Skip to main content
×
Home
The New Cambridge History of Islam
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bradley, Francis R. 2014. Islamic Reform, the Family, and Knowledge Networks Linking Mecca to Southeast Asia in the Nineteenth Century. The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 73, Issue. 01, p. 89.


    ×
  • Volume 6: Muslims and Modernity: Culture and Society since 1800
  • Edited by Robert W. Hefner, Boston University

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The New Cambridge History of Islam
    • Volume 6: Muslims and Modernity: Culture and Society since 1800
    • Edited by Robert W. Hefner
    • Online ISBN: 9781139055925
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Unparalleled in its range of topics and geographical scope, the sixth and final volume of The New Cambridge History of Islam provides a comprehensive overview of Muslim culture and society since 1800. Robert Hefner's thought-provoking account of the political and intellectual transformation of the Muslim world introduces the volume, which proceeds with twenty-five essays by luminaries in their fields through a broad range of topics. These include developments in society and population, religious thought and Islamic law, Muslim views of modern politics and economics, education and the arts, cinema and new media. The essays, which highlight the diversity and richness of Islamic civilization, engage with regions outside the Middle East as well as within Islam's historic heartland. Narratives are clear and absorbing and will fascinate all those curious about the momentous changes that have taken place among the world's 1.4 billion Muslims in the last two centuries.

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Page 1 of 2


  • 1 - Introduction: Muslims and modernity: culture and society in an age of contest and plurality
    pp 1-36
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.002
  • View abstract
    Summary
    On the eve of the modern era, Islam, not Christianity, was the most globalised of the world's religions. Although a source of great social and intellectual dynamism in pre-modern times, the pluralism of Muslim culture and society was susceptible to normative attack in the name of God's law and Muslim unity. By the end of the nineteenth century, a non-monist, reform Sufism was the norm in most Muslim lands. Not all Muslim societies were subject to direct colonial rule, but all were affected by the emergence of a European-dominated world system. For example, in the Muslim world the secularising impact of capitalism and capitalist culture has long tended to be weaker than in Western Europe. There had always been Muslim thinkers and parties opposed to the nationalist project. Nowhere have the cultural and political ambiguities of the Islamic resurgence been more vividly expressed than with regard to women.
  • 3 - Population, urbanisation and the dialectics of globalisation
    pp 69-106
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter examines the impact of the phases of economic globalisation and Western dominance since the late nineteenth century on urbanisation, industrialisation and social inequality in the Muslim world. It also examines how mainstream Islam is responding to the challenges of globalisation. The most important colonial legacy was the social composition of the nationalist movement that arose in opposition to colonial rule. These movements varied across the Muslim world in the degree to which they mobilised their respective populations and in the composition of the new elites that orchestrated the mobilization. Countries such as Turkey and Egypt, illustrate the conventional wisdom that increasing inequality accompanies structural adjustment. Distinct from and sometimes in opposition to political Islam, an economic movement of Islamic finance emerged with aspirations to reshape economic globalisation in a new image of the daār al-Islaām. The demographic bulge could be viewed as a time bomb that threatened every Muslim political economy.
  • 4 - The origins and early development of Islamic reform
    pp 107-147
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Early modern Islamic reform can be classified under two general rubrics: the first encompasses the eighteenth-century reform activities that preceded the cultural impact of Europe. The second includes a spectrum of nineteenth-century reforms that were articulated in response to this impact. This chapter provides overviews of the careers and ideas of some of the main thinkers of the eighteenth century. Given the predominance of the Wahhābī paradigm in scholarship on the eighteenth century, it underscores the fundamental differences between each of these figures and Muḥammad Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhāb, before proceeding to identify some distinctive features of eighteenth-century Islamic thought. One aspect of Islamic culture that has been commonly invoked in revisionist histories of the eighteenth century is the so-called neo-Sufism. The chapter finally discusses the historical rupture that characterises the rise of new trends of Islamic reform in the second half of the nineteenth century, and the evolution of these trends into the twentieth century.
  • 5 - Reform and modernism in the middle twentieth century
    pp 148-172
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The middle decades of the twentieth century are years of major transformations in Muslim societies. These two broad trends, the transformation of political systems and the redefinition of the relationship between religion and modernity, shaped the history of Muslim movements of reform and modernism. The alternatives posed were assimilation into the imperial identity or definition of the Algerian nation in terms of the non-national identity of Islam. The real competition took place between the Islamic groupings and the emerging forces of more secular nationalism and materialist radicalism. The major form of modernism in the inter-war era is the Salafī movement which continued the work of people like Muḥammad 'Abduh. However, as African states gained independence by the 1960s, they operated within the boundaries set by imperialism and the new states were the direct heirs of the imperial administrations. Zaynab al-Ghazālī highlighted the competition between Muslim activism and nationalism as it developed by the 1960s.
  • 6 - Islamic resurgence and its aftermath
    pp 173-197
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Socially, Islamic resurgence had deep roots in the processes of urbanisation, spread of literacy and higher education and expansion of the public sphere by the media of mass communication. Politically, it was decisively conditioned by state- and nation-building and modernisation, and especially by political mobilisation and the need it created for culturally rooted political ideologies. This chapter identifies three processes of modern social change which were in fact conducive to a broad revival of religious activity throughout the Muslim world. These processes are inter-related and overlap chronologically, but can be analytically separated into the following: urbanisation; the development of transport, communication and the mass media and the consequent enlargement of the public sphere, and spread of literacy and education. The technological revolution in mass media of communication, one of the most powerful engines of globalisation, was already having a transformative impact on contemporary Islam.
  • 7 - The new transnationalism: globalising Islamic movements
    pp 198-217
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter provides a brief history of Islamic transnationalism and also outlines a typology of contemporary transnational Islam. It identifies the major categories of Muslim actors whose work and activities transcend national boundaries, including intergovernmental and state-sponsored organisations, educational institutions, intellectual and scholarly networks, non-governmental organisations, political parties, radical groups, pietistic and mystical brotherhoods and key individual personalities. Sufi networks, perhaps the most historically durable form of Muslim transnationalism, have existed since the second century following the death of the Prophet. Since the 1950s, there have emerged a number of radical Islamist movements whose aspirations are not defined in national terms but rather in terms of a renewed global Muslim polity. The chapter finally explains the significance of contemporary Muslim transnationalism for wider Islamic history by identifying several key themes around Muslim identity, the reconfiguration of religious authority and Islamic alternatives to globalisation.
  • 8 - Muslims in the West: Europe
    pp 218-237
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Major Muslim immigration to Europe began as part of the colonial ventures of the nineteenth century, but in multiple ways Islam has long been part of Europe. The rise of political Islam encouraged Muslims in Europe to form religion-based associations, but it also heightened fears of Islam by other Europeans. Tariq Modood argues that British immigrants have achieved a level of civic impact much greater than in France and Germany. In contrast to France and Britain, Germany developed an ethno-national idea of citizenship in the nineteenth century, which left it resistant to the idea of citizenship through naturalization. As in Germany and France, the display of Islamic identity in public schools has been a source of controversy in the Netherlands. Belgium, like Germany and unlike the Netherlands, funds those religions that it recognises and supports religious instruction in public schools. Although parts of Spain and Italy were once Muslim, the Muslim presence today is largely due to recent immigration.
  • 9 - Muslims in the West: North America
    pp 238-253
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In North America, unlike Central and South America where Islam remains an insignificant force, Muslims are overtaking Jews as the principal non-Christian minority group. Canada and the United States have certain similarities: both are predominantly Christian nations with relatively high levels of religious belief and practice and neither country has an establishment church. Muslims in Canada are almost all immigrants rather than indigenous converts. African Americans turned to Islam in the early twentieth century, seeking to escape Christianity and white domination. South Asian and Arab Muslims dominate the national leadership of Muslim organisations like the Islamic Society of North America and Islamic Circle of North America. The tragedy of 11 September 2001, and evidence that Islamic extremists carried out the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon changed the trajectory along which American Muslims were moving.
  • 10 - New frontiers and conversion
    pp 254-268
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter will focus on Islamic expansion in West Africa during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. At the same time that jihad leaders were attempting to construct a new kind of Islamic state, certain Sufi shaykhs began to institutionalise new forms of ṭarīqa affiliation, paving the way for a quieter but more durable transformation of Islamic practice. The attitudes of the French and British administrations towards Islam were admittedly distinct, partly due to the prior colonial experiences of each country, partly to the role of religion in metropolitan politics. The colonial transformations of the political, economic and social domains of West African society were far more important in explaining the expansion of Islam than the intentional religious policies of the colonial powers. Islamisation in Côte d'Ivoire provides a salient contrast with the Senegalese case. At the same time that Islam was expanding in West Africa, Christianity was winning converts in its own right.
  • 11 - Contemporary trends in Muslim legal thought and ideology
    pp 269-295
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Islamic revival of the later decades of the twentieth century featured the call for the application of the sharīʿa as its central plank. The main thrust of modernity and the modern state is the unification and étatisation of law. Conservative Salafism, partly through Saudi influence, constitutes the legal ideology and practice of many social groups in the Muslim world and among Muslims in the West. Movements of reform, as well as secularist projects, have attempted since the nineteenth century to relativise Qurānic and traditional provisions in order to adapt them to what they saw as modern contingencies and sensibilities. Maṣlaḥa, variously translated as 'public interest', 'utility' and 'expediency' is a central concept in the history of Muslim legal thought and practice. Ḥasan al-Turābī of Sudan is one of the most important Islamic thinkers and public figures of recent times. The appeal to science as support for religion has been a regular theme in Islamic reformism since the nineteenth century.
  • 12 - A case comparison: Islamic law and the Saudi and Iranian legal systems
    pp 296-313
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter focuses on sharī'a as law and constitution in modern times. Siyāsa shar'iyya theory covers the most basic constitutional question, the legitimacy of state rule. The constitutional system endured for centuries, affording a means by which the ideals of Islamic law were brought into practical relation to the day to day needs of state legal systems. The chapter identifies basic premises or characteristics of the late medieval system of laws and government. They all concern certain sharī'a-derived normative assumptions about law and government widely held in pre-modern times. The realms of law assigned to the scholars' law rapidly shrank, their place taken by state-issued compilations deriving from Western laws. Saudi Arabia, representing the traditionalist type, never experienced a modern drastic shift of its legal system towards Western legal forms and institutions. Iran offers a starkly contrasting case study, states formerly modernised using Western legal models which, after violent upheaval, claim to install a pure Islamic state.
  • 13 - Beyond dhimmihood: citizenship and human rights
    pp 314-334
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    European colonialism and its aftermath have drastically transformed the basis and nature of political and social organisation within and among 'territorial states' where all Muslims live today. This chapter seeks to clarify and redress a discrepancy through an examination of the question of citizenship which has far-reaching implications for political stability, constitutional governance and development at home and international relations abroad. It uses a human-rights-based view of citizenship to emphasise that the substantive norms and procedural/process aspects of this status should be derived from or at least consistent with present universal human rights standards. The chapter also examines the traditional Islamic notion of dhimmihood, which signified protection of some basic rights and limited communal autonomy for specific groups of non-Muslims, in exchange for their submission to Muslim sovereignty. It finally reviews the transition from dhimmihood to modern conceptions of citizenship in some post-colonial Islamic societies.
  • 14 - The ʿulamāʾ: scholarly tradition and new public commentary
    pp 335-354
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The memoirs of Manazir Ahsan Gilani, who had come for advanced studies to the madrasa of Deoband in 1912, offers a vivid portrait of the culture and discourses of the ulama at the beginning of the twentieth century. Just as an emphasis on the overall framework of taqlid does not preclude limited forms of ijtihad, so too, for Kashmiri, is the authority of earlier modes of discourse not binding in all respects. An ability to appeal to people with a modern education has come to be more than a desideratum for the ulama; it has become a crucial part of their own claims to religious authority. Yusuf al-Qaradawi's orientation may broadly be characterised as 'Salafi' in that his legal discourse assumes an unmediated access to the Quran and the Hadith rather than being canalised through a particular school of law. In modern and contemporary Islam, neither the revisionist discourses nor the responses to them have come exclusively from the ulama.
  • 15 - Sufism and neo-Sufism
    pp 355-384
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Institutional Sufism from the nineteenth century to today can be assessed under three discrete but related rubrics: Sufi Africa, Sufi Asia and Sufi America. The eponymous founder of the Wahhabi movement acknowledged three kinds of tawhid as integral to the intellectual defence of Islamic belief: tawhid al-rububiyya, tawhid al-uluhiyya and tawhid al-sifat. The nineteenth century was Muslim Africa's Sufi century. Especially in nineteenth-century Africa, colonial rivalries as well as competition between the tariqas were crucial to understanding the role of institutional Sufism. The Tijanis illustrate the force of colonialism as well as the emergent profile of neo-Sufism. The twentieth century produced a series of developments that moved beyond Africa and its many Sufi brotherhoods. Amplifying the claim that the twentieth century was marked by Asian Sufis was the residual impact of the Naqshbandiyya in Turkey and beyond Turkey, in Central Asia. In World Music albums, international festivals and fusion performances, Sufi music has been performed in contexts never before envisioned.
  • 16 - Islamic political thought
    pp 385-410
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.017
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Islamic political thought might be studied around the theme of a new era in which all parts of the Muslim world responded to alien intrusion. In both the Ottoman Empire and Iran the essential factor stimulating political thought was how to strengthen the existing state. It was even more evident with the Islamic reformist movement of Egyptian Shaykh Muhammad Abduh that was, of course, directly treating theological issues. A constitutionalist ideology and the actual creation of constitutions and parliaments emerged in these years not only in the Ottoman Empire, but also in Egypt, Tunisia and Iran. Two political ideologies arising in the nineteenth century advanced quite different ideas of the nature and boundaries of the political community. One was nationalism in its several different varieties, the other pan-Islam. All Indians, Muslim and non-Muslim, belong to the Indian homeland which is their nation even while the Muslims constitute their own nation. Certain Islamists have advocated the restoration of the caliphate.
  • 17 - Women, family and the law: the Muslim personal status law debate in Arab states
    pp 411-437
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.018
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In the late twentieth century, a combination of geopolitical developments focused particular attention on the Islamic sharia and specifically on its role as an identity and legitimacy signifier for opposition movements in and the governments of Muslim majority states. In an age characterised inter alia by globalisation, new media and identity politics, Muslim family law in Arab states is a site of intense debate and contestation beyond national and regional borders and across disciplinary boundaries. Women critical of uncodified family law in Bahrain became embroiled in court cases with members of the sharia judiciary. The official invocation of sharia as the sole regulatory framework for Muslim personal status law has practical impact beyond the political and ideological debate. The chapter also discusses recent legislative developments in Jordan on the age of marriage, in Morocco on polygyny and in Egypt on divorce.
  • 18 - Culture and politics in Iran since the 1979 revolution
    pp 438-472
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.019
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Iranian culture and society were profoundly affected by the mass revolution of 1978-79. Circumstances prior to the revolution favoured the rapid rise of religious politics in the later 1970s. With the end of that war in 1990 Hizbullah began to enter local politics as a political party. Iranian aid helped it set up a network of social, educational and welfare institutions, which increased its support. The position of women was central to the revolution's early rulers, who attacked modernised women as 'Western dolls', while Khomeini abrogated the Family Protection Law before any other law. Intellectual trends regarding theology and politics were dynamic in the period since 1979, and especially since the mid-1990s. Mahmud Ahmadinejad has made provocative foreign policy statements. About half of Iran's people are native Persian-speakers, mostly Shii. Iran's minorities are all distinct, but they may be ranged in several categories. The electoral victory of President Ahmadinejad in 2005 and his subsequent rule reinforced the conservative trend.
  • 19 - Modern Islam and the economy
    pp 473-494
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.020
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Since the nineteenth century, when it became abundantly clear that the Islamic world had become economically underdeveloped with respect to Western Europe and its cultural offshoots on other continents. The basic argument of Islamic economics is simple: many verses of the Quran encourage effort and enrichment, and the economic prescriptions developed during Islam's earliest period are ideally suited to economic development. In fact, the 1990s saw growing support for reforms considered heretical just a few decades earlier, when modernists objected to the zakat systems on the drawing board. Pre-modern Islam featured no banks in the modern sense, let alone 'Islamic' banks. Efforts to give economics a religious cast stemmed also, then, from a protectionist impulse. There was a growing demand for poverty alleviation, so identifiably Islamic redistribution instruments had to be found. The world's first commercial Islamic banks, too, were established at this time, making Mawlana Sayyid Abul Ala Mawdudi's blueprint at last a reality.
  • 20 - Islamic knowledge and education in the modern age
    pp 495-520
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.021
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter examines the impact of modern developments on the transmission of Islamic knowledge and the forms of Islamic education. To assess the scale of modern changes, it looks first at the varieties of Islamic education in earlier times. The medieval institution gradually assumed a form similar to that of traditionalist madrasas still today. The relationship between the new Ottoman schools and state-regulated madrasas, however, did not remain entirely dualistic. The chapter then examines the changes that took place in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and their implications for modern Muslim culture and politics. It shows that the modern period Islamic education has been neither institutionally monolithic nor pedagogically conservative, but characterised by a dizzying plurality of actors engaged in continuous educational experimentation. It finally discusses the central issue with which Muslim educational reformists have been preoccupied has been the question of just what is required for an authentic profession of Islam in the modern world.
  • 21 - History, heritage and modernity: cities in the Muslim world between destruction and reconstruction
    pp 521-548
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.022
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In recent years, Islam's two holiest cities have been purged of the ancient architectural vestiges of a more tolerant past. In the name of Wahhabi conceptions of religious purity, the Saudi leadership stripped Mecca and Medina's historic sites of 'heretical effigies fearing that heritage preservation 'could lead to polytheism and idolatry'. The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were times of great physical, political and socio-economic change for Muslim cities. Muslim urban history and Western historiography of modernity have been inseparably interwoven since the inception of urban studies as a sub-discipline of Orientalism in the twentieth century. All urban plans for Algiers of the colonial period shared a pedagogy of difference in which the cultural otherness of the colonised was set in stone as absolute and irreducible. Modern Ottoman port-cities emerged at a time when the eastern Mediterranean was incorporated into the world economy. Imperial capitals and colonial cities generally tended to have a poorer record of municipal governance than provincial cities.
  • 22 - Islamic philosophy and science
    pp 549-571
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.023
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter presents an overview of Islamic philosophy and science in the modern period, especially since 1800. The ulama sometimes fought against certain modern medical procedures and their operating institutional structures introduced by European colonisers and Christian missionaries, especially in the field of public health. In terms of numerical and imperial magnitude, the Ottomans represented the largest segment of Muslim peoples, and here practically the entire body of newly emerging elites supported the cultivation of modern science. To reiterate, Iranian ulama's resentment to modern science education was not substantive but cultural and associationist. A post-Ghazali rapprochement between kalam and philosophy is an important element in the background of later philosophical developments in Muslim societies. The fundamental defining feature of Mulla Sadra's philosophy, particularly as it is presented in the Asfar. The pride of place here belongs to the Khayrabadi School whose most illustrious representative Fadl-i Haqq, exiled by the British following the 1857 rebellion, himself wrote logical treatises.
  • 23 - The press and publishing
    pp 572-596
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.024
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter focusses on the periodical press and its assimilation in Muslim countries, with emphasis on the Middle East. In Qajar Iran, a government functionary, Mirza Salih Shirazi, published the first paper in Tehran in 1837, loosely known as Akhbar-i Waqayi. The first Muslim community to produce local private journalism was apparently that of India, where Muslims were publishing newsletters and journals in Persian and Urdu already in the 1820s and 1830s. Egyptian-based papers by Turkish and Persian expatriates had a loyal readership in Turkey and Iran. European propagators were also responsible for first disseminating mass-produced religious texts in Islamic languages. In the cultural periodicals, especially, a dialogue was evolving between writers and readers, with the latter sending queries and essays and responding to those of others, which often ran across provincial boundaries. Printing became a routine feature of public life in the Middle East after the First World War.
