapter 3, Sasanians and Turks in Central Asia.
Harmatta, J., “Late Bactrian Inscriptions”, AAnt ASH XVII, (1969) 408, 431.
Henning, W. B., “The Aramaic inscription of Asoka found in Lampaka”, BSOAS XIII (1949).
Henning, W. B.The date of the Sogdian Ancient Letters”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies (University of London) XII (1948).
Henning, W. B.The Aramaic inscription of Asoka found in Lampāka”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies (University of London) XIII (1949).
Henning, W. B.The Bactrian inscription”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies (University of London) XXIII (1960).
Herzfeld, E. Kushano-Sasanian Coins, Calcutta, 1930 (Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India 38).
Horner, I. B., tr. Milindapañha, London, 1963
Humbach, H. Baktrische Sprachdenkmäler, 2 vols. Wiesbaden, 1966–7. A valuable collection of the Bactrian inscriptions, though inevitably some of the interpretations are a trifle speculative.
Jenkins, G. K.Indo-Scythic mints”, Journal of the Numismatic Society of India (Bombay) XVII (1955), pt. 1.
Jettmar, K., Die frühen steppen Völker, Baden-Baden, 1964.
Jettmar, K. (tr. Keep, A. E. ) Art of the Steppes; the Eurasian animal style, London, 1967 (Art of the World 21).
JohnstoneKunst, E. H. A., Ed. Bruges, 1951.
Johnstone, E. H., The “Saundarananda” of Aśvaghosa, Oxford (Punjab University Oriental Publications no. 1), 1928.
Johnstone, E. H., The Buddhacarita, Part II (Oxford, 1936)
Kennedy, J., “The Secret of Kanishka”, JRAS 1912.
Konow, S. Kharoshṭhī Inscriptions. Calcutta, 1929 (CII 11, pt. i).
Lamotte, E., “Sur la formation du Mahāyāna”, in Schubert, J. and Schneider, U. (eds), Asiatica: Festschrift F, Weller (Leipzig, 1954), and esp. 387-8.
Lamotte, E. Histoire du Bouddhisme Indien, Des origines à l'Ere Saka. Louvain, 1958; repr. 1967.
Law, B. C., Aśvaghosa, Calcutta, 1946
Le Berre, M. and Schlumberger, D.Obervations sur les remparts de Bactres” in Dagens, B., Le Berre, M. and Schlumberger, D., Monuments préislamiques d' Afghanistan (Paris, 1964) (MDAFA XIX).
Le Rider, G.Monnaies de Taxila et d'Arachosie: une nouvelle Reine de Taxila”, Revue des l'tudes Grecques LXXX (Paris, 1967).
Le Rider, G., “Monnaies de Taxila et d'Arachosie: une nouvelle Reine de Taxila”, Revue des Etudes Grecques LXXX (Paris, 1967).
Lévi, S., “Autour d'Aśvaghosa”, JA 1929.
Lévi, S., “Notes sur les Indo-Scythes”, JA 1896.
Lévi, Sylvain, “Aśvagho⊡a, le Sutralamkara et ses sources“, JA 1908, esp.
Lévi, Sylvain, “Kani⊡ka et Śātavahana”, JA 1936
Lohuizen de Leeuw, J. E. . The “Scythian” period, Leiden, 1949.
Longhurst, A. H., The Buddhist Antiquities of Nāgārjunakottda, Delhi 1938 (Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, 54).
Lüders, H., Bruchstücke der “Kalpandmānditikā” des Kumaralāta, Leipzig, 1926.
Lüders, H. Mathurā inscriptions, Göttingen, 1961.
Lüders, H. List of Brahmi inscriptions from the earliest times to a.d 400, with the exception of those of Asoka, Appendix to EI X (1912).
MacDowall, D. W.The dynasty of the later Indo-Parthians”, Numismatic Chronicle (London) 1965.
