Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2020
  • Online publication date: July 2020

1 - CLIL in Multilingual and English-Background Contexts

from Part I - The Educational Context for CLIL


Chapter 1 outlines the peculiarities of language learning in predominantly Anglophone contexts, highlighting the challenges that Anglophone countries face in the teaching of modern languages compared to non-Anglophone countries. Tracing the development of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in the United Kingdom and Australia, the chapter explains why CLIL in such contexts is most often taught by language specialists, in contrast to content-area specialists, as is often the case in Europe where CLIL has been established for much longer. The chapter considers how CLIL offers a pedagogic model for mainstream modern language teachers in Anglophone-dominant contexts and how the same professional knowledge base might also have the potential to support the teaching of English as an additional language (EAL). The origins of how CLIL globally has become synonymous with learning English are also traced. A research agenda around the themes of sustainability, pedagogy, and social justice for CLIL in Anglophone-dominant contexts is proposed.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Adamson, B. (2004). ‘Fashions in Language Teaching Methodology’, in Davies, A. and Elder, C. (eds.), The Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Malden, MA: Blackwell, pp. 604–622.
Alexander, R. (2008). Essays on Pedagogy. London, UK: Routledge.
Arshad, R. (2018). ‘Decolonisation and Critical Race Theory – What’s the Relevance?’ EAL Journal, 8(Summer), 50–51.
Baker, C., and Wright, W. E. (2017). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.
Banegas, D. L. (2011). ‘A Review of “CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning” by D. Coyle, P. Hood, and D. Marsh, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2010’. Language and Education, 25(2), 182–185.
Bell, D. (2004). ‘A New Paradigm for Modern Foreign Languages?’ Language World (Newsletter). London, UK: Association of Language Learning.
Bower, K. (2006). An Analysis of Pupils’ and Teachers’ Views on the Use of ‘Immersion’ Techniques in the Teaching of Modern Foreign Languages at One Secondary School. Unpublished thesis. Hull, UK: University of Hull.
Bower, K. (2019). ‘“Speaking French Alive”: Learner Perspectives on Their Motivation in Content and Language Integrated Learning in England’. Innovation in Language Learning & Teaching, 13(1), 45–60.
Bower, K., and Cross, R. (2019). ‘CLIL: Origins, Development and Distinctiveness’. Cross-curricular Language Learning: Putting CLIL into Practice. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Hallam Institute of Education.
Bruton, A. (2011). ‘Is CLIL So Beneficial, or Just Selective? Re-evaluating Some of the Research’. System, 39(4), 523–532.
Cenoz, J., Genesee, F., and Gorter, D. (2014). ‘Critical Analysis of CLIL: Taking Stock and Looking Forward’. Applied Linguistics, 35(3), 243–262.
Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research. (2003). Language Trends. London, UK: CILT.
Clyne, M. (2005). Australia’s Language Potential. Sydney, Australia: UNSW Press.
Coyle, D. (1996). ‘Language medium teaching in Britain,’ in Teaching Content in a Foreign Language: Practice and Perspectives in European Bilingual Education. European Commission.
Coyle, D. (1999). ‘Supporting students in content and language integrated learning contexts: Planning for effective classrooms,’ in Learning through a Foreign Language: Models, Methods and Outcomes. Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research, pp. 46–62.
Coyle, D. (2000). ‘Meeting the Challenge: Developing the 3Cs Curriculum’, in Green, S. (ed.), New Perspectives on Teaching and Learning Modern Languages. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters, pp. 158–182.
Coyle, D. (2004a). ‘Redefining Classroom Boundaries: Learning to Teach Using New Technologies’. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 32(July), 1–24.
Coyle, D. (2004b). ‘Teaching through a Foreign Language’. ALL Language World Conference. Oxford, UK: ALL.
Coyle, D. (2006). ‘Developing CLIL: Towards a Theory of Practice’, in Figueras, N. (ed.), CLIL in Catalonia: From Theory to Practice. Barcelona, Spain: APAC, pp. 5–29.
Coyle, D. (2007a). ‘Content and Language Integrated Learning: Towards a Connected Research Agenda for CLIL Pedagogies’. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10(5), 543–562.
Coyle, D. (2007b). ‘United Kingdom, England’, in Maljers, A., Marsh, D., and Wolff, D. (eds.), Windows on CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning in the European Spotlight. The Hague: European Platform for Dutch Education, pp. 172–178.
Coyle, D. (2008). ‘CLIL: A Pedagogical Approach from the European Perspective’, in Van Deusen-Scholl, N. and Hornberger, N. H. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Language and Education. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 97–111.
Coyle, D. (2018). ‘The Place of CLIL in (Bilingual) Education’. Theory into Practice, 57(3), 1–10.
Coyle, D., Halbach, A., Meyer, O., and Schuck, K. (2018). ‘Knowledge Ecology for Conceptual Growth: Teachers as Active Agents in Developing a Pluriliteracies Approach to Teaching for Learning’. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21(3), 349–365.
Coyle, D., Holmes, B., and King, L. (2009). Towards an Integrated Curriculum: CLIL National Statements and Guidelines. London, UK: The Languages Company.
Coyle, D., Hood, P., and Marsh, D. (2010). CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Cross, R. (2014). Best Evidence Synthesis: Current Approaches to Languages Education (Gesture, Inquiry Learning, and CLIL). Melbourne, Australia: Catholic Education Commission of Victoria.
Cross, R. (2015). ‘Defining Content and Language Integrated Learning for Languages Education in Australia’. Babel, 49(2), 4–15.