  • 24 - The modern art of the Middle East
    pp 597-624
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.025
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter reviews some of the major modern art movements in the Islamic Middle East. It also discusses the births of some of these movements in Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Egypt. The modern art of Turkey went through a number of phases each strongly influenced by different Western art movements. A highly significant exhibition held in America in 1962 opened up the debate about the nature of Iranian contemporary art and prompted Abby Grey to begin forming one of the earliest collections of Middle Eastern art to be assembled in the West. Mukhtar's work belongs to a phase of Egyptian art described as neo-Pharaonism which was nationalist in aspiration. The chapter explains the role of Arabic calligraphy, and changing attitudes towards figural representation. It shows how artists reflect issues of gender, religion and politics across the region, and finally returns questions of definition and the term 'Islamic' in this regard.
  • 25 - Cinema and television in the Arab world
    pp 625-647
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521844437.026
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Markets for cinema and television in the Muslim world are fragmented linguistically, historically and geographically, hence a meaningful treatment of the entire Muslim world is impossible. Arabic-language films are of three types: co-productions financed by European film and television companies, films financed and produced by states and commercial films. Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Morocco, Syria and Tunisia have all engaged in public-sector filmmaking. Aside from a few private initiatives to establish film training schools, the creation of training facilities has been largely in the hands of states. There have been abortive initiatives to establish training facilities in the Maghreb, Syria and Iraq. Both the scale of production and the social embeddedness of television far exceed those of cinema. Douglas Boyd provides a serviceable historical survey of Arab television and radio. Satellite television broadcasts began in the early 1990s from a number of different satellites, including Arab-owned equipment, as well as European-owned satellites.

Page 1 of 2


Bibliography
ʿAṭiyya Muḥyi al-dīn, et al, Dalīl muʾallafāt al-ḥadīth al-sharīf al-maṭbūʿa al-qadīma wa’l-jadīda, 2 vols., Beirut, 1995.
ʿAbd al-Rāziq Ali, Al-Islām wa ʾUsūl al-Ḥukm, Cairo, 1925, trans. Bercher L. as ‘L’Islam et les bases du pouvoir’, Revue des études islamiques, 7 (1930), pp. 353–91, and 8 (1934), pp. 163–222.
ʿAbdu Muḥammad, Al-Aʿmāl al-kāmila, ed. ʿAmāra Muḥammad, 6 vols., Beirut, 1972–4.
ʿAmīd Zanjānī ʿAbbās-ʿAlī, Fiqh-i siyāsī, 3 vols., Tehran 1366–.
ʿUthmānī Ẓafār Aḥmad, Iʿlāʾal-sunan, 21 vols., Karachi, 1414.
ʿUthmānī Ẓafār Aḥmad, et al., Aḥkām al-Qurʾān, 5 vols., Karachi, 1987.
ʿUthmānī Muḥammad Taqī, Takmilat fatḥ al-mulhim, 3 vols., Karachi, 1407.
Ṣābāt Khalīl, Taʾrīkh al-ṭibāʿa fī al-sharq al-ʿarabī, Cairo, 1958.
Ṭarāwina Muḥammad Salīm, Qaḍāʾ Yāfā fī al-ʿahd al-ʿuthānī: Dirāsāt idāriyya iqtiṣādiyya ijtimạʿiyya, [n.p.], 2000.
ibn Aḥmadibn Muḥammad Zaynal-Faṭānī Muṣṭafā, Al-fatāwā al-faṭāniyya, Patani, 1957.
Ibrahīm AḥmadShūk Abū (ed.), Taʾrīkh ḥarakat al-iṣlāḥ wāʾl-irshād wa-shaykh al-irshādiyyin Aḥmad Muḥammad al-Sūrkatī fī Indūnīsiyā, Kuala Lumpur, 2000.
aṣ-Ṣadr Muḥammad Bāqir, Lessons in Islamic jurisprudence, trans. Mottahedeh Roy P., Oxford, 2003.
Rizvi Abbas, Athar Sayyid, Shāh Walī-Allāh and his times, Canberra, India, 1980.
Abbas Hamid, Story of the great expansion, Jeddah, 1996.
Abd-Allah Umar F., The Islamic struggle in Syria, Berkeley 1983.
Abdella Doumato Eleanor, and Starrett Gregory, Teaching Islam: Textbooks and religion in the Middle East, Boulder, 2007.
Abdo Geneive, ‘Re-thinking the Islamic Republic: A “conversation” with Ayatollah Hossein ʿAli Montazeri’, Middle East Journal, 55 (2001), pp. 9–24.
Abdo Nahla, ‘Muslim family law: Articulating gender, class and the state’, International Review of Comparative Public Policy, 9 (1997), pp. 169–93.
Abou El Fadl Khaled, Islam and the challenge of democracy, Princeton, 2004.
Abou El Fadl Khaled, Speaking in God’s name: Islamic law, authority, and women, Oxford, 2001.
Abou El Fadl Khaled, And God knows the soldiers: The authoritative and the authoritarian in Islamic discourses, New York, 2001.
Abouseif Doris, Azbakiyya and its environs, from Azbak to Ismaʿīl, 1476–1979, Cairo, 1985.
Abraham Nabeel, and Shryock Andrew (eds.), Arab Detroit: From margin to mainstream, Detroit, 2000.
Abrahamian Ervand, Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic, Berkeley, 1993.
Abrahamian Ervand, The Iranian Mojahedin, London, 1989.
Abrahamian Ervand, Tortured confessions: Prisons and public recantations in modern Iran, Berkeley, 1999.
Khalil Abu, Asʿad, ‘Ideology and practice of Hizballah in Lebanon: Islamicization of Leninist organizational principle’, Middle Eastern Studies, 37, 3 (1991), pp. 390–403.
Abu Namay R., ‘Constitutional reforms: A systematisation of Saudi politics’, Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, 16 (1993), pp. 43–88.
Abu Zahra Muhammad, Al-Aḥwāl al-shakhsīya, Cairo, 1957.
Abu-Lughod Janet L., Cairo: 1001 years of the city victorious, Princeton, 1971.
Abu-Lughod Janet L., Rabat: Urban apartheid in Morocco, Princeton, 1980.
Abu-Lughod Janet L., Before European hegemony: The world system AD 1250–1350, New York, 1989.
Abu-Lughod Janet, ‘The Islamic city: Historic myth, Islamic essence and contemporary relevance’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 19 (1987), pp. 155–76.
Abu-Lughod Janet, Rabat: Urban apartheid in Morocco, Princeton, 1980.
Abu-Lughod Janet, ‘Tale of two cities: The origins of modern Cairo’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 7 (1965), pp. 429–57.
Abu-Lughod Lila, Dramas of nationhood: The politics of television in Egypt, Chicago, 2004.
Abu-Manneh Butrus, ‘Sultan Abdulhamid and Shaikh Abulhuda Al-Sayyadi’, Middle Eastern Studies, 15 (1979), pp. 131–53.
Abu-Odeh Lama, ‘Modernizing Muslim family law: The case of Egypt’, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 37 (2004), p. 1043.
Abu-Odeh Lama, ‘Egyptian feminism: Trapped in the identity debate’, in Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck and Stowasser Barbara Freyer (eds.), Islamic law and the challenge of modernity, Walnut Creek, 2004, pp. 183–211.
Abu-Odeh Lama, ‘Modern family law, 1800–present. Arab states’, Encyclopedia of women and Islamic cultures, 6 vols. Leiden and Boston, 2003–7, vol. II, pp. 459–62.
Abu-Rabiʿ Ibrahim M., Intellectual origins of Islamic resurgence in the modern Arab World, Syracuse, 1996.
Abu-Rabiʿ Ibrahim M., Intellectual origins of Islamic resurgence in the modern Arab world, Albany, 1995.
Abun-Nasr Jamil M., A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period, Cambridge, 1987.
Abun-Nasr Jamil M., The Tijaniyya: A Sufi order in the modern world, Oxford, 1965.
Adam Ahmat B., The vernacular press and the emergence of modern Indonesian consciousness (1855–1913), Ithaca, 1995.
Adams Charles C., Islam and modernism in Egypt: A study of the modern reform movement inaugurated by Mohammed ʿAbduh, London, 1933.
Adamson P., and Taylor Richard (eds.), The Cambridge companion to Arabic philosophy, Cambridge, 2005.
Afary Janet, and Anderson Kevin B., Foucault and the Iranian revolution: Gender and the seductions of Islamism, Chicago, 2005.
Affendi Abdelwahab El-, Turabi’s revolution: Islam and power in Sudan, London, 1991.
Afkhami Mahnaz, and Friedl Erika (eds.), In the eye of the storm: Women in post-revolutionary Iran, Syracuse, 1994.
Agai Bekim, Zwischen Netzwerk und Diskurs: Das Bildungsnetzwerk um Fethullah Gülen, Schenefeld, 2004.
Ahmad Aziz, Islamic modernism in India and Pakistan, 1857–1964, London, 1967.
Ahmad Mumtaz, ‘Islamic fundamentalism in South Asia: The Jamaʾat-i-Islami and the Tablighi Jamaat of South Asia’, in Marty Martin E. and Appleby R. Scott (eds.), Fundamentalisms observed, Chicago, 1991, pp. 457–530.
Ahmad Nazir, Oriental presses in the world, Lahore, 1985.
Ahmed Leila, Women and gender in Islam: Historical roots of a modern debate, New Haven, 1992.
Akhavi Shahrough, ‘Contending discourses in Shīʿī law on the doctrine of Wilāyat al-Faqīh’, Iranian Studies, 29, 3–4 (1996), pp. 229–68.
al-ʿAmri Husayn ibn ʿAbdullah, The Yemen in the 18th and 19th centuries: A political and intellectual history, London, 1985.
al-ʿAshmāwī Muḥammad Saʿīd, Al-Islām al-siyāsī, Cairo, 1987.
al-Ṣadr Muḥammad Bāqir, Iqtiṣādunā, Beirut, 1977.
al-Ṣanʿānī Muḥammad ibn Ismāʿīl, Irshād al-nuqqād ilā taysīr al-ʿamal bil-ijtihād, Beirut, 1992.
al-Ṣanʿānī Muḥammad ibn Ismāʿīl, Dīwān al-Amīr al-Ṣanʿānī, Beirut, 1986.
al-Ṣulḥ ʿImād, Aḥmad Fāris al-Shidyāq: Athāruhu wa-ʿaṣruhu, Beirut, 1987.
al-Ṭahṭāwī Rifāʿa Rāfiʿ, An imam in Paris: Account of a stay in France by an Egyptian cleric (1826–1831); Takhlīṣ al-ibrīz fī talkhīṣ Bārīz, trans. Newman Daniel, London, 2004.
al-Ṭahṭāwī Rifāʿa Rāfiʿ, Al-Aʿmāl al-kāmila, ed. ʿAmāra Muḥammad, 5 vols., Beirut, 1973–81.
al-Afghānī Jamāl al-Dīn, and ʿAbdu Muḥammad, Al-ʿUrwā al-Wuthqā, Beirut, 1980.
al-Asad Mohammad, ‘The Mosque of al-Rifāʿī in Cairo’, Muqarnas, 10 (1993), pp. 108–24.
Al-Asad Mohammad, ‘The Mosque of Muhammad ʿAli in Cairo’, Muqarnas, 9 (1992), pp. 39–55.
al-Attas Syed Muhammad al-Naquib, The concept of education in Islām: A framework for an Islamic philosophy of education, Kuala Lumpur, 1980.
al-Azmeh Aziz, Islams and modernities, London and New York, 1993.
al-Bannā Ḥasan, Mudhkarāt al-daʿwa wa-al-dāʿiyya Cairo, 1978, trans. Shaikh M. N. as Memoirs of Hasan al Banna Shaheed, Karachi, 1981.
al-Bannā Ḥasan, Five tracts of Hasan al-Banna, trans. Wendell Charles, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1975.
al-Dajānī Aḥmad Ṣidqī, Al-Ḥaraka al-Sanūsiyya: Nashʾatuha wa numuwwuha fī al-qarn al-tasiʿ ʿashar, Cairo, 1967.
al-Dhahabī Muḥammad Ḥusayn, Al-Tafsīr waʿl-mufassirūn, 3 vols., Cairo, 1961–2.
al-Fahad Abdulaziz H., ‘Ornamental constitutionalism: The Saudi Basic Law of Governance’, Yale Journal of International Law, 30 (2005), pp. 376–95.
al-Ghazālī Abū Ḥāmid, The incoherence of the philosophers (Tahāfut al-falāsifa), trans. Marmura M. E., 2nd edn, Provo, UT, 2000.
al-Haidari Buland, ‘The influence of Arab culture on contemporary Arab artists’, UR, 1981, pp. 10–27.
al-Haq , Al-Marʾa wa’l-ʿadāla wa’l-qānūn, Ramallah, 1995.
al-Jazāirī ʿAbd al-Qādir, Al-Mawāqif, 3 pts in 2 vols., Damascus, 1966.
al-Kashmīrī Anwarshāh, Fayḍ al-bārī ʿalā Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, compiled by Badr-i MuḥammadMīrathī ʿlam, 4 vols., Deoband, 2000.
al-Kashmīrī Anwarshāh, Ikfār al-mulḥidīn fī ḍarūriyyāt al-dīn, 2nd edn, Dabhel, 1988.
al-Kashmīrī Anwarshāh, Al-Tasrīḥ bi-mā tawātara fī nuzūl al-masīḥ, ed. Abū Ghudda ʿAbd al-Fattāḥ, Halab, 1965.
al-Khamis U., ‘An historical overview 1900s–1990s’, in Faraj M. (ed.), Strokes of genius: Contemporary Iraqi art, London, 2001, pp. 21–32.
Al-Khamis U., ‘Lorna Selim remembers’, in Faraj M. (ed.), Strokes of genius: Contemporary Iraqi art, London, 2001, pp. 41–6.
al-Marṣafī Ḥusayn, Risālat al-kalim al-thamān, Cairo, 1881.
al-Nisa Q., Al-ʿAllama Fadl Haqq al-Khairabadi, Hyderabad, 1399/1989.
al-Qaraḍāwī Yūsuf, Al-Ḥalāl wa al-harām fi Islam, trans. as Le licite et l’illicite en Islam, Paris, 1997.
al-Qaraḍāwī Yūsuf, Al-Ḥalāl waʿl-ḥarām fīʾl-Islām, Beirut, 1978; trans. El-Helbawy Kamal, Siddiqui M. Moinuddin and Shukry Syed as The lawful and the prohibited in Islam, Indianapolis, 1982.
al-Qaraḍāwī Yūsuf, Fuṣūl fiʾl-ʿaqīda baynaʾl-salaf waʾl-khalaf, Cairo, 2005.
al-Qaraḍāwī Yūsuf, Ibn al-qarya waʿl-kuttāb, 3 vols. to date, Cairo, 2002–6.
al-Qaraḍāwī Yūsuf, Kayfa nataʿāmal maʿal-turāth waʾl-tamadhhub waʾl-ikhtilāf, Cairo, 2001.
al-Qaraḍāwī Yūsuf, Malāmiḥ al-mujtamaʿ al-muslim alladhī nunshiduh, Beirut, 1996.
al-Qaraḍāwī Yūsuf, Al-Marjaʿiyya al-ʿulyā fiʾl-Islām liʾl-Qurʾān waʾl-sunna, Cairo, n.d. (c. 1992).
al-Qaraḍāwī Yūsuf, Al-Muslimūn waʿl-ʿawlama, Cairo, 2000.
al-Qaraḍāwī Yūsuf, Naḥw waḥda fikriyya li-ʿāmilīn li’l-Islām, Cairo, 1991.
al-Qaraḍāwī Yūsuf, Risālat al-Azhar, Cairo, 1984.
al-Qaraḍāwī Yūsuf, Al-Siyāsa al-sharʿiyya fī ḍawʾ nuṣūṣ al-sharīʿa wa maqāṣidih, Beirut, 2000.
al-Quṭb Sayyid, Maʿālim fīʾ al-arīq, Cairo, 1964, trans. into English as Milestones, Indianapolis, 1990.
al-Said S. H., Al-Buʿd al-wāḥid aw al-fann yastalhim al-ḥarf, Baghdad, 1981.
al-Sanūsī Muḥammad ʿAlī, ‘Iqāẓ al-wasnān fī al-ʿamal bi al-ḥadīth waʾl-Qurʾān’, in ibn Ghalbūn M. A. (ed.), Al-Majmūʿa al-mukhtara, Manchester, 1990.
al-Sanūsī Muḥammad ʿAlī, ‘Kitāb al-masāʿil al-ʿashr al-musammā bughyat al-maqāṣid fī khulāṣat al-marāṣid’, in ibn Ghalbūn M. A. (ed.), Al-Majmūʿa al-mukhtara, Manchester, 1990.
al-Sanūsī Muḥammad ʿAlī, ‘Al-Salsabīl al-muʿīn fī al-ṭarāʾiq al-arbaʿīn’, in ibn Ghalbūn M. A. (ed.), Al-Majmūʿa al-mukhtara, Manchester, 1990.
al-Sawi Muhammad Ahmad (ed.), Al-Ḥiṣạd: ʿAmān ʿalā al-khulʿ, Cairo, 2003.
al-Sharif Muhammad al-Habib, Majallat al-ahwal al-shakhsiyya; jumaʿ wa taʿliq, Soussa 1997.
al-Sharqāwī Jalāl, Risāla fī tārīkh al-sīnimā al-ʿArabīya, Cairo, 1970.
Al-Shawkānī Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī, Fāʿiq al-kisā fī jawāb ʿālim al-Ḥasā, ed. M. Ismāʿīl M., Amman, 1994.
al-Shawkānī Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī, Adab al-ṭalab wa-muntahā al-irab, Dār al-Arqam, 1981.
al-Shawkānī Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī, Al-Darārī al-muḍiyya sharḥ al-durra al-bahiyya, Cairo, 1986.
al-Shawkānī Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī, ‘Al-Dawāʾ al-ʿajil fī dafʿ al-ʿaduw al-ṣāʿil’, in Al-Rasāʿil al-salafiyya, Beirut, reprint of the 1930 edition.
al-Shawkānī Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī, Nayl al-awṭār min aḥādīth sayyid al-akhyār, sharḥ muntaqā al-akhbār, ed. Hāshim M. S., vol. II, pt 4, and vol. IV, pt 7, Beirut, 1995.
Al-Shawkānī Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī, Tuḥfat al-dhākirīn bi-uddat al-ḥiṣn al-ḥaṣīn, Beirut, 1984.
al-Shawkānī Muḥammad, Irshād al-fuḥūl ilā taḥqīq al-ḥaqq min ʿilm al-uṣūl, Cairo, 1327.
al-Shayyāl Jamāl al-Dīn, Taʾrīkh al-tarjama wal-ḥaraka al-thaqāfiyya fī ʿaṣr Muḥammad ʿAlī, Cairo, 1951.
al-Shirajī ʿAbd al-Ghanī Qāsim Ghālib, Al-Imām al-Shawkānī, Ḥayātuhu wa fikruhu, Beirut and Sanaa, 1988.
al-Tūnisī Khayr al-Dīn, Aqwām al-masālik li maʿrifat aḥwāl al-mamālik, ed. al-Shannūfī al-Munṣif, 2 vols., Tunis, 2000.
al-Tunisi Khayr al-Din, Aqwām al-masālik fī maʿrifat ʾaḥwāl al-mamālik, trans. with introduction and notes by Brown L. Carl as The surest path: The political treatise of a nineteenth-century Muslim statesman, Cambridge, MA, 1967.