MacDowall, D. W.Implications for Kushan chronology of the numismatic context of the Nameless King”, in Tsentral'nava Atziya v Kushanskuyo épokhu 1 (Moscow, 1974).
Maricq, A.La grand inscription de Kani⊡ka et l'éteo-Tokharien, l'ancienne langue de la Bactriane”, Journal Asiatique (Paris) 1958.
McGovern, W. M. The early empires of Central Asia, Chapel Hill, 1939.
Minhāj al-Dīn, , Tabaqāt-i Nā⊡irī, ed. Habibi, (Kabul, 1344)
Minorsky, V.The Turkish dialect of the Khalaj”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies (University of London) X (1940–2).
Modi, J. J.The early history of the Huns”, Journal of the Asiatic Society Bombay Branch (Bombay) 1915–17.
Nāgārjuna, , Le Traité de la grande vertu de sagesse, tr. by Lamotte, E., vols., Louvain, 1944. Vol. III, viii-xliv, contains a useful biographical note on Nāgārjuna.
Narain, A. K. The Indo-Greeks, Oxford, 1957.
Newell, E. T. Coinage of the Eastern Seleucid mints. New York, 1938 (ANSNS 1).
Nöldeke, Tabarī Ta'ikh al-rusul wa'l-mulūk 1, ed. Goeje, M. J. et al. (vols., Leiden, 1879–1901).
Olmstead, A. T., “The chronology of Jesus' life”, Anglican Theological Review XXIV. 1 (Evanston, Ill., 1942).
Posener, G., La Première Domination perse en Égypte (Cairo, 1936).
Rapson, J., “Coins of the Graeco-Indian Sovereigns Agathocleia, Strato 1 Soter, and Strato 11 Philipator“, Corolla Numismatica: Numismatic Essays in Honour of Barclay V, Head (Oxford, 1906).
Reichelt, H. Die soghdischen Handschriftenreste des Britischen Museums, 2 vols. Heidelberg, 1928–31.
Rhys, T. W. Davids, tr. The Questions of King Milinda, Oxford, 1890
Robert, L.Inscription hellénistique d'Iran”, Hellenica XI–XII (1960).
Sachau, E. tr. India, 11, (London, 1910).
Schlumberger, D.The excavations at Surkh Kotal and the problem of Hellenism in Bactria and India”, Proceedings of the British Academy (London) XLVII (1961).
Schlumberger, D. and Bernard, P.Aï Khanoum”, Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique (Athens–Paris) LXXIX (1965).
Sircar, D. C.Three early medieval inscriptions”, Epigraphia Indica (Calcutta) XXXV (1963).
Stein, M. A. Serindia, 5 vols. Oxford, 1921.
Tarn, W. W. The Greeks in Bactria and India, 2nd ed. Cambridge, 1951.
Thomas, F. W., “A new poem of Aśvaghosa”, JRAS 1914.
Thomas, F. W., “Mātriceta and the Mahārājakanikalekha”, Ind Ant XXXIII (1903).
Tucci, Giuseppe, Minor Buddhist Texts (Rome, 1956).
Warder, A. K. Indian Buddhism, Delhi, 1970.
Wenzel, H., Journal of the Pali Text Society (1886).
Wheeler, M. Rome beyond the Imperial Frontiers (London, 1954).
Whitehead, R. B., “Notes on the Indo-Greeks, Part III”, NC 1950.
Winstedt, E. O. ed. The Christian Topography, (Cambridge, 1909)
Wolski, J.The decay of the Iranian Empire of the Seleucids and the chronology of Parthian beginnings”, Berjtus XII (1956–7).
Wright, W. The Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles II. London, 1871.
Wylie, A., “Notes on the Western Regions”, Journal of the Anthropological Institute XI (1882)
Zambaur, E., Die Münzprägungen des Islams (Wiesbaden, 1968), 182.
Zürcher, E. The Buddhist conquest of China: the spread and adaptation of Buddhism in early mediaeval China, 2 vols. Leiden, 1959.