Cross, R. (2016). ‘Language and Content “Integration”: The Affordances of Additional Languages as a Tool within a Single Curriculum Space’. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 48(3), 388–408.
Cross, R., and Gearon, M. (2013). Research and Evaluation of the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) Approach to Teaching and Learning Languages in Victorian Schools. Melbourne, Australia: Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood.
Cruickshank, K. (2019). ‘Negotiating Content and Language for Quality Learning: What This Means in Secondary EAL and Science Programs’. Cross-curricular Language Learning: Putting CLIL into Practice. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Hallam Institute of Education.
Dale, L., Oostdam, R., and Verspoor, M. (2017). ‘Searching for Identity and Focus: Towards an Analytical Framework for Language Teachers in Bilingual Education’. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21(3), 366–383.
Dalton-Puffer, C. (2018). ‘Postscriptum: Research Pathways in CLIL/Immersion Instructional Practices and Teacher Development’. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21(3), 384–387.
De Swaan, A. (2001). ‘English in the social sciences’, in Ammon, U. (ed.), The Dominance of English as a Language of Science: Effects on Other Languages and Language Communities. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 71–83.
Department for Education and Skills. (2002). Languages for All: Languages for Life – A Strategy for England. London, UK: HMSO.
Department of Education and Science. (1990). Modern Foreign Languages for Ages 11 to 16: Proposals of the Secretary of State for Education and Science and the Secretary of State for Wales. National Curriculum Council. London, UK: HMSO.
Eurydice. (2006). Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) at School in Europe. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission.
Eurydice. (2017). Key Data on Teaching Languages at School in Europe. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission.
Hajek, J., and Slaughter, Y. (2015). Challenging the Monolingual Mindset. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Hall, G., and Cook, G. (2012). ‘Own-Language Use in Language Teaching and Learning’. Language Teaching, 45(3), 271–308.
Hawkins, E. (1996). ‘Language Teaching in Perspective’, in Hawkins, E. (ed.), 30 Years of Language Teaching. London, UK: Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research, pp. 15–32.
Holliday, A. (1994). Appropriate Methodology and Social Context. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Ito, Y. (2018). ‘CLIL in Practice in Japanese Elementary Classrooms: An Analysis of the Effectiveness of a CLIL Lesson in Japanese Traditional Crafts’. English Language Teaching, 11(9), 59–67.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2011). ‘English as an Asian Lingua Franca and the Multilingual Model of ELT’. Language Teaching, 44(2), 212–224.
Leathes, S. (1918). Modern Studies: Being the Report to the Committee on the Position of Modern Languages in the Educational System of Great Britain. London, UK: HMSO.
Lo Bianco, J., and Cross, R. (2010). Melbourne Collaborative Research Grant: Sustainable Models of Content and Language Integrated Learning in Asian Languages. Melbourne, Australia: University of Melbourne and Xavier College, Kew.
Macaro, E., Curle, S., Pun, J., An, J., and Dearden, J. (2018). ‘A Systematic Review of English Medium Instruction in Higher Education’. Language Teaching, 51(1), 36–76.
Marsh, D. (2002). CLIL/EMILE – the European Dimension: Action, Trends and Foresight Potential. Brussels, Belgium: European Union Public Services Contract.
May, S. (2013a). ‘Introducing the “Multilingual Turn”’, in May, S. (ed.), The Multilingual Turn: Implications for SLA, TESOL, and Bilingual Education. London, UK: Routledge, pp. 1–6.
May, S. (2013b). The Multilingual Turn: Implications for SLA, TESOL, and Bilingual Education. London, UK: Routledge.
Meyer, O., and Coyle, D. (2017). ‘Pluriliteracies Teaching for Learning: Conceptualizing Progression for Deeper Learning in Literacies Development’. European Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5(2), 199–222.
Nikula, T., Dafouz, E., Moore, P., and Smit, U. (2016). Conceptualising Integration in CLIL and Multilingual Education. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Nuffield Foundation. (2000). Languages: The Next Generation – The Final Report and Recommendations of the Nuffield Languages Inquiry. London, UK: Author.
Riddlebarger, J. (2013). ‘Doing CLIL in Abu Dhabi’. Asian EFL Journal, 15(4), 413–421.
Rojo, L. M. (2013). ‘(De)Capitalising Students through Linguistic Practices: A Comparative Analysis of New Educational Programmes in a Global Era’, in Duchene, A., Moyer, M., and Roberts, C. (eds.), Language, Migration and Social Inequalities: A Critical Sociolinguistic Perspective on Institutions and Work. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters, pp. 118–146.
Seidlhofer, B. (2011). Understanding English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Siqueira, D. S. P., Landau, J., and Paraná, R. A. (2018). ‘Innovations and Challenges in CLIL Implementation in South America’. Theory into Practice, 57(3), 196–203.
Smala, S. (2012). ‘CLIL programmes in Australia: Multilingual schooling contexts’. The European Journal of Applied Linguistics and TEFL, 1(1), 115–128.
Smala, S., Paz, J. B., and Lingard, B. (2013). ‘Languages, Cultural Capital and School Choice: Distinction and Second-Language Immersion Programmes’. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 34(3), 373–391.
Turner, M. (2013). ‘CLIL in Australia: The importance of context’. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16(4), 395–410.
Yang, W. (2015). ‘Content and Language Integrated Learning Next in Asia: Evidence of Learners’ Achievement in CLIL Education from a Taiwan Tertiary Degree Programme’. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 18(4), 361–382.