Al-Yassini Ayman, Religion and state in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Boulder, 1985.
Alagha Joseph, ‘Hizbullah’s gradual integration into the Lebanese public sphere’, Sharqiyyāt, 13, 1 (2001), pp. 33–59.
Alam Muzaffar, The language of political Islam in India c. 1200–1800, Delhi, 2004.
Alcalay Ammiel, After Jews and Arabs: The remaking of Levantine culture, Minneapolis, 1993.
Kecia Ali, Sexual ethics and Islam, Oxford, 2006.
Ali S. Nazim (ed.), Islamic finance: Current legal and regulatory issues, Cambridge, MA, 2005.
Ali W., Modern Islamic art, Gainsville, 1997.
Ali W. (ed.), Contemporary art from the Islamic world, Amman, 1987.
Aliksān Jān, Al-Sīnimā fī al-waṭan al-ʿArabī, Kuwait, 1982.
Allen Ernest, Jr, ‘Identity and destiny: The formative views of the Moorish Science Temple and the Nation of Islam’, in Esposito John L. and Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck (eds.), Muslims on the Americanization path? Atlanta, 1998.
Allievi Stefano, ‘Les conversions à l’islam’, in Dassetto Felice (ed.), Paroles d’Islam, Paris, 2000, pp. 157–82.
Allievi Stefano, ‘Muslims in Italy’, in Hunter Shireen T. (ed.), Islam, Europe’s second religion: The new social, cultural, and political landscape, Westport, 2002, pp. 77–95.
Alsayyad N., Bierman I. and Rabbat N. (eds.), Making Cairo medieval, Lanham, 2005.
alSayyad Nezar (ed.), Hybrid urbanism: On the identity discourse and the built environment, Westport, 2001.
Alterman Jon, New media, new politics?: From satellite television to the internet in the Arab world, Washington, DC, 1998.
Amīn Ḥusayn Aḥmad, Ḥawla al-daʿwa ilā taṭbīq al-sharīʿa al-Islāmiyya, Cairo, 1987.
Aminrazavi Mehdi, ‘Persia’, in Nasr Seyyed Hossein and Leaman Oliver (eds.), History of Islamic philosophy, London, 1996, pp. 1037–50.
An-Naʿim Abdullahi Ahmed (ed.), Proselytization and communal self-determination in Africa, Maryknoll, NY, 1999.
An-Naʿim Abdullahi Ahmed, ‘Islamic foundations of religious human rights’, in Witte John, Jr, and Vyver Johan D. (eds.), Religious human rights in global perspectives: Religious perspectives, The Hague, 1996, pp. 337–59.
An-Naʿim Abdullahi Ahmed, and Deng Francis, ‘Self-determination and unity: The case of Sudan’, Law and Society, 18 (1997), pp. 199–223.
An-Naʿim Abdullahi Ahmed (ed.), Human rights in cross-cultural perspectives: Quest for consensus, Philadelphia, 1992.
An-Naʿim Abdullahi Ahmed, Gort J. D., Jansen H. and Vroom H. M., Human rights and religious values: An uneasy relationship?, Grand Rapids, MI, 1995.
An-Na`im Abdullahi Ahmed, Toward an Islamic reformation: Civil liberties, human rights and international law, Syracuse, 1990.
An-Na`im Abdullahi Ahmed, ‘Human rights and the challenge of relevance: The case of collective rights’, in Castermans-Holleman Monique, Hoof Fried and Smith Jacqueline (eds.), The role of the nation-state in the twenty-first century: Human rights, international organizations and foreign policy. Essays in honour of Peter Baehr, The Hague, 1998, pp. 3–16.
An-Naiʿm Abdullahi Ahmed (ed.), Islamic family law in a changing world: A global resource book, London, 2002.
Anderson Benedict, Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism, rev. edn, London, 1991.
Anderson Jon W., ‘Des communautés virtuelles? Vers une théorie techno-pratique d’internet dans le monde arabe’, Maghreb-Machrek, 178 (2004), pp. 45–58.
Anderson Jon W., ‘New media, new publics: Reconfiguring the public sphere of Islam’, Social Research, 70 (2003), pp. 887–906.
Anderson Norman, Law reform in the Muslim world, London, 1976.
Ankori G., Palestinian art, London, 2006.
Ansari Hayuman, The infidel within: Muslims in Britain since 1800, London, 2004.
Arabi Oussama, ‘The dawning of the third millennium on sharīʿa: Egypt’s law no. 1 of 2000, or women may divorce at will’, Arab Law Quarterly, 16, 1 (2001), pp. 2–21.
Arasoughly Alia, Screens of life: Critical film writing from the Arab world, Quebec, 1996.
Arjomand S. A., ‘Social change and movements of revitalization in contemporary Islam’, in Beckford James (ed.), New religious movements and rapid social change, London, 1986.
Arjomand S. A., The turban for the crown: The Islamic revolution in Iran, New York, 1988.
Arjomand S. A., ‘The emergence of Islamic political ideologies’, in Beckford J. A. and Luckmann T. (eds.), The changing face of religion, London, 1989, pp. 109–23.
Arjomand S. A., ‘Islam, political change and globalization’, Thesis Eleven, 76 (2004), pp. 8–28.
Arjomand S. A., ‘Unity and diversity in Islamic fundamentalism’, in Marty Martin E. and Appleby R. Scott (eds.), Fundamentalisms comprehended, Chicago, 1995, pp. 179–98.
Arjomand Said Amir (ed.), Authority and political culture in Shi`ism, Albany, 1988.
Arjomand Said Amir, ‘Authority in Shiism and constitutional developments in the Islamic Republic of Iran’, in Brunner Rainer and Ende Werner (eds.), The Twelver Shia in modern times: Religious culture and political history, Leiden and Boston, 2001, pp. 320–32.
Arjomand Said Amir, ‘Ideological revolution in Shiʿism’, in Arjomand Said Amir (ed.), Authority and political culture in Shiʿism, Albany, 1988, pp. 178–209.
Arjomand Said Amir, The Shadow of God and the Hidden Imam: Religion, political order, and societal change in Shiʿite Iran from the beginning to 1890, Chicago, 1987.
Arjomand Said Amir, ‘The law, agency, and policy in medieval Islamic society: Development of the institutions of learning from the tenth to the fifteenth century’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 41, 2 (1999), pp. 263–93.
Arjomand Said Amir, The turban for the crown: The Islamic revolution in Iran, New York, 1988.
Walter Armbrust, ‘Egyptian cinema on stage and off’, in Shrock Andrew (ed.), Off stage/on display: Intimacy and ethnography in the age of public culture, Stanford, 2005, pp. 69–100.
Armbrust Walter, ‘Synchronizing watches: The state, the consumer, and sacred time in Ramadan television’, in Meyer Birgit and Moors Annalies (eds.), Religion, media and the public sphere, Bloomington, 2005, pp. 123–44.
Armes Roy, Postcolonial images: Studies in North African film, Indianapolis, 2005.
Arnaud Jean-Luc, Le Caire: Mise en place d’une ville moderne, 1867–1907, Paris, 1998.
Arnold Thomas Walker, The caliphate, reissued with a concluding chapter by Sylvia G. Haim, London, 1965.
Asad Muhammad, The principles of state and government in Islam, Berkeley, 1961.
Ashraf Kunwar Muhammad, An overview of Indian Muslim politics (1920–1947), trans. Ashraf Jaweed, New Delhi, 2001.
Aswad Barbara C., and Bilge Barbara, Family and gender among American Muslims: Issues facing Middle Eastern immigrants and their descendants, Philadelphia, 1996.
Atiyeh George N., ‘The book in the modern Arab world: The cases of Lebanon and Egypt’, in Atiyeh George N. (ed.), The book in the Islamic world: The written word and communication in the Middle East, Albany, 1995, pp. 233–53.
Atiyeh George N. (ed.), The book in the Islamic world, New York, 1995.
Auda Gehad, ‘The “normalization” of the Islamic movement in Egypt from 1970s to the early 1990s’, in Marty Martin E. and Appleby R. Scott (eds.), Accounting for fundamentalisms and the state, Chicago, 1994, pp. 374–412.
Avery Peter, ‘Printing, the press and literature in modern Iran’, in Avery P., Hambly G. R. G. and Melville C. (eds.) The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. VII, From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic, Cambridge, 1991, pp. 815–69.
Awad Mohamed Fouad, ‘Italian influence on Alexandria’s architecture (1834–1985)’, Environmental Design, 9/10 (1992), pp. 72–85.
Ayalon Ami, ‘Hassun and Shidyaq: Pencraft and survival in mid-nineteenth century Istanbul’, in Warner Jayne L. (ed.), Cultural horizons, Syracuse, 2001, pp. 59–68.
Ayalon Ami, The press in the Arab Middle East: A history, New York, 1995.
Ayish Muhammad I., ‘The changing face of Arab communications: Media survival in the information age’, in Kai Hafez (ed.), Mass media, politics and society in the Middle East, Cresskil, NJ, 2001, pp. 111–36.
Ayubi Nazih, Political Islam: Religion and politics in the Arab world, London and New York, 1991.
Azar A., La peinture moderne en Egypte, Cairo, 1961.
Ahmad Aziz, Islamic modernism in India and Pakistan, Oxford, 1967.
Aziz K. K., The making of Pakistan: A study in nationalism, London, 1967.
Azmi Shaheen, ‘Canadian social service provision and the Muslim community in metropolitan Toronto’, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 17, 1 (1997), pp. 153–66.
Azra Azyumardi, Afrianty Dina and Hefner Robert W., ‘Pesantren and madrasa: Muslim schools and national ideals in Indonesia’, in Hefner Robert W. and Zaman Muhammad Qasim (eds.), Schooling Islam: The culture and politics of modern Muslim education, Princeton 2007, pp. 172–98.
Ba-Yunus Ilyas, and Moin Siddiqui M., A report on the Muslim population in the United States, New York, 1999.
Babès Leïla, and Oubrou Tareq, Loi d’Allah, loi des hommes: Liberté, égalité et femmes en islam, Paris, 2002.
Badran Margot, Feminists, Islam and nation: Gender and the making of modern Egypt, Princeton, 1995.
Bagby Ihsan A., ‘A profile of African-American masjids: A report from the National Masjid Study 2000’, Journal of the Interdenominational Theological Center, 29, 1–2 (2001–2), pp. 205–41.
Bagby Ihsan A., Perl Paul M. and Froehle Bryan T., ‘The mosque in America: A national portrait’, 26 April 2001, released through the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), Washington, DC.
Bahjat Aḥmad Raʾfat (ed.), Miṣr: Miʾat sanat sīnimā, Cairo, 1996.
Bahnasi A., Ruwwād al-fann al-ḥadīth fiʿl bilād al-ʿarabiyya, Beirut 1985.
Bakhash Shaul, The reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic revolution, rev. edn, New York, 1990.
Balaghi S., and Gumpert L. (eds.), Picturing Iran: Art, society and revolution, London, 2002.
Baldick Julian, Mystical Islam: An introduction to Sufism, New York, 1989.
Baljon J. M. S., Religion and thought of Shah Walī Allah Dihlawi, Leiden, 1986.
Banani Amin, The modernization of Iran, 1921–1941, Stanford, 1961.
Bang Anne K., Sufis and scholars of the sea: Family networks in East Africa, 1860–1925, London, 2003.
Banūrī Muḥammad Yūsuf, Maʿārif al-sunan, 6 vols., Karachi, 1986–9.
Barboza Stephen, American Jihad: Islam after Malcolm X, New York, 1994.
Baron Beth, The women’s awakening in Egypt: Culture, society, and the press, New Haven, 1994.
Bastéa Eleni, The creation of modern Athens: Planning the myth, Cambridge, 2000.
Basu Helene, ‘Africans in India – past and present’, Internationales Asienforum, 32 (2001), pp. 253–73.
Batatu Hanna, The old social classes and the revolutionary movements of Iraq: A study of Iraq’s old landed and commercial classes and of its Communists, Ba’thists, and Free Officers, Princeton, 1978.
Batatu Hanna, Syria’s peasantry, the descendants of its lesser rural notables, and their politics, Princeton, 1999.
Bayat A., Making Islam democratic: Social movements and the post-Islamist turn, Stanford, 2007.
Bayat Asef, Workers and revolution in Iran, London, 1987.
Beblawi Hazem, and Luciani Giacomo (eds.), The rentier state, New York, 1987.
Beeman William O., The Great Satan vs. the mad mullahs: How the United States and Iran demonize each other, Chicago, 2008.
Behdad Sohrab, ‘Property rights in contemporary Islamic economic thought: A critical perspective’, Review of Social Economy, 47 (1989), pp. 185–211.
Behrooz Maziar, Rebels with a cause: The failure of the left in Iran, London, 1999.
Beinin Joel, Workers and peasants in the modern Middle East, Cambridge, 2001.
Kanunu Belediye, see Başbakanlǐk Arşivi, Yǐldǐz Esas Evrakǐ, 37/302/47–112 (Istanbul, 1877).
Bennabi Malek, Vocation de l’Islam, Paris, 1954; trans. Rashid Asma as Islam in history and society, Islamabad, 1988.
Bennigsen Alexandre, and Wimbush S. Enders, Mystics and commissars: Sufism in the Soviet Union, Berkeley, 1985.
Bennoune Karima, ‘Between betrayal and betrayal: Fundamentalism, family law and feminist struggle in Algeria’, Arab Studies Quarterly, 17 (1995), pp. 51–76.
Benyahya Muhammad (ed.), Al-Mudawwana al-jadida li-al-usra, Rabat, 2004.
Berkes Niyazi, The development of secularism in Turkey, London, 1998.
Berkey Jonathan P., The formation of Islām: Religion and society in the Near East, 600–1800, Cambridge, 2002.
Berkey Jonathan, The transmission of knowledge in medieval Cairo: A social history of Islamic education, Princeton, 1992.
Berkey Jonathan, The formation of Islam: Religion and society in the Near East, 600–1800, Cambridge, 2003.
Berque Jacques, French North Africa: The Maghrib between two world wars, trans. Stewart Jean, New York, 1967.
Bijnorī Muḥammad Muṣṭafā, Islām awr ʿaqliyyāt: Ḥall al-intibāhāt al-mufīda, az ifādāt ḥakīm al-ummat … Ashraf ʿAlī Thānawī, 2 vols., Lahore, 1977.
Binder Leonard, Islamic liberalism: A critique of development ideologies, Chicago and London, 1988.
Birai Umar M., ‘Islamic Tajdid and the political process in Nigeria’, in Marty Martin E. and Appleby R. Scott (eds.), Fundamentalisms and the state, Chicago, 1993, pp. 184–203.
Bivar A. D., and Hiskett M., ‘The Arabic literature of Nigeria to 1804: A provisional account’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 25 (1962), pp. 104–49.
Blair S., Islamic calligraphy, Edinburgh, 2006.
Bloom Irene, Paul Martin J. and Proudfoot Wayne L. (eds.), Religious diversity and human rights, New York, 1996.
Bodenstein Ralph, Gebhardt Hans and Sack Dorothée et al., History, space and social conflict in Beirut: The Quarter of Zokak el-Blat, Beirut, 2005.
Boroujerdi Mehrdad, Iranian intellectuals and the West: The tormented triumph of nativism, Syracuse, 1996.
Boroujerdi Mehrzad, Iranian intellectuals and the West: The tormented triumph of nativism, Syracuse, 1996.
Botiveau Bernard, ‘Contemporary reinterpretation of Islamic law: The case of Egypt’, in Mallat Chibli (ed.), Islam and public law, London, 1993, pp. 261–77.
Botiveau Bernard, Loi islamique et droit dans les societes arabes: Mutations des systèmes juridiques des Moyen Orient, Paris and Aix-en-Provence, 1993.
Bowen John, Why the French don’t like headscarves, Princeton, 2006.
Bowen John R., ‘Does French Islam have borders? Dilemmas of domestication in a global religious field’, American Anthropologist, 106, 1 (2004), pp. 43–55.
Bowen John R., ‘Pluralism and normativity in French Islamic reasoning’, in Hefner Robert W. (ed.), Remaking Muslim politics, Princeton, 2005, pp. 326–46.
Boyd Douglas, Broadcasting in the Arab world: A survey of the electronic media in the Middle East, Ames, 1999.
Bozdoǧan Sibel, Modernism and nation building: Turkish architectural culture in the early republic, Seattle, 2002.
Bozorgmehr Mehdi, and Feldman Alison (eds.), Middle Eastern diaspora communities in America, New York, 1996.
Braude Ann, ‘Women’s history is American religious history’, in Tweed Thomas A. (ed.), Retelling US religious history, Berkeley, 1997, pp. 87–107.
Braude Benjamin, and Lewis Bernard (eds.), Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The functioning of a plural society, New York, 1982.
Brenner Louis, ‘Muslim thought in eighteenth-century West Africa: The case of Shaykh Uthman b. Fudi’, in Levtzion N. and Voll J. (eds.), Eighteenth-century renewal and reform in Islam, Syracuse, 1987, pp. 39–67.
Brenner Louis, and Last Murray, ‘The role of language in West African Islam’, Africa, 55, 4 (1985), pp. 432–46.
Brenner Louis (ed.), Muslim identity and social change in sub-Saharan Africa, Bloomington, 1993.
Brenner Louis, West African Sufi: The religious heritage and spiritual search of Cerno Bokar Saalif Taal, Berkeley, 1984.
Brenner Louis, Controlling knowledge: Religion, power and schooling in a West African Muslim society, Bloomington, 2001.
Brentjes S., ‘The Ottoman Empire: Storehouse, client, and testing ground for the Scientific Revolution’, paper read at the conference on ‘The Scientific Revolution in multicultural perspective’, University of Oklahoma, 7–8 April 2003.
Brentjes Sonja, ‘The location of ancient or “rational” sciences in Muslim educational landscapes, Bulletin of the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies, 4 (2002), pp. 47–71.
Bringa Tone, Being Muslim the Bosnian way: Identity and community in a central Bosnian village, Princeton, 1995.
Brouksy Lahcen, La mémoire du temps: Maroc, pays de l’inachevé, Paris, 2004.
Brown Daniel, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, Cambridge 1996.
Brown L. Carl, Religion and state: The Muslim approach to politics, New York, 2000.
Brown Nathan, The rule of law in the Arab world, Cambridge, 1997.
Brown Nathan J., ‘Sharīʿa and state in the modern Middle East’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 29 (1997), pp. 359–76.
Browne Edward G., The press and poetry of modern Persia, Los Angeles, 1983 (first published Cambridge, 1914).
Brubaker Rogers, Citizenship and nationhood in France and Germany, Cambridge, MA, 1992.
Bruinessen Martin, and Day Howell Julia (eds.), Sufism and the ‘modern’ in Islam, London, 2007.
Buheiry Marwan R., Intellectual life in the Arab east, 1890–1939, Beirut, 1981.
Bulliet Richard W., Islam: The view from the edge, New York, 1994.
Bunt Gary, Islam in the digital age: E-jihad, online fatwas and cyber Islamic environments, London, 2003.
Bunt Gary, Virtually Islamic: Computer-mediated communication and cyber-islamic environments, Cardiff, 2000.
Burgat François, L’islamisme au Maghreb, Paris, 1995.
Burhanudin Jajat, and Afrianty Dina (eds.), Mencetak Muslim modern: Peta pendidikan Islam Indonesia, Jakarta, 2006.
Burke Edmund, III, ‘Islam and social movements: Methodological reflections’, in Burke Edmund, III, and Lapidus Ira M. (eds.), Islam, politics, and social movements, Berkeley, 1988, pp. 17–35.
Burke Edmund, III, and Ira M. Lapidus (eds.), Islam, politics, and social movements, Berkeley, 1988.
Burke Edmund, ‘The first crisis of Orientalism, 1890–1914’, in Vatin J.-C. (ed.), Connaissances du Maghreb: Sciences sociales et colonialisation, Paris, 1984, pp. 213–26.
Buruma Ian, Murder in Amsterdam: The death of Theo van Gogh and the limits of tolerance, London, 2006.
Buskens Léon, ‘Islamic commentaries and French codes: The confrontation and accommodation of two forms of textualization of family law in Morocco’, in Driesen Hank (ed.), The politics of ethnographic reading and writing: Confrontations of western and indigenous views, Fort Lauderdale, 1993, pp. 65–100.
Buskens Léon, Islamitisch rechten en familiebetrekkingen in Morokko, Amsterdam, 1999.
Buskens Léon, ‘Recent debates on family law reform in Morocco: Islamic law as politics in an emerging public sphere’, Islamic Law and Society, 10, 1 (2003), pp. 70–131.
Butenschøn Nils A., Davis Uri and Hassassian Manuel (eds.), Citizenship and the state in the Middle East: Approaches and applications, Syracuse, 2000.
Byrsk Alison, Globalization and human rights, Berkeley, 2002.
Caeiro Alexandre, La normativité islamique à l’épreuve de l’Occident: Le cas du Conseil européen de la fatwa et de la recherche, Paris, 2003.
Campbell C. (ed.), Bellini and the East, London, 2006; published in conjunction with the exhibition ‘Bellini and the East’ at the Isabella Gardner Museum, Boston 14 December 2005 – 26 March 2006, and National Gallery, London 12 April – 25 June 2006.
Campo J. N.à F. M., Engines of empire: Steamshipping and state formation in colonial Indonesia, Hilversum, 2002.
Cassese Antonio, Self-determination of peoples: A legal reappraisal, Cambridge, 1995.
Çelik Zeynep, Displaying the Orient: Architecture of Islam at nineteenth-century world’s fairs, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1992.
Çelik Zeynep, The remaking of Istanbul: Portrait of an Ottoman city in the nineteenth century, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1986.
Çelik Zeynep, Urban forms and colonial confrontations: Algiers under French rule, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1997.
Cesari Jocelyne, When Islam and democracy meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United States, New York, 2004.
Cesari Jocelyne, Être Musulman en France: Associations, militants et mosques, Paris, 1994.
Cesari Jocelyne, L’Islam à l’épreuve de l’Occident, Paris, 2004.
Cesari Jocelyne, Musulmans et républicains: Les jeunes, l’Islam et la France, Brussels, 1998.
Chalcraft John, The striking cabbies of Cairo and other stories: Crafts and guilds in Egypt, 1863–1914, Albany, 2003.
Chamari Alya Chérif, La femme et la loi en Tunisie, Casablanca 1991.
Chamberlain Michael, Knowledge and social practice in medieval Damascus, 1190–1350, Cambridge, 1994.
Chapra Umar, Islam and the economic challenge, Leicester, 1992.
Charrad Mounira, States and women’s rights: The making of postcolonial Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, Berkeley, 2001.
Chaudhry Kiren Aziz, The price of wealth, Ithaca, 1997.
Chehabi H. E.Iranian politics and religious modernism: The liberation movement of Iran under the shah and Khomeini, Ithaca, 1990.
Chekir Hafidha, Le statut des femmes entre les texts et les résistances: Le cas de la Tunisie, Tunis 2000.
Chelkowski P., ‘The art of revolution and war: The role of the graphic arts in Iran’, in Balaghi S. and Gumpert L. (eds.), Picturing Iran: Art, society and revolution, London, 2002, pp. 127–41.
Chelkowski P.Narrative painting and painting recitation in Qajar Iran’, Muqarnas, 6 (1990), pp. 98–112.
Chelkowski Peter, and Dabashi Hamid, Staging a revolution: The art of persuasion in the Islamic Republic of Iran, London, 2000.
Chemais Amina, ‘Obstacles to divorce for Muslim women in Egypt’, in Hoodfar Homa (ed.), Shifting boundaries in marriage and divorce in Muslim communities, Grabels, 1996, pp. 120–41.
Choueiri Youssef M., Islamic fundamentalism, London, 1997.
Clancy-Smith Julia A., Rebel and saint: Muslim notables, populist protest, colonial encounters (Algeria and Tunisa, 1800–1904), Berkeley, 1994.
Clark Grace, ‘Pakistan’s zakāt and ʿushr as a welfare system’, in Weiss Anita M. (ed.), Islamic reassertion in Pakistan: The application of Islamic laws in a modern state, Syracuse, 1986, pp. 79–95.
Clarke Peter B., West Africa and Islam, London, 1982.
Cohen J.-L., Oulebsir N. and Kanoun Y. (eds.), Alger: Paysage urbain et architectures, 1800–2000, Besançon, 2003.
Cohen William, Urban government and the rise of the French city: Five municipalities in the nineteenth century, New York, 1998.
Cole Juan, ‘Printing and urban Islam in the Mediterranean world, 1890–1920’, in Fawaz Leila and Bayly C. A. (eds.), Modernity and culture from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean, New York, 2002, pp. 344–64.
recherché Conseil européen des fatwâs, Receuil de fatwas, Lyon, 2002.
cooke miriam, and Lawrence Bruce (eds.), Muslim networks from Hajj to hip hop, Chapel Hill, 2005.
Cooper John, Nettler Ronald and Mahmoud Mohamed (eds.), Islam and modernity: Muslim intellectuals respond, London, 2000.
Cordesman Anthony H., and Obaid Nawaf, National security in Saudi Arabia: Threats, responses and challenges, Westport, 2005.
Cornell Vincent J., Realm of the saint: Power and authority in Moroccan Sufism, Austin, 1998.
Coşkun Üçok, ‘Tanzimat’tan önce Osmanlǐ Devleti’nde hukuk’, in Tanzimat’tan Cumhuriyet’e Türkiye ansiklopedisi, Istanbul, 1985–, vol. II, pp. 574–9.
Cotter S. (ed.), Out of Beirut, Oxford, 2006; published in conjunction with the exhibition ‘Out of Beirut’ at Modern Art Oxford, 13 May–16 July 2006.
Coulson N. J., A history of Islamic law, Edinburgh, 1964.
Coulson Noel, and Hinchcliffe Doreen, ‘Women and law reform in contemporary Islam’, in Beck Lois and Keddie Nikki (eds.), Women in the Muslim world, Cambridge, MA, 1978, pp. 37–51.
Crinson Mark, Empire building: Orientalism and Victorian architecture, London, 1996.
O’Brien Cruise, Donal B., and Coulon Christian (eds.), Charisma and brotherhood in African Islam, Oxford, 1988.
Cruise O’Brien Donal B., The Mourides of Senegal: The political and economic organization of an Islamic brotherhood, London, 1971.
Cruise O’Brien Donal B., Saints and politicians, Cambridge, 1975.
O’Brien Cruise, Donal B., The Mourides of Senegal: The political and economic organization of an Islamic brotherhood, Oxford, 1971.
Cuno Kenneth, ‘Sharīʿa court regulations in late nineteenth-century Egypt: The effect on marital relations’, paper to the Symposium on Family, Gender and Law, University of Illinois, 2004.
Curtis Edward E., IV, Black Muslim religion in the Nation of Islam, Chapel Hill, 2006.
Dabashi Hamid, Theology of discontent: The ideological foundations of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, New York, 1993.
Daftari F., Without boundary: Seventeen ways of looking, New York, 2006; published in conjunction with the exhibition ‘Without boundary: Seventeen ways of looking’, at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, 26 February – 22 May 2006.
Daftari F., ‘Another modernism: An Iranian perspective’, in Balaghi S. and Gumpert L. (eds.), Picturing Iran: Art, society and revolution, London, 2002, pp. 39–87.
Dahlen Ashk P., Islamic law, epistemology and modernity: Legal philosophy in contemporary Iran, New York and London, 2003.
Dalacoura Katerina, Islam, liberalism and human rights: Implications for international relations, London, 1998.
Dallal Ahmad, ‘Appropriating the past: Twentieth-century reconstruction of pre-modern Islamic thought’, Islamic Law and Society, 7, 3 (2000), pp. 325–58.
Dannin Robert, Black pilgrimage to Islam, New York, 2002.
Daoud Zakya, ‘En marge de la conférence mondiale des femmes de Pékin: La stratégie des feministes maghrébines’, Monde Arabe, Maghreb-Machrek, 150 (1995), pp. 105–21.
Dassetto Felice (ed.), Facettes de l’Islam Belge, Louvain-la-Neuve, 1997.
Davison Roderic H., Essays in Ottoman and Turkish history, 1774–1923, Austin, 1990.
Davison Roderic H., Reform in the Ottoman Empire: 1856–1876, Princeton, 1963.
Jong Frederick, and Ratke Bernd (eds.), Islamic mysticism contested: Thirteen centuries of controversies and polemics, Leiden, 1999.
Jonge Huub, and Kaptein Nico (eds.), Transcending borders: Arabs, politics, trade, and Islam in Southeast Asia, Leiden, 2002.
Kay James, Sketches of Turkey in 1831 and 1832, New York, 1833.
Delanoue Gilbert, ‘L’enseignement religieux Musulman en Égypte du XIXe au XXe siècle: Orientations générales’, in Grandin Nicole and Gaborieau Marc (eds.), Madrasa: La transmission du savoir dans le monde Musulman, Paris, 1997, pp. 93–108.
Deng Francis M., War of visions, Washington, DC, 1995.
Dennerlein BettinaChanging conceptions of marriage in Algerian personal status law’, in Khare R. S. (ed.), Perspectives on Islamic law, justice and society, Lanham, 1999, pp. 123–41.
Dhofier Zamakhsari, The pesantren tradition: The role of the kyai in the maintenance of traditional Islam in Java, Tempe, 1999.
dī Ṭarrāzī Fīlīb, Taʾrīkh al-ṣiḥāfa al-ʿArabiyya, 4 vols., Beirut, 1913–33.
Diouf Mamadou, ‘The Senegalese Murid trade diaspora and the making of a vernacular cosmopolitanism’, Public Culture, 12, 3 (2000), pp. 679–702.
Dobbin Christine, Islamic revivalism in a changing peasant economy: Central Sumatra, 1784–1847, London and Malmo, 1983.
Donahue John J., and Esposito John L. (eds.), Islam in transition: Muslim perspectives, 2nd edn, Oxford and New York, 2007.
Doumani Beshara, Discovering Palestine: Merchants and peasants in Jebal Nablus, 1700–1900, Berkeley, 1995.
Doumani Beshara, Rediscovering Palestine: Merchants and peasants in Jabal Nablus, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1996.
Dumont Paul, and Géorgeon François, ‘Un bourgeois d’Istanbul au début du XX Siècle’, Turcica, 17 (1985), pp. 125–83.
Dupret Baudouin, Au nom de quel droit, Paris, 2000.
Dupret Baudouin, ‘Legal pluralism, normative plurality and the Arab world’, in Dupret Baudouin, Berger Maurits and al-Zwaini Laila (eds.), Legal pluralism in the Arab world, The Hague, 1999, pp. 29–40.
Dwyer Kevin, Beyond Casablanca: M.A. Tazi and the adventure of Moroccan cinema, Indianapolis, 2004.
Eickelman D. F., ‘Inside the Islamic reformation’, Wilson Quarterly, 22, 1 (1998), pp. 80–9.
Eickelman Dale F., and Anderson Jon W. (eds.), New media in the Muslim world: The emerging public sphere, 2nd edn, Bloomington, 2003.
Eickelman Dale F., and Piscatori James P. (eds.), Muslim travellers: Pilgrimage, migration and the religious imagination, Berkeley, 1990.
Eickelman Dale F., and Anderson Jon W. (eds.), New media in the Muslim world: The emerging public sphere, Bloomington, 1999.
Eickelman Dale F., Knowledge and power in Morocco: The education of a twentieth century notable, Princeton, 1985.
Eickelman Dale F., and Piscatori James, Muslim politics, Princeton, 1996.
Eickelman Dale F., ‘Mass higher education and the religious imagination in contemporary Arab societies’, American Ethnologist, 19, 4 (1992), pp. 1–13.
Ekhtiar M., ‘Nasir al-Din Shah and the Dar al-Funun: The evolution of an institution’, Iranian Studies, 34 (2001), pp. 153–65.
Ekhtiyar M., ‘From workshop and bazaar to academy: Art training and production in Qajar Iran’, in Diba L. (ed.), Royal Persian paintings: The Qajar epoch 1785–1925, London, 1998.
El Alami Dawoud, and Hinchcliffe Doreen, Islamic marriage and divorce laws of the Arab world, London, 1996.
El-Affendi Abdelwahab, Turabi’s revolution: Islam and power in Sudan, London, 1991.
El-Ashker Ahmed Abdel-Fattah, and Sirajul Haq Muhammad, Institutional framework of zakah: Dimensions and implications, Jeddah, 1995.
El-Cheikh Nadia, ‘The 1998 proposed civil marriage law in Lebanon: The reaction of the Muslim communities’, Yearbook of Islamic and Middle Eastern Law, 5 (1998–9), pp. 147–61.
El-Gamal Mahmoud A., ‘An economic explication of the prohibition of gharar in classical Islamic jurisprudence’, Islamic Economic Studies, 8 (2001), pp. 29–58.
El-Gamal Mahmoud A., Islamic finance: Law, economics and practice, Cambridge, 2006.
El-Ghobashy Mona, ‘The metamorphosis of the Egyptian Muslim Brothers’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 37, 3 (2005), pp. 373–95.
Eldem Edhem, Goffmann Daniel and Masters Bruce (eds.), The Ottoman city between East and West: Aleppo, Izmir and Istanbul, Cambridge, 1999.
Elkholy Abdo A., The Arab Moslems in the United States: Religion and assimilation, New Haven, 1966.
Elsheshtawy Yasser (ed.), Planning Middle Eastern cities: An urban kaleidoscope in a globalizing world, London, 2004.
Emin Ahmed, The development of Turkey as measured by its press, New York, 1914.
Enayat Hamid, Modern Islamic political thought, Austin, 1982.
Ergin Osman Nuri, Mecelle-yi umur-ǐ belediye, Istanbul, 1922.
Ernst Carl W., and Bruce B. Lawrence, Sufi martyrs of love: The Chishti Order in South Asian and beyond, New York, 2002.
Ernst Carl W., ‘Ideological and technological transformations of contemporary Sufism’, in cooke miriam and Lawrence Bruce (eds.), Muslim networks from Hajj to hip-hop, Chapel Hill, 2005, pp. 191–207.
Erol T.Painting in Turkey in XIX and early XXth century’, in Grabar O. and Renda G. (eds.), A history of Turkish painting, Seattle and London, 1988, pp. 87–236.
Eryǐlmaz Bilal, Osmanlǐ devletinde gayrǐmüslim teba’nǐn yönetimi, Istanbul, 1990.
Esack Farid, Qurʾān, liberation and pluralism, Oxford, 1997.
Esfandiari Haleh, Reconstructed lives: Women and Iran’s Islamic revolution, Washington, DC, 1997.
Esposito John (ed. in chief), The Oxford encyclopedia of the modern Islamic world, 4 vols., New York, 1995.
Esposito John L. (ed.), Voices of resurgent Islam, New York and Oxford, 1983.
Esposito John L., and Tamimi Azzam (eds.), Islam and secularism in the Middle East, London, 2000.
Esposito John L., and Voll John O. (eds.), Makers of contemporary Islam, Oxford, 2001.
Esposito John L., and DeLong-Bas Natana J., Women in Muslim family law, 2nd edn, Syracuse, 2001.
Esposito John L., and Mogahed Dalia, Who speaks for Islam? What a billion Muslims really think, New York, 2007.
Essien-Udom E. U., Black nationalism: A search for an identity in America, Chicago, 1962.
Eton William, A survey of the Turkish Empire, 3rd edn., London, 1801.
Evans-Pritchard E. E., The Sanusi of Cyrenaica, London, 1954.
Evans-Pritchard E. E., The Sanusi of Cyrenaica, Oxford, 1949.
Fahmi Hoda, Divorcer en Égypte: Étude de l’application des lois du statut personnel, Cairo, 1987.
Fahmy Khalid, All the pasha’s men: Mehmed Ali, his army and the making of modern Egypt, Cambridge, 1997.
Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī, Muḥaṣṣal afkār al-mutaqddimīn wa al-mutaʾakhkhirīn, Cairo, 1978.
Falola Toyin, Violence in Nigeria: The crisis of religious politics and secular ideologies, Rochester, NY, 1998.
Fandy Mamoun, Saudi Arabia and the politics of dissent, New York, 1999.
Fandy Mamoun, ‘CyberResistance: Saudi opposition between globalization and localization’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 41 (1999), pp. 127–47.
Fanon Frantz, A dying colonialism, New York, 1967.
Fanon Frantz, The wretched of the earth, London, 1990.
Farāhānī Muḥammad Ḥusayn Ḥusaynī, A Shi’ite pilgrimage to Mecca, 1885–1886: The Safarnâmeh of Mirza Mohammad Hosayn Farahani, ed., trans. and annotated by Farmayan Hafez and Daniel Elton L., Austin, 1990.
Fattah Hala, The politics of regional trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf, 1745–1900, Albany, 1997.
Fattah Moataz A., Democratic values in the Muslim world, Boulder, 2006.
Favell Adrien, Philosophies of integration: Immigration and the idea of citizenship in France and Britain, 2nd. edn, Houndmills, 2001.
Fawal Ibrahim, Youssef Chahine, London, 2001.
Fawaz Leila, et al. (eds.), Modernity and culture from Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean, 1890–1920, New York, 2001.
Fawzi Essam, ‘Muslim personal status law in Egypt: The current situation and possibilities of reform through internal initiatives’, in Welchman Lynn (ed.), Women’s rights and Islamic family law: Perspectives on reform, London, 2004, pp. 17–94.
Rahman Fazlur, Islam, 2nd edn, Chicago, 1979.
Fetzer Joel S., and Christopher Soper J., Muslims and the state in Britain, France, and Germany, Cambridge, 2004.
Findley Carter Vaughn, ‘Knowledge and education in the modern Middle East: A comparative view’, in Sabagh Georges (ed.), The modern economic and social history of the Middle East in its world context, Cambridge, 1989, pp. 130–54.
Findley Carter V., ‘An Ottoman Occidentalist in Europe: Ahmed Midhat meets Madame Gulnar’, American Historical Review, 103, 1 (1998), pp. 15–49.
Fischer Michael M. J., and Abedi Mehdi, Muslims through discourse: Cultural dialogues in postmodernity and tradition, Madison, 1990.
Fisher Humphrey J., ‘Conversion reconsidered: Some historical aspects of religious conversion in Black Africa’, Africa, 43 (1973), pp. 27–40.
Floor Willem M., ‘The first printing-press in Iran’, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 130 (1980), pp. 369–71.
Foblets Marie-Claire (ed.), Familles-Islam-Europe: Le droit confronté au changement, Paris, 1996.
Fortna Benjamin C., Imperial classroom: Islam, the state, and education in the late Ottoman Empire, Oxford, 2000.
House Freedom, Freedom in the world 2005, assorted charts, www.freedomhouse.org/research/freeworld/2005/charts2005.pdf (retrieved 24 July 2005).
Freitag Ulrike, Indian Ocean migrants and state formation in Hadhramaut, Leiden, 2003.
Freitag Ulrike, and Clarence-Smith William G. (eds.), Ḥadhrami traders, scholars and statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s to 1960s, Leiden, 1997.
Friedmann Yohanan, Prophecy continuous: Aspects of Aḥmadī religious thought and its medieval background, Berkeley, 1989.
Fuller Graham B., The youth factor: The new demographics of the Middle East and the implications for U.S. policy, Brookings Institution, Analysis Paper # 3, June 2003.
Fuller Graham, The future of political Islām, New York, 2003.
Gade Anna M., Perfection makes practice: Learning, emotion, and the recited Qur’ân in Indonesia, Honolulu, 2004.
Gaffney Patrick D., ‘The local preacher and Islamic resurgence in Upper Egypt’, in Antoun Richard T. and Hegland Mary Elaine (eds.), Religious resurgence, Syracuse, 1987.
Galbraith James, and Berner Maureen (eds.), Inequality and industrial change: A global view, Cambridge and New York, 2001.
Galloway D. (ed.), Parviz Tanavoli: Sculptor, writer & collector, Tehran, 2000.
García Bernabé López, and Planet Contreras Ana I., ‘Islam in Spain’, in Hunter Shireen T. (ed.), Islam, Europe’s second religion: The new social, cultural, and political landscape, Westport, 2002, pp. 157–74.
Gardell Mattias, In the name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam, Durham, NC, 1996.
Gaube Heinz, and Wirth Eugen, Aleppo, Wiesbaden, 1984.
Gbadamosi T. G. O., The growth of Islam among the Yoruba, 1841–1908, London, 1978.
Gdoura Wahid, Le début de l’imprimerie arabe à Istanbul et en Syrie: Évolution de l’environnement culturel (1706–1787), Tunis, 1985.
Geaves Ron, The Sufis of Britain: An exploration of Muslim identity, Cardiff, 2000.
Geertz Clifford, Islam observed: Religious development in Morocco and Indonesia, New Haven, 1968.
Geertz Clifford, ‘Toutes directions: Reading the signs in an urban sprawl’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 21 (1989), pp. 291–306.
Géorgeon F., and Dumont P. (eds.), Vivre dans l’Empire Ottoman: Sociabilités et relations intercommunitaires (XVIII–XX. siècles), Paris, 1997, pp. 17–32.
Gerçek Selim Nüzhet, Türk gazetecilig^i, Istanbul, 1931.
Gerges Fawaz A., The far enemy. Why jihad went global, Cambridge, 2005.
Ghannam Farha, Remaking the modern: Space, relocation, and the politics of identity in a global Cairo, Berkeley, 2002.
Ghazali Aidit, Development: An Islamic perspective, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, 1990.
Ghazanfar S. M., Medieval Islamic economic thought: Filling the great gap in European economics, London, 2003.
Ghobrial John-Paul.Diglossia and the “methodology” of Arabic print’, a paper presented at the international symposium on ‘The history of printing and publishing in the languages and countries of the Middle East’, Paris, 2–4 November 2005.
Gibb H. A. R., Modern trends in Islam, Chicago, 1947.
Gibb H. A. R., and Bowen H., Islamic society and the West: A study of the impact of Western civilization on Moslem culture in the Near East, vol. I: Islamic society in the eighteenth century, 2 pts, London, 1950–7.
Gibb H. A. R. (ed.), Whither Islam? A survey of modern movements in the Moslem World, London, 1932.
Gilbert Erik, Dhows and the colonial economy of Zanzibar, 1860–1970, Oxford, 2004.
Gilsenan Michael, Recognizing Islam: Religion and society in the modern Middle East, London, 2000.
Gilsenen Michael, Recognizing Islam: An anthropologist’s introduction, London, 1982.
Godoli Ezio, and Barillari Diana, Istanbul 1990: Art Nouveau architecture and interiors, New York, 1996.
Goldziher Ignaz, Gesammelte Schriften, 6 vols., Hildesheim, 1967–73.
Goldziher Ignaz, Tagebuch, Leiden, 1978.
Gonzales-Quijano Yves, Les gens du livre: Édition et champ intellectual dans l’Egypte républicaine, Paris, 1998.
Gonzalez-Quijano Yves, Les gens du livre: Édition et champ intellectuel dans l’Égypte republicaine, Paris, 1998.
Goody Jack, Islam in Europe, Cambridge, 2004.
Gordon Joel, Revolutionary melodrama: Popular film and civic identity in Nasser’s Egypt, Chicago, 2002.
Gran Peter, Islamic roots of capitalism: Egypt, 1760–1840, Syracuse, NY, 1998.
Grandin Nicole, ‘Politique d’enseignement religieux et culture arabo-islamique au Soudan’, in Grandin Nicole and Gaborieau Marc (eds.), Madrasa: La transmission du savoir dans le monde Musulman, Paris, 1997, pp. 242–61.
Grant Noor, ‘Muslim work in Canada’, The Minaret, July 1995, p. 37.
Grant Noor, ‘A new Islamic center in Canada’, The Minaret, November 1995, p. 18.
Gray John, False dawn: The delusions of global capitalism, New York, 1998.
Gregory Derek, The colonial present, Oxford, 2005.
Gresh Alain, L’Islam, la république et le monde, Paris, 2004.
Gropius Walter, The new architecture and the Bauhaus, Cambridge, MA, 1996.
Grunebaum Gustave E., Islam: Essays in the nature and growth of a cultural tradition, Westport, 1961.
Grunebaum Gustave, ‘Die Islamische Stadt’, Saeculum (1955), pp. 138–53.
Guesdon Marie-Geneviève, and Vernay-Nouri Annie (eds.), L’art du livre arabe du manuscript au livre d’artiste, Paris, 2001.
Gülsoy Ufuk, Osmanlǐ gayrimüslimlerinin askerlik serüveni, Istanbul, 1999.
Gumpert L.Reflections on the Abby Grey Collection’, in Balaghi S. and Gumpert L. (eds.), Picturing Iran: Art, society and revolution, London, 2002, pp. 17–19.
Habib Muhammad, ‘Life and thought of Ziauddin Barani’, Medieval India Quarterly, 3 (1958), pp. 197–252.
Habib S. I., ‘Delhi Tibbiya College and Hakim Ajmal Khan’s crusade for indigenous medicine systems in late 19th and early 20th century India’, in Ihsanoglu E. (ed.), Science in Islamic civilization, Istanbul, 2000, pp. 257–65.
Haddad Mahmoud, ‘Arab religious nationalism in the colonial era: Rereading Rashīd Riḍā’s ideas on the caliphate’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 117, 2 (1997), pp. 253–77.
Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck, and Freyer Stowasser Barbara (eds.), Islamic law and the challenges of modernity, Walnut Creek, 2004.
Haddad Yvonne Y., ‘The Quranic justification for an Islamic revolution: The view of Sayyid Qutb’, Middle East Journal, 37, 1 (1980), pp. 14–29.
Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck, and Esposito John L. (eds.), Muslims on the Americanization Path? Atlanta, 1998.
Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck, and Lummis Adair T., Islamic values in the United States: A comparative study, New York, 1987.
Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck, and Smith Jane Idleman (eds.), Muslim communities in North America, Albany, 1994.
Hafez Kai (ed.) Mass media, politics and society in the Middle East, New Jersey, 2001.
Hafez Kai (ed.), Media ethics in the dialogue of cultures: Journalistic self-regulation in Europe, the Arab world, and Muslim Asia, Hamburg, 2003.
Haffar Ahmad R., ‘Economic development in Islam in Western scholarship’, Islam and the Modern Age, 6, 2 (1975), pp. 5–22, and 6, 3 (1975), pp. 5–29.
Hahn Lewis., Anxier Randall and Stone Lucian, Jr (eds.), The philosophy of Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Chicago, 2001.
Hakim Besim, Arabic-Islamic cities: Building and planning principles, London, 1986.
Hallaq Wael B., Authority, continuity and change in Islamic law, Cambridge, 2001.
Hallaq Wael B., A history of Islamic legal theories: An introduction to Sunnī uṣūl al-fiqh, Cambridge, 1997.
Hamdani Daood Hassan, ‘Canadian Muslims on the eve of the twenty-first century’, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 19, 2 (1999), pp. 197–209.
Hamidullah Muhammad, Muslim conduct of state, rev. 5th edn, Lahore, 1968.
Hammami Rema, and Johnson Penny, ‘Equality with a difference: Gender and citizenship in transitional Palestine’, Social Politics (Fall 1999), pp. 315–43.
Hanebutt-Benz Eva, Glass Dagmar and Roper Geoffrey, in collaboration with Smets Theo (eds.), Sprachen des Nahen Ostens und die Druckrevolution: Eine interkulturelle Begegnung / Middle Eastern languages and the print revolution: A cross-cultural encounter, Mainz, 2002.
Haneef Mohamed Aslam, Contemporary Islamic economic thought: A selected comparative analysis, Kuala Lumpur, 1995.
Hanson John, Migration, jihād, and Muslim authority in West Africa, Bloomington, 1996.
Hanssen Jens, Fin de siècle Beirut: The making of an Ottoman provincial capital, Oxford, 2005.
Hanssen Jens, Philipp Thomas and Weber Stefan, The empire in the city: Arab provincial capitals in the late Ottoman Empire, Beirut, 2002.
Haq S. Nomanul, ‘Occult sciences and medicine’, in Irwin Robert (ed.) The New Cambridge history of Islam, vol. IV: Islamic cultures and societies to the end of the eighteenth century, Cambridge, 2010, ch. 19.
Haq S. N., ‘Science, scientism, and the liberal arts’, Islam and science, 2 (2003), pp. 273–7.
Hargreaves Alec G., Immigration, ‘race’ and ethnicity in contemporary France, London, 1995.
Harik Iliya, and Sullivan Denis J. (eds.), Privatization and liberalization in the Middle East, Bloomington, 1992.
Harrison Christopher, France and Islam in West Africa, 1860–1960, Cambridge, 1988.
Çelebi Hasan, Hattǐn Çelebisi, Istanbul, 2003.
Hatem Mervat, ‘Economic and political liberalisation in Egypt and the demise of state feminism’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 24 (1992), pp. 231–51.
Hayba Muḥammad Manṣūr, Al-Ṣiḥāfa al-Islāmiyya fī Miṣr bayna ʿAbd al-Nāṣir wal-Sādāt, Cairo, 1990.
Haykel Bernard, Revival and reform in Islam: The legacy of Muhammad al-Shawkānī, Cambridge, 2003.
Heater Derek, A brief history of citizenship, Edinburgh, 2004.
Hefner Robert W., Civil Islam: Muslims and democratization in Indonesia, Princeton, 2000.
Hefner Robert W., and Qasim Zaman Muhammad (eds.), Schooling Islam: The culture and politics of modern Muslim education, Princeton, 2007.
Hefner Robert W., ‘Civic pluralism denied? New media and jihadi violence in Indonesia’, in Eickelman Dale F. and Anderson Jon W. (eds.), New media in the Muslim world: The emerging public sphere, 2nd edn, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 2003, pp. 158–79.
Hélie-Lucas Marie-Aimée, ‘The preferential symbol for Islamic identity: Women in Muslim personal status laws’, in Moghadam Valentine M. (ed.), Identity politics and women: Cultural reassertions and feminisms in international perspective, Boulder, 1994, pp. 391–407.
Henkel Heiko, ‘Rethinking the dār al-harb: Social change and the changing perceptions of the West in Turkish Islam’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30, 5 (2004), pp. 961–78.
Henry Clement M., The Mediterranean debt crescent: Money and power in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and Turkey, Gainesville, FL, 1996.
Henry Clement M., and Springborg Robert, Globalization and the politics of development in the Middle East, Cambridge, 2001.
Henry Clement M., and Wilson Rodney (eds.), The politics of Islamic finance, Edinburgh, 2004.
Henry Clement M. (ed.), ‘Special issue: Islamic banking’, Thunderbird International Business Review, 41 (1999), pp. 357–609.
Herb Michael, ‘No representation without taxation? Rents, development, and democracy’, Comparative Politics, 37, 3 (April 2005), pp. 297–316.
Hermansen Marcia K., ‘In the garden of American Sufi movements: Hybrids and perennials’, in Clarke Peter B. (ed.), New trends and developments in the world of Islam, London, 1997, pp. 155–78.
Hermansen Marcia, ‘Hybrid identity formations in Muslim America: The case of American Sufi movements’, Muslim World, 90 (2000), pp. 158–78.
Herzog Christoph, et al. (eds.), Presse und Öffenlichkeit im Nahen Osten, Heidelberg, 1995.
Heyworth-Dunne J., ‘Printing and translation under Muḥammad ʿAlī of Egypt’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (July 1940), pp. 325–49.
Hidayat Husain Mawlawi H., ‘The Persian autobiography of Shāh Walīullah bin ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Dihlavī: Its English translation and a list of his works’, Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 8 (1912), pp. 161–9.
Hijab Nadia, Womanpower: The Arab debate on women at work, Cambridge 1988.
Hill Enid, Al-Sanhourī and Islamic law, Cairo Papers in Social Science, 10, 1, Cairo, 1997.
Hirschkind Charles, ‘The ethics of listening: Cassette-sermon audition in contemporary Egypt’, American Ethnologist, 28 (2001), pp. 623–50.
Hiskett Mervyn, ‘Material relating to the state of learning among the Fulani before their Jihād’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 19 (1957), pp. 550–78.
Hiskett Mervyn, The development of Islam in West Africa, London and New York, 1984.
Hiskett Mervyn, The sword of truth, London, 1973.
Hodgson Marshall G. S., The venture of Islam: Conscience and history in a world civilization, vol. III: The gunpowder empires and modern times, Chicago, 1974.
Hodgson Marshall G. S., The venture of Islam, 3 vols., Chicago, 1977.
Holt P. M., Lambton Ann K. S. and Lewis B., (eds.), The Cambridge history of Islam, vol. IA, The central Islamic lands from pre-Islamic times to the First World War, Cambridge, 1970.
Holton Robert J., Globalization and the nation-state, Basingstoke, 1998.
Hoodbhoy P., Islam and Science, London, 1991.
Hoodfar Homa, ‘Circumventing legal limitation: Mahr and marriage negotiation in Egyptian low-income communities’, in Hoodfar Homa (ed.), Shifting boundaries in marriage and divorce in Muslim communities, Grabels, 1996, pp. 120–41.
Hourani Albert, Arabic thought in the liberal age, 1798–1939, London, 1962.
Hourani Albert, Arabic thought in the liberal age, 1798–1939, Oxford, 1962.
Howard Jane, Inside Iran: Women’s lives, Washington, DC, 2002.
Huff T., ‘The rise of modern science: A reply to George Saliba’, Bulletin of the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies, 4 (2002), pp. 115–28.
Huff Toby, The rise of early modern science: Islam, China, and the West, 2nd edn, Cambridge, 2003.
Hunter Shireen T. (ed.), Islam, Europe’s second religion: The new social, cultural, and political landscape, Westport, 2002.
Huntington S. P., ‘The clash of civilizations’, Foreign Affairs, 72 (1993), pp. 22–49.
Huntington Samuel P., The third wave: Democratization in the late twentieth century, Norman, OK, and London, 1991.
Huntington Samuel P., ‘The clash of civilizations’, Foreign Affairs, 72 (1993), pp. 22–49.
Hunwick J. O., ‘Religion and state in the Songhay Empire, 1464–1591’, in Lewis I. M. (ed.), Islam in Tropical Africa, Oxford, 1966, pp. 296–317.
Hurgronje C. Snouck, Mekka, 2 vols., The Hague, 1888.
Husain Mir Zohair, Global Islāmic politics, 2nd edn, New York, 2002.
Hussain Muhammad, Development planning in an Islamic state, Karachi, 1987.
ʿAbd ibnal-Wahhāb Muḥammad, Majmūʿat al-fatāwā waʾ-rasāʾil waʾl-ajwiba, Cairo, 1400.
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, Al-Kalimāt al-nāfiʿa fī al-mukaffirāt al-wāqiʿa, Cairo, 1393.
Fūdī ibn, ʿUthmān, ‘Sirāj al-Ikhwān’, in ‘An Islamic tradition of reform in the western Sudan from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century’, translation of selections from Sirāj al-ikhwān, Bayān al-bidaʿ al-shayṭānīya and Naṣā’iḥ al-umma al-Muḥammadīya, by M. Hiskett, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 25, 3 (1962), pp. 577–96.
ʿUthmān ibn Fūdī, Bayān wujūb al-hijrā ʿalā al-ʿibād, ed. and trans. El-Masri F. H., Khartoum and Oxford, 1978.
ʿUthmān Ibn Fūdī, ‘An early Fulani conception of Islam’, trans. of Tanbīh al-ikhwān with introduction by Palmer H. R., Journal of the African Society, 13 (1913–14), pp. 407–14, and 14 (1914–15), pp. 53–9.
ʿUthmān Ibn Fūdī, ‘Kitāb al-farq: A work on the Habe Kingdoms attributed to ʿUthmān dan Fodio’, ed. and trans. with introduction by Hiskett M., Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 23, 2 (1960), pp. 558–79.
Ibn Fūdī ʿUthmān, ‘The translation of the nūr-al-albāb’, Arabic text and translation with introduction by Yusuf Wali, Kano Studies, 2, 1 (1980), pp. 10–36.
ʿUthmān Ibn Fūdī, ‘Unbelief in the western Sudan: ʿUthmān dan Fodio’s ‘Taʿlīm al-ikhwān’, ed. and trans. with an introduction by Martin B. G., Middle Eastern Studies, 4 (1976), pp. 50–97.
ʿUthmān Ibn Fūdī, ‘The Wathīqat ahl Al-Sūdān: A manifesto of the Fulani Jihād’, Arabic text and translation with introduction by Bivar A. D. H., Journal of African History, 2, 2 (1961), pp. 235–43.
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, al-Din Abī ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr Shams, Aḥkām ahl al-Dhimma, ed. al-Ṣaliḥ Ṣubḥī, 4th edn, Beirut, 1994.
Taymiyya Ibn, Muwāfaqat ṣaḥīḥ al-manqūl li-ṣarīḥ al-maʿqūl, Beirut, 1997.
Ibrahim Mahmood, Merchant capital and Islam, Austin, 1990.
Ibrahim Saad Eddin, ‘Anatomy of Egypt’s militant Islamic groups: Methodological note and preliminary findings’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 12, 4 (1980), pp. 423–53.
Ibrahim Saad Eddin, ‘Egypt’s Islamic activism in the 1980s’, Third World Quarterly, 10, 2, 1988, pp. 632–57.
Ihsanoglu E., Chatzis K. and Nicolaidis E. (eds.), Multicultural science in the Ottoman empire, Turnhout, 2003.
Ihsanoglu E., Science, technology and learning in the Ottoman Empire, Aldershot, 2004.
Ilbert Robert, Alexandrie, 1830–1930, 2 vols., Cairo, 1996.
Ilesanmi Simeon O., ‘Constitutional treatment of religion and the politics of human rights in Nigeria’, African Affairs, 100 (2001), pp. 529–54.
Ilyās Jūzīf, Taṭawwur al-ṣiḥāfa al-Sūriyya fī miʾat ʿām, 1865–1965, 2 vols., Beirut, 1982–3.
Imber Colin, The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650: The structure of power, New York, 2002.
Imber Colin, Ebuʾs-suʿud: The Islamic legal tradition, Edinburgh, 1997.
Khan Inayat, Zia Pirzade (ed.), A pearl in wine: Essays on the life, music and Sufism of Hazrat Inayat Khan, New Lebanon, 2001.
, ‘Jemaah Islamiyah in South East Asia: Damaged but still dangerous’, Asia Report, Jakarta and Brussels, 26 August 2003, no. 63.
, ‘Pakistan: Madrasas, extremism and the military’, Asia Report, 36, Islamabad and Brussels, 2002 3.
Iqbal Mohammad, Thoughts and reflections of Iqbal, ed. Vahid Syed Abdul, Lahore, 1964.
Iqbāl Muḥammad, The reconstruction of religious thought in Islam, Chicago, 1999.
Iqbal Sir Muhammad, The reconstruction of religious thought in Islam, Lahore, 1989.
Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30, 5 (2004).
Islamoglu H. (ed.), The Ottoman Empire and the world-economy, Cambridge, 1987.
Issa R., Pakbaz R. and Shayagan D., Iranian contemporary art, London, 2001; published in conjunction with the exhibition ‘Iranian Contemporary Art’ at the Barbican Art Gallery 12 April – 3 June 2001.
Issa R., ‘Borrowed ware’, in Iranian contemporary art, London, 2001; published in conjunction with the exhibition ‘Iranian Contemporary Art’ at the Barbican Art Gallery 12 April – 3 June 2001.
Iverson Hans Raun, ‘Secular religion and religious secularism’, Nordic Journal of Religion and Society, 19 (2006), pp. 75–92.
Jabartī ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, Napoleon in Egypt: Al-Jabarti’s chronicle of the French occupation, 1978, trans. Moreh S., intro. Tignor R. L., Princeton, 1993.
Jabra J. I., La peinture contemporaine en Iraq, Baghad, 1970.
Jabra Jabra Ibrahim, Princesses’ Street: Baghdad memories, Fayetteville, 2005.
Jackson Sherman A., Islam and the Blackamerican: Looking toward the third resurrection, Oxford, 2005.
Jackson Sherman A., ‘Islam(s) East and West: Pluralism between no-frills and designer fundamentalism’, in Dudziak Mary L. (ed.), September 11 in history, Durham, NC, 2003, pp. 112–35.
Jacob Xavier, ‘L’enseignement religieux en Turquie de la fin de l’empire ottoman à nos jours’, in Grandin Nicole and Gaborieau Marc (eds.), Madrasa: La transmission du savoir dans le monde Musulman, Paris, 1997, pp. 109–38.
Jad Islah, ‘The NGOization of the Arab women’s movements’, Review of Women’s Studies, 2 (2004), pp. 42–56.
Jadaane Fahmi, ‘Notions of the state in contemporary Arab-Islamic writings’, in Salame Ghassan (ed.), The foundations of the Arab state, London, 1987, pp. 112–48.
Jahanbakhsh Forough, Islam, democracy and religious modernism in Iran (1953–2000), Leiden, 2001.
Jalbani G. N., Teachings of Shāh Walīyullāh of Delhi, Lahore, 1967.
Jansen J. J. G., The interpretation of the Koran in modern Egypt, Leiden, 1974.
Jansen Johannes J. G., The neglected duty: The creed of Sadat’s assassins, and Islamic resurgence in the Middle East, New York, 1986.
Janssens J., An annotated bibliography on Ibn Sīnā (1970–1989), Leuven, 1991.
Janssens J., An annotated bibliography on Ibn Sīnā: First supplement (1990–1994), Louvain-la-Neuve, 1999.
Jawda Aḥmad (ed.), Ḥiwārāt ḥawla al-Sharīʿa, Cairo, 1990.
Jayyid Ramzī Mīkhāʾīl, Taṭawwur al-khabar fī al-ṣiḥāfa al-miṣriyya, Cairo, 1985.
Johnson Steve A., ‘Political activity of Muslims in America’, in Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck (ed.), The Muslims of America, New York, 1991, pp. 111–24.
Jok Madut Jok, War and slavery in Sudan, Philadelphia, 2001.
Jonge Huub, and Kaptein Nico (eds.), Transcending borders: Arabs, politics, trade, and Islam in Southeast Asia, Leiden, 2002.
Jonker Gerdien, ‘Islamic television “Made in Berlin”’, in Dassetto Felice (ed.), Paroles d’Islam, Paris, 2000, pp. 267–80.
Joseph Suad (ed.), Gender and citizenship in the Middle East, Syracuse, 2000.
Kaba Lansine, The Wahhabiyya: Islamic reform and politics in French West Africa, Evanston, 1974.
Kahani-Hopkins V., and Hopkins N., ‘“Representing” British Muslims: The strategic dimension to identity construction’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 25, 2 (2002), pp. 288–309.
Kamali Mohammad Hashim, Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, 2nd edn, Cambridge, 1991.
Kamrava Mehran (ed.), The new voices of Islam: Rethinking politics and modernity: A reader, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2006.
Kandiyoti Deniz, ‘Bargaining with patriarchy’, Gender and Society, 2, 3 (1988), pp. 274–90.
Kandiyoti Deniz, ‘Introduction’, in Kandiyoti Deniz (ed), Women, Islam and the state, Philadelphia, 1991, pp. 1–21.
Kane Ousmane, ‘Muslim missionaries and African states’, in Rudolph S. H. and Piscatori J. (eds.), Transnational religion and fading states, Boulder 1997, pp. 47–62.
Kaplan Sam, The pedagogical state: Education and the politics of national culture in post-1980 Turkey, Stanford, 2006.
Karam Azza (ed.), Transnational political Islam, London, 2003.
Karnouk L., Modern Egyptian Art, Cairo, 2005.
Karnouk L., Contemporary Egyptian art, Cairo, 1995.
Karnouk L., Modern Egyptian art: The emergence of a national style, Cairo, 1988.
Kasaba R., The Ottoman Empire and the world economy: The nineteenth century, Albany, 1988.
Kassis Hanna E., A concordance of the Qurʾān, Berkeley, 1983.
Kastoryano Riva, Negotiating identities: States and immigrants in France and Germany, Princeton, 2002.
Katz Kimberly, Jordanian Jerusalem: Holy places and national spaces, Gainsville, 2005.
Keck Margaret E., and Sikkink Kathryn, Activists beyond borders: Advocacy networks in international politics, Syracuse, 1998.
Keddie Nikki, An Islamic response to imperialism: Political and religious writings of Sayyid Jamāl al-Dīn ‘al-Afghānī’, Berkeley, Los Angles and London, 1983.
Keddie Nikki R. (ed.), Scholars, saints, and Sufis: Muslim religious institutions since 1500, Berkeley, 1972.
Keddie Nikki, and Richard Yann, ‘Modern Iranian political thought’, in Keddie Nikki, Modern Iran: Roots and results of revolution, New Haven, 2003, pp. 170–213.
Keddie Nikki R., Modern Iran: Roots and results of revolution, new edn, New Haven, 2006.
Keddie Nikki R., Iran and the Muslim world: Resistance and revolution, London, 1995.
Keddie Nikki R., Women in the Middle East: Past and present, Princeton, 2007.
Keddie Nikki R. (ed.), Religion and politics in Iran, New Haven, 1983.
Kenanog^lu Kenan, Osmanlǐ millet sistemi: Mit ve gerçek, Istanbul, 2004.
Kepel Gilles, Le prophete at pharaon: Les mouvements islamistes dans l’Egypte contemporaine, Paris, 1984.
Kepel Gilles, Allah in the West: Islamic movements in America and Europe, Stanford, 1997.
Kepel Gilles, Les banlieues de l’Islam: Naissance d’une religion en France, Paris, 1991.
Kepel Gilles, Fitna: Guerre au cœur de l’Islam, Paris, 2004.
Kepel Gilles, Jihad: The trail of political Islam, London, 2002.
Kerr Ian J., Building the railways of the Raj, 1850–1900, Delhi, 1995.
Kerr Malcolm, Islamic reform: The political and legal theories of Muḥammad ʿAbduh and Rashīd Riḍā, Berkeley, 1966.
Khadduri Majid, Islamic law of nations: Shaybani’s siyar, Baltimore, 1966.
Khadduri Majid, War and peace in the law of Islam, Baltimore, 1955.
Khalid Adeeb, The politics of Muslim cultural reform: Jadidism in Central Asia, Berkeley, 1998.
Khan Mohsin S., and Mirakhor Abbas (eds.), Theoretical studies in Islamic banking and finance, Houston, 1987.
Khan Sayyid Ahmed, The causes of the Indian revolt, with an introduction by Francis Robinson, Karachi and New York, 2000.
Khan Shahnaz, Muslim women: Crafting a North American identity, Gainesville, 2000.
Khomeini Ruhollah, Islam and revolution: Writings and declarations, tr. and annotated by Algar Hamid, London, 1982.
Khomeini Ruhollah, Islam and revolution: Writings and declarations of Imam Khomeini (1941–1980), trans. and annotated by Algar Hamid, Berkeley, 1981.
Khomeini Ruhollah, Islamic Government, Springfield, VA, 1979.
Khosrokhavar Farhad, L’Islam des jeunes, Paris, 1997.
Khoury Dina, State and provincial society in the early modern Ottoman Empire: Mosul, 1540–1834, Cambridge, 1997.
Kifner John, ‘Massacre draws self-criticism in Muslim press’, New York Times, 9 September 2004, p. A8.
Klausen Jytte, The Islamic challenge: Politics and religion in Western Europe, Oxford, 2005.
Klein Martin A., Islam and imperialism in Senegal, Edinburgh, 1968.
Komeili Mahadi, The rights of minorities in Islam, New Dehli, 2004.
Kondū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, Al-Anwar: Shaykh al-ḥadīth ḥaḍrat ʿallāma Muḥammad Anwarshāh Kashmīrī kī sawāniḥ ḥayāt awr kamālāt wa tajalliyyāt, Delhi, 1976.
Kosnick Kira, ‘“Speaking in one’s own voice”: Representational strategies of Alevi Turkish migrants in open-access television in Berlin’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30, 5 (2004), pp. 979–94.
Kotkin Joel, The city: A global history, New York, 2005.
Krämer Gudrun, ‘Drawing boundaries: Yūsuf al-Qaraḍāwī on apostasy’, in Krämer Gudrun and Schmidtke Sabine (eds.), Speaking for Islam: Religious authorities in Muslim societies, Leiden, 2006, pp. 181–217.
Kramer Martin, Islām assembled: The advent of the Muslim congresses, New York, 1986.
Krikorian Mesrob K., Armenians in the service of the Ottoman Empire 1860–1908, London, 1978.
Krymskii Agathangel Efimoovich, Istoria novoi Arabskoi literaturyi, Moscow, 1971.
Küçük Cevdet, ‘Osmanlǐlarda “Millet Sistemi” ve Tanzimat’, in Tanzimat’tan Cumhuriyet’e Türkiye ansiklopedisi, Istanbul, 1985–, vol. IV, pp. 1007–24.
Küçükcan Talip, ‘“Continuity and change”: Young Turks in London’, in Vertovec Steven and Rogers Alisdair (eds.), Muslim European youth: Reproducing ethnicity, religion, culture, Aldershot, 1999, pp. 103–31.
Kumar K., ‘The nation-state, the European Union, and transnational identities’, in Alayyad N. and Castells M. (eds.), Muslim Europe or Euro-Islam, Lanham, 2002, pp. 53–68.
Kupferschmidt Uri M., ‘Reformist and militant Islam in urban and rural Egypt’, Middle Eastern Studies, 23, 4 (1987), pp. 403–18.
Kuran Timur, Islam and mammon: The economic predicaments of Islamism, Princeton, 2004.
Kuran Timur, ‘Islamic redistribution through zakāt: Historical record and modern realities’, in Bonner Michael, Ener Mine and Singer Amy (eds.), Poverty and charity in medieval contexts, Albany, 2003, pp. 275–93.
Kuran Timur, ‘Islam and underdevelopment: An old puzzle revisited’, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 153 (1997), pp. 41–71.
Kuran Timur, ‘The Islamic commercial crisis: Institutional roots of economic underdevelopment in the Middle East’, Journal of Economic History, 63 (2003), pp. 414–46.
Kuran Timur, ‘The logic of financial westernization in the Middle East’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 56 (2005), pp. 593–615.
Kurzman Charles (ed.), Liberal Islam: A sourcebook, New York and Oxford, 1998.
Kurzman Charles (ed.), Modernist Islam, 1840–1940: A sourcebook, New York and Oxford, 2002.
Kurzman Charles, ‘Critics within: Islamic scholars’ protests against the Islamic state in Iran’, International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 15 (2001), pp. 341–59.
Kymlicka Will, Multicultural citizenship: A liberal theory of minority rights, Oxford, 1995.
Laffan Michael, Islamic nationhood and colonial Indonesia: The umma below the winds, London, 2003.
Laffan Michael, ‘A watchful eye: The Meccan Plot of 1881 and changing Dutch perceptions of Islam in Indonesia’, Archipel, 63 (2002), pp. 79–108.
Lafi Nora, Une ville du Maghreb entre ancient régime et réformes ottomans: Genèse des institutions municipals à Tripoli de Barbarie (1795–1911), Paris, 2002.
Lafi Nora (ed.), Municipalités méditerranéennes: Les réformes urbaines ottomans au mirroir d’une histoire comparée, Berlin, 2005.
Lambton A. K., ‘Social change in Persia in the nineteenth century’, in Hourani A., Khoury P. and Wilson M. (eds.), The modern Middle East, Berkeley, 1993.
Landau Jacob, The Hejaz Railway and the Muslim pilgrimage, Detroit, 1971 (this book includes an English translation of an Arabic manuscript entitled Al-Saʿāda al-nāmiya al-abadīya fī’l-sikka al-ḥadīdīya al-ḥijāziyya, written in 1900 by Muḥammad al-Dimashqī).
Landau Jacob M., The politics of pan-Islām: Ideology and organisation, Oxford, 1990.
Landen Robert G., Oman since 1856, Princeton, 1967.
Landman Nico, ‘Islam in the Benelux Countries’, in Hunter Shireen T. (ed.), Islam, Europe’s second religion: The new social, cultural, and political landscape, Westport, 2002, pp. 97–120.
Lapidus I., A history of Muslim societies, Cambridge, 1988.
Lapidus Ira M., A history of Islamic societies, 2nd edn, Cambridge, 2002.
Lapidus Ira, A history of Islamic societies, Cambridge, 1988.
Lapidus Ira, A history of Islamic societies, 2nd edn, Cambridge, 2002.
Laroui Abdallah, The crisis of the Arab intellectual: Traditionalism or historicism?, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1984.
Laroui Abdallah, L’idéologie arabe contemporaine: Essai critique, Paris, 1967.
Last Murray, ‘Reform in West Africa: The jihād movements of the nineteenth century’, in Ajayi J. F. A. and Crowder Michael (eds.), The history of West Africa, vol. II, London, 1974, pp. 1–29.
Last Murray, The Sokoto caliphate, London, 1967.
Last Murray, The Sokoto caliphate, New York, 1967.
Launay Marie, Osmanli Imparatorluǧu mimarisi, Istanbul, 1998.
Launay Robert, Beyond the stream: Islam and society in a West African town, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1992.
Launay Robert, ‘Spirit media: The electronic media and Islam among the Dyula of northern Côte d’Ivoire’, Africa, 67, 3 (1997), pp. 441–53.
Launay Robert, and Miran Marie, ‘Beyond Mande Mory: Islam and ethnicity in Côte d’Ivoire’, Paideuma, 46 (2000), pp. 63–84.
Launay Robert, and Soares Benjamin F., ‘The formation of an “Islamic sphere” in French colonial West Africa’, Economy and Society, 28, 4 (1999), pp. 491–519.
Lawless R. I., ‘Recruitment and regulation: Migration for employment of “Adenese” seamen in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries’, New Arabian Studies, 2 (1994), pp. 75–102.
Layish Aharon, Women and Islamic law in a non-Muslim state, Jerusalem, 1975.
Pautremat Pascal, La politique musulmane de la France au XXe siècle, Paris, 2003.
Leaman Oliver (ed.), Companion encyclopedia of Middle Eastern and North African film, New York, 2001.
Lee Robert D., Overcoming tradition and modernity: The search for Islamic authenticity, Boulder, 1997.
Leonard Karen Isaksen, ‘American Muslims before and after September 11, 2001’, Economic and Political Weekly (Mumbai), 15 June 2002, pp. 2292–302.
Leonard Karen Isaksen, ‘South Asian leadership of American Muslims’, in Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck (ed.), Muslims in the West: From sojourners to citizens, New York, 2002, pp. 233–49.
Leonard Karen Isaksen, Muslims in the United States: the State of Research, New York, 2003.
Lerner Daniel, The passing of traditional society, New York and London, 1958.
Lerrick Alison, and Mian Q. Javed, Saudi business and labor law: Its interpretation and application, 2nd edn, London, 1982.
Lespès René, Alger: Étude de géographie et d’histoire urbaine, Paris, 1930.
Leveau Rémy, and Kepel Gilles (eds.), Les Musulmans dans la société française, Paris, 1988.
LeVine Mark, Overthrowing geography: Jaffa, Tel Aviv, and the struggle for Palestine, 1880–1948, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2005.
Levtzion Nehemia, and Voll John O. (eds.), Eighteenth-century renewal and reform in Islam, Syracuse, 1987.
Levtzion Nehemiah (ed.), Conversion to Islam, New York and London, 1979.
Levtzion Nehemiah, and Pouwels Randall L. (eds.), The history of Islam in Africa, Athens, OH, 2000.
Levtzion Nehemiah, and John O. Voll (eds.), Eighteenth-century renewal and reform in Islam, Syracuse, 1987.
Lewis Bernard, The political language of Islam, Chicago, 1988.
Lewis Bernard, The emergence of modern Turkey, 2nd edn., London, 1968.
Lewis Mervyn K., and Latifa M. Algaoud, Islamic banking, Cheltenham, UK, 2001.
Lewis Philip, Islamic Britain: Religion, politics, and identity among British Muslims, 2nd edn, London, 2002.
Lewisohn Leonard, ‘An introduction to the history of modern Persian Sufism, Part II: A sociocultural profile of Sufism, from the Dhahabi Revival to the present day’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 62, 1 (1999), pp. 36–59.
Lincoln C. Eric, The Black Muslims in America, Boston, 1961.
Lindberg David C., The beginnings of Western science: The European scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context, 600 B.C. to A.D. 1450, Chicago, 1992.
Litvak Meir, Shiʿi scholars of nineteenth-century Iraq: The ʿulama of Najaf and Karbala, Cambridge, 1998.
Lloyd F. (ed.), Displacement and difference: Contemporary Arab culture in the diaspora, London, 1999.
Loimeier Roman, Islamic reform and political change in northern Nigeria, Evanston, 1997.
Lowry J., Stewart D. and Toorawa S., Law and education in medieval Islam: Studies in memory of Professor George Makdisi, Cambridge, 2004.
Lynch Kevin, The image of the city, 24th edn, Cambridge, MA, 1996.
Lynch Marc, Voices of the new Arab public: Iraq, Al-Jazeera, and Middle East politics today, New York, 2006.
MacFarquhar Neil, ‘Muslim scholars increasingly debate unholy war’, New York Times, 10 December 2004, pp. A1, A10.
MacMaster Neil, Colonial migrants and racism: Algerians in France, 1900–62, New York, 1997.
Madjid Nurcholish, ‘The necessity of renewing Islāmic thought and reinvigorating religious understanding’, in Kurzman Charles (ed.), Liberal Islām: A sourcebook, Oxford, 1998, pp. 284–94.
Madra B., and Dostog^u H., Erol Akyavaş: His life and works, Istanbul, 2000.
Mahdavy Hossein, ‘Introductory remarks’, and ‘The patterns and problems of economic development in rentier states: The case of Iran’, in Cook M. A. (ed.), Studies in the economic history of the Middle East, London, 1970, pp. 255–67 and 428–67.
Mahmood Tahir, Statutes of personal law in Islamic countries – history, texts and analysis, 2nd edn, New Delhi, 1995.
Makdisi G., The rise of colleges: Institutions of learning in Islam and the West, Edinburgh, 1981.
Makdisi George N., The rise of colleges: Institutions of learning in Islam and the West, Edinburgh, 1981.
Makiya K., writing as S. al-Khalil, The monument: Art, vulgarity and responsibilities in Iraq, London, 1991.
Malcolm X., and Haley Alex, The autobiography of Malcolm X, New York, 1966.
Malik J., ‘Letters, prison sketches and autobiographical literature: The case of Fadl-e Haqq Khairabadi in the Andaman Penal Colony’, The Indian Economic and Social History Review, 43 (2006), pp. 77–100.
Malik Jamal, Colonialization of Islam: Dissolution of traditional institutions in Pakistan, New Delhi, 1996.
Malik Jamal (ed.), Muslims in Europe: From the margin to the centre, Münster, 2004.
Mallat Chibli, The renewal of Islamic law: Muhammad Baqer as-Sadr, Najaf and the Shiʿi International, Cambridge, 1993.
Mallat Chibli, ‘Shi’ism and Sunnism in Iraq: Revisiting the codes’, in Mallat Chibli and Connors Jane (eds.), Islamic family law, London, 1990, pp. 71–91.
Malti-Douglas Fedwa, ‘A literature of Islamic revival? The autobiography of Shaykh Kishk’, in Mardin Şerif (ed.), Cultural transitions in the Middle East, Leiden, 1994, pp. 116–29.
Mandaville Peter, Transnational Muslim politics: Reimagining the umma, London, 2001.
Mandaville Peter, ‘Ṣūf īs and salaf īs: The political discourse of transnational Islām’, in Hefner Robert W. (ed.), Remaking Muslim politics: Pluralism, contestation, democratization, Princeton, 2005, pp. 302–25.
Mandaville Peter, Transnational Muslim publics: Reimagining the umma, London, 2003.
Mannan Muhammad Abdul, Islamic economics: Theory and practice, Lahore, 1970.
Marçais William, ‘L’islamisme et la vie urbaine’, in Marçais William, Articles et conferences, Paris, 1961.
Marcus Abraham, The Middle East on the eve of modernity: Aleppo in the 18th century, New York, 1989.
Mardin Serif, Turkiyeʾde toplum ve siyaset, Istanbul, 1995.
Mardin Şerif, Religion and social change in modern Turkey: The case of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, Albany, 1989.
Mardin Şerif, ‘The Islamic intellectual heritage of the Young Ottomans’, in Mardin Şerif, The genesis of Young Ottoman thought, Princeton, 1962, pp. 81–106.
Marsot Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid, Egypt in the reign of Muhammad Ali, Cambridge, 1984.
Martin B. G., Muslim brotherhoods in nineteenth-century Africa, Cambridge, 1976.
Martin Bradford G., Muslim brotherhoods in nineteenth-century Africa, Cambridge 1976.
Martin Richard C. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Islam and the modern world, New York, 2004.
Martin Vanessa, Creating an Islamic state: Khomeini and the making of a new Iran, London, 2000.
Masud Muhammad Khalid (ed.), Travellers in faith: Studies of the Tablīghī Jamāʿat as a transnational Islāmic movement for faith renewal, Leiden, 2000.
Masud Muhammad Khalid, Shatibi’s philosophy of Islamic law, rev. edn, New Delhi, 1997.
Masud Muhammad Khalid (ed.), Travelers in faith: Studies of the Tablighi Jamaat as a transnational Islamic movement for faith renewal, Leiden, 1999.
Masud Muhammad Khalid, Shāṭibī’s philosophy of Islamic law, Islamabad, 1995.
Matheson Virginia, ‘Pulau Penyengat: Nineteenth century Islamic centre of Riau’, Archipel, 37 (1989), pp. 153–72.
Matin-Asgari Afshin, ‘ʿAbdolkarim Sorush and the secularization of Islamic thought in Iran’, Iranian Studies, 30, 1–2 (1997), pp. 95–115.
Maudūdi Abu Aʿlā, ‘Political and constitutional thought of Islam’, part 2 of his The Islamic law and constitution, trans. and ed. Ahmad Khurshid, Lahore, 1960, pp. 129–350.
Mawdūdī [Maudoodi] Abuʾl-Aʿlā, Risalah dīniyāt, trans. Ahmad Khurshid as Towards understanding Islam, Chicago, 1979.
Mawdūdī Abuʾl-Aʿlā, Islamic law and constitution, trans. Ahmad Khurshid, 2nd edn., Karachi, 1960.
Mawdūdī Abuʾl-Aʿlā, Process of Islamic revolution, Pathankot, 1947.
Mawdudi Sayyid Abul Aʾla, Let us be Muslims, ed. Murad Khurram, Leicester, 1982.
Mawdūdī Sayyid Abuʾl-Aʿlā, ‘Formal and real Islam differentiated’, in Selected speeches of Mawlana Mawdudi, vol. I, trans. Aijaz S. Zakir, Karachi, 1981, orig. Urdu edn, 1945, pp. 37–42.
Mawdūdī Sayyid Abuʾl-Aʿlā, Islam and ignorance, Lahore, 1976, orig. Urdu edn, 1941.
Mawdūdī Sayyid Abuʾl-Aʿlā, Let Us Be Muslims, Kuala Lumpur, 1990, orig. Urdu edn, 1940.
Mayer Ann Elizabeth, ‘Internationalizing the conversation on Arab women’s rights: Arab countries face the CEDAW Committee’, in Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck and Stowasser Barbara Freyer (eds.), Islamic law and the challenge of modernity, Walnut Creek, 2004, pp. 133–60.
Mayer Ann Elizabeth, ‘Islamization and taxation in Pakistan’, in Weiss Anita M. (ed.), Islamic reassertion in Pakistan: The application of Islamic laws in a modern state, Syracuse, 1986, pp. 59–77.
Mayer Anne E., ‘Universal versus Islamic human rights: A clash of cultures or a clash of constructs?’, Michigan Journal of International Law, 15, 2 (1994), pp. 308–402.
McCloud Aminah Beverly, African American Islam, New York, 1995.
McFadden Tom J., Daily journalism in the Arab states, Columbus, OH, 1953.
McGown Rima Berns, Muslims in the diaspora: The Somali communities of London and Toronto, Toronto, 1999.
McKay Sherry, ‘Mediterraneanism: The politics of architectural production in Algiers during the 1930s’, City & Society, 12 (2000), pp. 79–102.
Mechter-Atassi S., ‘Re-inscribing oneself into the Middle East: Etel Adnan and her “livres d’artiste” in the context of al-hurufiyya al-ʿarabiyya’, Beiruter Blatter Mitteilungen des Orient-Instituts, 10–11 (2002–3).
Meeker Michael E., ‘The Muslim intellectual and his audience: A new configuration of writer and reader among believers in the Republic of Turkey’, in Mardin Şerif (ed.), Cultural transition in the Middle East, Leiden, 1994, pp. 153–88.
Meiyer J. E., ‘Een verslag over het Indische Telegraafwezen’, De Indische Gids, 43, 1 (1912), pp. 497–507.
Menashri David, Post-revolutionary politics in Iran: Religion, society and power, London, 2001.
Menashri David, Education and the making of modern Iran, Ithaca and London, 1992.
Menocal Maria Rosa, ‘The myth of Westernness in medieval literary historiography’, in Qureshi E. and Sells M. (eds.), The new crusades, New York, 2003.
Messick Brinkley, The calligraphic state: Textual domination and history in a Muslim Society, Berkeley, 1993.
Metcalf Barbara Daly, Islamic revival in British India: Deoband 1860–1900, Princeton, 1980.
Metcalf Barbara Daly, ‘New Medinas: The Tablighi Jama‘at in America and Europe’, in Metcalf B. D. (ed.) Making Muslim space in North America and Europe, Berkeley, 1996, pp. 110–27.
Metcalf Barbara D., Perfecting women: Maulana Ashraf ʿAli Thanawi’s Bihishti Zewar: A partial translation with commentary, Berkeley, 1990.
Metcalf Barbara D., ‘“Remaking ourselves”: Islamic self-fashioning in a global movement of spiritual renewal’, in Marty Martin E. and Appleby R. Scott (eds.), Accounting for fundamentalisms, Chicago, 1995, pp. 706–29.
Metcalf Barbara Daly, Islamic revival in British India: Deoband, 1860–1900, Princeton, 1982.
Metcalf Barbara D., Islamic revival in British India: Deoband, 1860–1900, Princeton, 1982.
Meuleman Johan (ed.), Islam in the era of globalization: Muslim attitudes towards modernity and identity, London, 2002.
Meyer David S., et al. (eds.), Social movements: Identity, culture, and the state, New York, 2002.
, Empty reforms: Saudi Arabia’s new basic laws, New York, 1992.
Miles Hugh, Al-Jazeera: The inside story of the Arab news channel that is challenging the West, New York, 2005.
Milner A. C., ‘Islam and the Muslim state’, in Hooker M. B. (ed.), Islam in South-East Asia, Leiden, 1983, pp. 23–49.
Milton-Edwards Beverley, Islāmic fundamentalism since 1945, London, 2005.
Minault Gail, Secluded scholars: Women’s education and Muslim social reform in colonial India, New Delhi, 1998.
Mir-Hosseini Ziba, Marriage on trial: A study of Islamic family law, London, 2000.
Mir-Hosseini Ziba, Islam and gender: The religious debate in contemporary Iran, Princeton, 1999.
Mitchell Richard, The Society of the Muslim Brothers, with a foreword by Voll John O., New York, 1993.
Mitchell Richard P., The Society of the Muslim Brothers, London, 1969.
Mitchell Timothy, Colonising Egypt, Cambridge, 1988.
Mitchell Timothy, Rule of experts: Egypt, techno-politics, modernity, Berkeley, 2002.
Mitchell Timothy, Colonising Egypt, Cambridge, 1989.
Moaveni Azadeh, Lipstick jihad: A memoir of growing up Iranian in America and American in Iran, New York, 2005.
Mobini-Kesheh Natalie, The Hadrami awakening: Community and identity in the Netherlands East Indies, 1900–1942, Ithaca, 1999.
Modood Tariq, Multiculturalism, London, 2007.
Modood Tariq, ‘The place of Muslims in British secular multiculturalism’, in Alayyad N. and Castells M. (eds.), Muslim Europe or Euro-Islam, Lanham, 2002, pp. 113–30.
Modood Tariq, et al., Ethnic minorities in Britain: Diversity and disadvantage, London, 1997.
Mohammad A. H. H., ‘Notes on the reception of Darwinism in some Islamic countries’, in Ihsanoglu E. (ed.), Science in Islamic civilization, Istanbul, 2000, pp. 245–55.
Moin Baqer, Khomeini: The life of the ayatollah, London, 1999.
Molyneux Maxine, ‘Women’s rights and political contingency: The case of Yemen, 1990–1994’, Middle East Journal, 49, 3 (1995), pp. 418–31.
Momen Moojan, An introduction to Shi`i Islam: The history and doctrines of Twelver Shiism, New Haven, 1985, pp. 184–95, 203–7.
Moore Kathleen M., Al-Mughtaribūn: American law and the transformation of Muslim life in the United States, Albany, 1995.
Moors Annalies, ‘Debating Islamic family law: Legal texts and social practices’, in Meriwether Margaret C. and Tucker Judith E. (eds.), A social history of gender in the modern Muslim Middle East, Boulder, 1999, pp. 141–75.
Moors Annalies, ‘Public debates on family law reform: Participants, positions and styles of argumentation in the 1990s’, Islamic Law and Society, 10, 1 (2003), pp. 1–11.
Moors Annalies, Women, property and Islam: Palestinian experiences 1920–1990, Cambridge, 1995.
Moosa Ebrahim, ‘The poetics and politics of law after empire: Reading women’s rights in the contestation of law’, UCLA Journal of Near Eastern Law, 1 (2001–2), pp. 1–46.
Mottahedeh Roy P., The mantle of the Prophet: Religion and politics in Iran, Oxford, 2000.
Mottahedeh Roy, The mantle of the Prophet: Religion and politics in Iran, Oxford, 2000, orig. 1985.
Mottahedeh Roy, ‘The transmission of learning: The role of the Islamic northeast’, in Grandin Nicole and Gaborieau Marc (eds.), Madrasa: La transmission du savoir dans le monde Musulman, Paris, 1997, pp. 61–70.
Muʿīn al-Dīn Ajmerī, Muʿīn al-Manṭiq, Karachi, 1967.
ʿUmar Muḥammadal-Jāwī Nawawī, Marāḥ Labīd li-kashf maʿnā al-qurʾān al-majīd, 2 vols., Beirut, 1997.
Muḥammad Abū Yūsuf, Kitāb al-Kharāj, Cairo, 1963.
Al-Marbawī Muḥammad Idrīs, Baḥr al-Māzī shahr bāgī mukhtaṣar ṣaḥīḥ al-Tirmidhī, 22 vols., Cairo, 1933–41.
Al-Marbawī Muḥammad Idrīs, Qamūs ʿArab-Malāyū, Cairo, 1931.
Mubārak ʿAli, Al-Khiṭaṭ al-tawfīqiyya al-jadīda li-Miṣr al-Qāhira wa muduniha wa bilādiha al-qadīma wa al-mashhūra, 20 vols., Bulaq, 1888.
Mudaffar M., ‘Iraq’, in Ali W. (ed.), Contemporary art from the Islamic world, Amman, 1987.
Mujtahid-Shabistarī M., Hirminūtīk, kitāb wa sunnat, Tehran, 1375.
Munif Abdelrahman, Cities of Salt, New York, 1989.
Mustapha Nik, Hj bin. Hasan Nik, ‘Zakāt in Malaysia – Present and future status’, Journal of Islamic Economics, 1 (1987), pp. 47–75.
Naʿīnī Muḥammad Ḥusayn, Tanbīh al-umma wa-tanzīh al-Milla ya Hukūmat az nasari Islām, Tehran, [1955?].
Naṣīr A. M., Al-Shaykh al-Imām Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb wa manhajuhu fī mabāḥith al-ʿaqīda, Beirut, 1983.
Naef S., A la recherche d’une modernité Arabe, Geneva, 1996.
Naef S., L’art de l’écriture arabe: Passé et present, Geneva, 1992.
Naef S., Y a-t-il une ‘question de l’image’ en Islam, Geneva, 2004.
Naficy Hamid, An accented cinema: Exilic and diasporic filmmaking, Princeton, 2001.
Najjar Fawzi, ‘Egypt’s laws of personal status’, Arab Studies Quarterly, 10 (1988), pp. 319–44.
Najjār Jamīl Mūsā, Al-Idāra al-ʿuthmāniyya fī wilāyat Baghdād: Min ʿahd wālī Midḥat Pasha ila nihāyat al-ḥukm al-ʿuthmāni, 1869–1917, Cairo, 1991.
Najm al-Dīn al-Kātibī, Al-Risāla al-Shamsiyya, ed. and trans. Sprenger A., Bibliotheca Indica: A collection of Oriental works, no. 88: First appendix to the dictionary of technical terms used in the sciences of Mussulmans, containing the logic of the Arabians, Calcutta, 1854; Sprenger’s partial translation completed in Rescher N., Temporal modalities in Arabic logic, Dordrecht, 1967, pp. 39–45; corrections in Rescher N. and vander Nat A., ‘The theory of modal syllogistic in medieval Arabic philosophy’, in Rescher N. et al. (eds.), Studies in modality, Oxford, 1974, pp. 17–56.
Nalbantoǧlu G. B., and Wong C. T. (eds.), Postcolonial space(s), New Haven, 1997.
Naqvi Sayyid Ali Raza (trans.), Islamic Penal Code of Iran, Islamabad, 1986.
Naqvi Syed Nawab Haider, Perspectives on morality and human well-being: A contribution to Islamic economics, Leicester, 2003.
Nashashibi S. M., Forces of change: Artists of the Arab world, Washington, DC, 1994.
Nasir Jamal J., The Islamic law of personal status, 2nd edn, London, 1990.
Nasr J., and Volait M. (eds.), Urbanism: Imported or exported: Native aspirations and foreign plans, Chichester, 2003.
Nasr S. H., and Leaman O. (eds.), History of Islamic philosophy, 2 vols., London, 1996.
Nasr Seyyed Vali Reza, ‘The rise of Sunni militancy in Pakistan: The changing role of Islamism and the ulama in society and politics’, Modern Asian Studies, 34, 1 (2000), pp. 139–80.
Nasr Seyyed Vali Reza, The vanguard of the Islamic revolution: The Jamaʿat-i Islami in Pakistan, Berkeley, 1994.
Nasr Seyyed Vali Reza, Mawdudi and the making of Islamic revivalism, Oxford, 1996.
Nasser Gamal Abdel, Nasser speaks: Basic documents, trans. Farag E. S., London, 1972.
Neumann Christoph K., ‘Book and newspaper printing in Turkish, 18th–20th centuries’, in Hanebutt-Benz Eva et al. (eds.), Middle Eastern languages and the print revolution, Mainz, 2002, pp. 227–48.
Nielsen Jorgen S., Towards a European Islam, London, 1999.
Nimer Mohamed, The North American Muslim resource guide, New York, 2002.
Nora Pierre, Zwischen Geschichte und Gedächtnis, Frankfurt, 1998.
Norris Pippa, and Inglehart Ronald, Sacred and secular: Religion and politics worldwide, Cambridge, 2004.
Nuṣayr ʿ yda, Al-Kutub allatī nushirat fī miṣr fī al-qarn al-tāsiʿ ʿashr, Cairo, 1990.
Nuṣayr ʿyda, Ḥarakat nashr al-kutub fī miṣr fī al-qarn al-tāsiʿ ʿashr, Cairo, 1994.
Numan Fareed H., The Muslim population in the United States: A brief statement, Washington DC, 1992.
Nuruddin Yusuf, ‘African-American Muslims and the question of identity: Between traditional Islam, African heritage, and the American way’, in Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck and Esposito John L. (eds.), Muslims on the Americanization path? Atlanta, 1998, pp. 215–62.
Nyang Sulayman S., ‘Convergence and divergence in an emergent community: A study of challenges facing US Muslims’, in Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck (ed.), The Muslims of America, New York, 1991, pp. 236–49.
Ochsenwald William, The Hijaz Railroad, Charlottesville, 1980.
O’Fahey R. S., and Radtke Bernd, ‘Neo-Sufism reconsidered’, Der Islam, 70, 1 (1993), pp. 52–87.
O’Fahey R. S., Enigmatic saint: Ahmad ibn Idris and the Idrisi tradition, Evanston, IL, 1990.
O’Fahey Rex S., and Radtke Bernd, ‘Neo-Sufism reconsideredDer Islam, 70 (1973), pp. 52–87.
O’Fahey Sean, ‘“His master’s voice”: The Sufis, the Mahdists and printing’, in ‘The introduction of the printing press in the Middle East’, special issue of Culture and History, 16 (1997), pp. 136–44.
Ölçer N., et al., Images d’empire: Aux origines de la photographie en Turquie. Türkiye’de fotoǧrafin öncüleri, trans. Yiǧit Bener , Istanbul, [1993?].
Omar M., Arabic calligraphy in art, Washington, DC, 1946.
Ortaylǐ Ǐlber, ‘Osmanlǐ Ǐmparatorlug^u’nda millet’, in Tanzimat’tan Cumhuriyet’e Türkiye ansiklopedisi, Istanbul, 1986, vol. IV, pp. 996–1001.
Ortayli Ǐlber, Tanzimattan sonra mahalli idareler (1840–1878), Ankara, 1974.
Oubrou Tareq, ‘Le “minimum islamique” pour l’abbatage ritual en France’, La Médina, 5 (2000), pp. 42–3.
Ousman Abdelkérim, ‘The potential of Islāmist terrorism in sub-Saharan Africa’, International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, 18 (2004), pp. 65–105.
Roger Owen, The Middle East in the world economy 1800–1914, London 1981.
Owsia Parviz, Formation of contract: A comparative study under English, French, Islamic and Iranian Law, London, 1994.
Paidar Parvin, Women and the political process in twentieth-century Iran, Cambridge, 1995.
Paker S., ‘Turkey’, in Ostle Robin (ed.), Modern literature in the Near and Middle East 1850–1970, London, 1991.
Parsi Trita, Treacherous alliance: The secret dealings of Israel, Iran, and the U.S., New Haven, 2007.
Patel Rashida, Islamisation of laws in Pakistan?, Karachi, 1986.
Peacock James L., Purifying the faith: The Muhammadijah movement in Indonesian Islam, Menlo Park, 1978.
Pearl David, and Menski Werner, Muslim family law, 3rd edn, London, 1998.
Pedersen Johannes, The Arabic book, trans. French G. and Hillenbrand R., Princeton, 1984.
Peel J. D. Y., Religious encounter and the making of the Yoruba, Bloomington, 2000.
Perkins Kenneth J., A history of modern Tunisia, Cambridge, 2004.
Philipp Thomas, Acre: The rise and fall of a Palestinian city – World-economy and local politics, New York, 2002.
Philips Alan, ‘“Devil” sheikh preaches moderation and respect …Daily Telegraph (London), 10 July 2004, p. 8.
Piscatori James, Islam in a world of nation-states, Cambridge, 1986.
Pollak M. (ed.), The education of the architect, Cambridge, MA, 1997.
Popovic Alexandre, and Veinstein Gilles (eds.), Les ordres mystiques dans l’Islam: Cheminements et situation actuelle, Paris, 1985.
Popovic Alexandre, Gilles Veinstein et (eds.), Les voies d’Allah: Les ordres mystiques dans l’Islam des origins à aujourd’hui, Paris, 1996.
Popper Karl R., ‘Epistemology without a knowing subject’, in Popper Karl R., Objective knowledge: an evolutionary approach, rev. edn., Oxford, 1979, pp. 106–52.
Porter V., Word into art: Artists of the modern Middle East, London, 2006; published in conjunction with the exhibition ‘Word into art: Artists of the modern Middle East 18 May to 3 September 2006’ at the British Museum.
Posener Julius, Fast so alt wie das Jahrhundert, Berlin, 1990.
Pouwels Randall, Horn and crescent: Cultural change and traditional Islam on the East African Coast (800–1900), Cambridge, 1987.
Poya Maryam, Women, work and Islamism: Ideology and resistance in Iran, London, 1999.
Prakash Gyan, ‘Writing post-Orientalist histories of the third world: Perspectives from Indian historiography’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 32 (1990), pp. 383–408.
Pred Allan, Even in Sweden: Racisms, racliazed spaces, and the popular geographical imagination, Berkeley, 2000.
Proudfoot Ian, ‘Mass producing houri’s moles, or Aesthetics of choice of technology in early Muslim book printing’, in Riddell Peter G. and Street Tony (eds.), Islam: Essays on scripture, thought, and society – A Festschrift in honour of Anthony H. Johns, Leiden, 1997, pp. 161–84.
Qāsim Maḥmūd, Dalīl al-aflām fi al-qarn al-ʿishrīn fī Miṣr wa al-ʿālim al-ʿArabī, Cairo, 2002.
Qāsim Maḥmūd, Mausūʿat al-mumaththil fī al-sīnimā al-ʿArabiyya, Cairo, 2004.
Quṭb Sayyid, Maʿālim fīʾl-tarīq, Cairo, 1980.
Quṭb Sayyid, Fī ẓilāl al-Qurʾān, 6 vols., Beirut, 1973–4; trans. Salahi M. A. and Shamis A. A. as In the shade of the Qurʾān, 8 vols. to date, Leicester, 1999–.
Quṭb Sayyid, Social justice in Islam, trans. Hardie John D., New York, 1970, orig. Arabic edn., 1948.
Quataert Donald, Social disintegration and popular resistance in the Ottoman Empire, 1882–1908, New York, 1983.
Qub Sayyid, Maʿālim fīʾ al-ṭarīq, trans. as Milestones, Indianapolis, 1990.
Qurʾān , trans. Marmaduke Pickthall as The glorious Koran, New York, 1992, orig. 1909
Qutb Sayyid, Social justice in Islam, trans. Harvie John B., Oneonta, 1953.
Rabbani Wahid Bakhsh, Islamic Sufism, Kuala Lumpur, 1984; reprinted 1992.
Raby J., Qajar portraits, London, 1999.
Radtke Bernd, ‘Sufism in the eighteenth century: An attempt at a provisional appraisal’, Die Welt des Islams, 36, 3 (1996), pp. 326–64.
Radtke Bernd, ‘Lehrer-Schuler-Enkel. Aḥmad b. Idrīs, Muḥammad ʿUthmān al-Mīrganī, Ismāʿīl al-Walī’, Oriens, 33 (1992), pp. 94–132.
Radtke Bernd, ‘Warum ist der Sufi orthodox?’, Der Islam, 71, 2 (1994), pp. 302–7.
Rahman F., Islam, Chicago, 1979.
Rahman Fazlur, Islam and modernity: Transformation of an intellectual tradition, Chicago and London, 1982.
Rahman Fazlur, ‘Revival and reform in Islam’, in Holt M., Lambton A. K. S. and Lewis B. (eds.), The Cambridge history of Islam, 2 vols., Cambridge, 1970, vol. IIB, pp. 632–56.
Rahman Fazlur, Islam, Chicago, 1968.
Rahman Fazlur, Islam, 2nd edn, Chicago, 1979.
Rahman Fazlur, ‘A survey of the modernization of Muslim family law’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 11 (1980), pp. 451–65.
Rahman Fazlur, ‘Islam and the problem of economic justice’, Pakistan Economist, 14 (24 August 1974), pp. 14–39.
Rahnema Ali (ed.), Pioneers of Islamic revival, London 1994.
Ramaḍān Ṭāriq, Western Muslims and the future of Islam, Oxford 2004.
Ramadan Abdel Azim, ‘Fundamentalist influence in Egypt: The strategies of the Muslim Brotherhood and the Takfir groups’, in Marty Martin E. and Appleby R. Scott (eds.), Fundamentalisms and the state, Chicago, 1993.
Ramadan Tariq, In the footsteps of the Prophet: Lessons from the life of Muhammad, Oxford 2007.
Ramadan Tariq, To be a European Muslim, Leicester, 1998.
Ramadan Tariq, Western Muslims and the future of Islam, Oxford, 2004.
Ramadan Tariq, Dār ash-shahâda: L’Occident, espace du témoignage, Lyon, 2002.
Rashid Ahmed, Taliban: Militant Islam, oil, and fundamentalism in Central Asia, New Haven, 2001.
Rashid Ahmed, Jihād: The rise of militant Islām in Central Asia, London, 2003.
Rath Jan, Penninx Rinus, Groenendijk Kees and Meyer Astrid, ‘The politics of recognizing religious diversity in Europe: Social reactions to the institutionalization of Islam in the Netherlands, Belgium and Great Britain’, Netherlands Journal of Social Sciences, 35, 1 (1999), pp. 53–68.
Rawan Shir Mohammad, ‘Interaction between traditional communication and modern media: Implications for social change in Iran and Pakistan’, in Kai Hafez (ed.), Mass media, politics and society in the Middle East, Cresskil, NJ, 2001, pp. 175–96.
Raymond André, Grand villes arabes á l’epoche ottomane, Paris, 1985.
Raymond André, Cairo, Cambridge, MA, 2000.
Raymond André, ‘Islamic city, Arab city: Orientalist myths and recent views’, British Journal of Middle East Studies, 21, 1 (1994), p. 3–18.
Reid Donald Malcolm, Whose Pharaohs? Archaeology, museums, and Egyptian national identity from Napoleon to World War I, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2002.
Reilly James, A small town in Syria: Ottoman Hama in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Bern, 2002.
Reimer Michael, Colonial bridgehead: Government and society in Alexandria, 1807–1882, Boulder, 1997.
Reimer Michael, ‘Reorganizing Alexandria: The origins and history of the Conseil de l’Ornatu’, Journal of Urban History, 19, 3 (1993), pp. 55–83.
Renda G., ‘Ottoman painting and sculpture’, in Ǐnalcǐk H., and Renda G. (eds.), Ottoman civilisation, 2 vols., Ankara, 2002, vol. II, pp. 932–67.
Renda G., ‘Traditional Turkish painting and the beginnings of Western trends’, in Grabar O. and Renda G. (eds.), A history of Turkish painting, Seattle and London, 1988, pp. 15–77.
Rex John, ‘Islam in the United Kingdom’, in Hunter Shireen T. (ed.), Islam, Europe’s second religion, Westport, 2002, pp. 51–76.
Riḍā Muḥammad Rashīd, Tārīkh al-ustādh al-Imām al-Shaykh Muḥammad ʿAbdu, 3 vols., Cairo, 1906–31.
Riḍā Muḥammad Rashīd, Tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-ḥakīm, al-mashhūr bi-Tafsīr al-Manār, ed. Shams al-Dīn Ibrāhīm, 12 vols., Beirut, 1999.
Riḍa Rashīd, Al-Khilāfa, aw al-ʿimāma al-ʿUẓmā, Miṣr, 1922, reprinted Qāhira, 1988.
Riaz Ali, God willing: The politics of Islamism in Bangladesh, New York, 2004.
Riccio Bruno, ‘From “ethnic group” to “transnational community”? Senegalese migrants’ ambivalent experiences and multiple trajectories’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 27, 4 (2001), pp. 583–99.
Riddell Peter G., Islam and the Malay-Indonesian world: Transmission and responses, Honolulu, 2001.
Ringer Monica M., Education, religion, and the discourse of cultural reform in Qajar Iran, Costa Mesa, CA, 2001.
Risse-Kappen Thomas, Bringing transnational relations back in: Non-state actors, domestic structures and international institutions, Cambridge, 1995.
Risso Patricia, Merchants and faith: Muslim commerce and culture in the Indian Ocean, Boulder, 1995.
Ritter Scott, Target Iran: The truth about the White House’s plans for regime change, New York, 2006.
Rizvi Sajjad, ‘Mysticism and philosophy: Ibn ʿArabī and Mullā Ṣadrā’, in Adamson P. and Taylor R. (eds.), The Cambridge companion to Arabic philosophy, Cambridge, 2005.
Roald Anne Sofie, ‘From “people’s home” to “multiculturalism”: Muslims in Sweden’, in Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck (ed.), Muslims in the West: From sojourners to citizens, Oxford, 2002, pp. 101–20.
Robbers Gerhard, ‘The legal status of Islam in Germany’, in Ferrari Silvio and Bradney Anthony (eds.), Islam and European legal systems, Aldershot, 2000, pp. 147–54.
Roberts Hugh, ‘From radical mission to equivocal ambition: The expansion and manipulation of Algerian Islamism, 1979–1992’, in Marty Martin E. and Appleby R. Scott (eds.), Accounting for fundamentalisms and the state, Chicago, 1994, pp. 152–83.
Robertson Roland, ‘Glocalization: Time-space and homogeneity-heterogeneity’, in Featherstone Mike et al. (eds.), Global modernities, London 1995, pp. 25–44.
Robinson Waldman Marilyn, ‘The Fulani Jihād: A reassessment’, Journal of African History, 6, 3 (1965), pp. 333–55.
Robinson David, The Holy War of Umar Tal: The Western Sudan in the mid-nineteenth century, Oxford, 1985.
Robinson David, Paths of accommodation: Muslim societies and French colonial authorities in Senegal and Mauritania, 1880–1920, Athens, OH, 2000.
Robinson David, and Triaud Jean-Louis (eds.), Le temps des marabouts, Paris, 1997.
Robinson Francis (ed.), The Cambridge illustrated history of the Islamic world, Cambridge, 1996.
Robinson Francis, The ʿulamāʾ of Farangi Mahall and Islamic culture in South Asia, London, 2001.
Robinson Francis, ‘Technology and religious change: Islam and the impact of print’, Modern Asian Studies, 27 (1993), pp. 229–51.
Rodinson Maxime, Islam et capitalisme, Paris, 1966, trans. Pearce Brian as Islam and capitalism, New York, 1973.
Rodinson Maxime, Muhammad, trans. Carter Anne, New York, 1980, original French edn 1968.
Roff William R., ‘The Malayo-Muslim world of Singapore at the close of the nineteenth century’, Journal of Asian Studies, 24 (1964), pp. 75–90.
Roff William, ‘Islamic movements: One or many?’, in Roff William (ed.), Islam and the political economy of meaning: Comparative studies of Muslim discourse, London, 1987, pp. 31–52.
Roggero Maria Adele, ‘Muslims in Italy’, in Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck (ed.), Muslims in the West: From sojourners to citizens, Oxford, 2002, pp. 131–44.
Roper Geoffrey, ‘The printing press and change in the Arab world’, in Baron Sabrina Alcron, Lindquist Eric N. and Shevlin Eleaner F. (eds.), Agent of change: Print culture studies after Elizabeth Eisenstein, Amherst and Washington, DC, 2007, pp. 251–67.
Rosanvallon Pierre, Le modèle politique français, Paris, 2004.
Rosenthal E. I. J., Islam in the modern national state, Cambridge, 1965.
Rosenthal Steven, The politics of dependency: Urban reform in Istanbul, Westport, 1980.
Ross Michael L., ‘Does oil hinder democracy?’, World Politics, 53 (April 2001), pp. 325–61.
Rouse Carolyn Moxley, Engaged surrender: African American women and IslamBerkeley, 2003.
Rouse Carolyn, Engaged surrender: African American Women and Islam, Berkeley, 2004.
Roy Olivier, The failure of political Islām, London, 1994.
Roy Olivier, Vers un Islam européen, Paris, 1999.
Roy Olivier, Globalised Islam: The search for a new ummah, London, 2004.
Rugh William, Arab mass media, London, 2004.
Runzo Joseph, Martin Nancy M. and Sharma Arvind (eds.), Human rights and responsibilities in the world religions, Oxford, 2003.
Ryan Patrick J., Imale: Yoruba participation in the Muslim tradition, Missoula, MT, 1977.
Saʿīd Amīn, Sīrat al-Imām al-Shaykh Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, Beirut, 1384.
Sabra A. I., ‘The appropriation and subsequent naturalization of Greek science in medieval Islam: A preliminary statement’, History of Science, 25 (1987), pp. 223–43.
Sabra A. I., ‘Situating Arabic science: Locality versus essence’, Isis, 87 (1996), pp. 654–70.
Sachedina Abdulaziz, The just ruler (al-sulṭān al-ʿadīl) in Shīʿite Islam: The comprehensive authority of the jurist in Imamite jurisprudence, New York, 1988, pp. 29–42.
Sadoul Georges (ed.), The cinema in the Arab countries, Beirut, 1966.
Saeed Abdullah, Interpreting the Qurʾān: Towards a contemporary approach, London and New York, 2006.
Safi Omid (ed.), Progressive Muslims: On justice, gender and pluralism, Oxford, 2003.
Said Edward, Covering Islam, New York, 1981; 2nd edn, New York, 1997.
Sajoo Amyn B., Muslim ethics: Emerging vistas, London, 2004.
Sakr Naomi, Satellite realms: Transnational television, globalization and the Middle East, London, 2001.
Saleh Walid A., The formation of the classical tafsīr tradition: The Qurʾān commentary of al-Thaʿlabī (427/1035), Leiden, 2004.
Saliba George, ‘Flying goats and other obsessions: A response to Toby Huff’s “Reply”’, Bulletin of the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies, 4 (2002), pp. 129–41.
Salih Ruba, ‘The backward and the new: National, transnational and post-national Islam in Europe’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30, 5 (2004), pp. 995–1012.
Salvatore A., Islam and the political discourse of modernity, Berkshire, 1997.
Salvatore Armando, and Eickelman Dale F. (eds.), Public Islam and the common good, Leiden 2004.
Salvatore Armando, Islam and the political discourse of modernity, Reading, 1997.
Samad Yunas, ‘Imagining a British Muslim identification’, in Vertovec Steven and Rogers Alisdair (eds.), Muslim European youth: Reproducing ethnicity, religion, culture, Aldershot, 1999, pp. 59–75.
Sanankoua Bintou, Un empire peul au XIXe siècle: La Dina du Massina, Paris, 1990.
Sanders Paula, Ritual, politics, and the city in Fatimid Cairo, Albany, 1994.
Sanyal Usha, Devotional Islam and politics in British India: Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi and his movement, 1870–1920, Delhi, 1996.
Sardar Ziauddin, Desperately seeking paradise: Journeys of a sceptical Muslim, London, 2004.
Sauvaget Jean, Alep: Essai sur le développement d’une grande ville syrienne, Paris, 1951.
Sauvaget Jean, ‘Esquisse d’une histoire de la ville de Damas’, Revue des études islamiques, 8 (1934), pp. 421–80.
ibn Sayyid ʿUthmānibn ʿAbdallāhal-ʿAlawī ʿAqīl, Atlas ʿArabī, Leiden, 1886.
Schaebler Birgit, and Stenberg Leif (eds.), Globalization and the Muslim world, Syracuse, 2004.
Schiffauer Werner, Die Gottesmänner: Türkische Islamisten in Deutschland, Frankfurt-am-Main, 2000.
Schiffauer Werner, ‘Islamic vision and social reality: The political culture of Sunni Muslims in Germany’, in Vertovec Steven and Peach Ceri (eds.), Islam in Europe: The politics of religion and community, Houndmills, 1996, pp. 156–76.
Schimmel Annemarie, Islam in the Indian subcontinent, Leiden, 1980.
Schirazi Asghar, The Constitution of Iran: Politics and the state in the Islamic Republic, London, 1997.
Schlör Joachim, Tel Aviv: From dream to city, London, 1999.
Schmidt Garbi, Islam in urban America: Sunni Muslims in Chicago, Philadelphia, 2004.
Schulze Reinhard, ‘Was ist die islamische Aufklarung?’, Die Welt des Islams, 36, 3 (1996), pp. 276–325.
Schulze Reinhard, Islāmischer internationalismus im 20 Jahrhundert: Untersuchungen zur Geschicte der Islāmischen Weltliga, Leiden, 1990.
Schulze Reinhard, ‘The birth of tradition and modernity in 18th and 19th century Islamic culture – the case of printing’, in ‘The introduction of the printing press in the Middle East’, special issue of Culture and History, 16 (1997), pp. 29–72.
Sciolino Elaine, Persian mirrors: The elusive face of Iran, New York, 2000.
Scott James, ‘Resistance without protest and without organization: Peasant opposition to the Islamic zakāt and Christian tithe’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 29 (1987), pp. 417–52.
Segal Rafi, and Weizman Eyal, A civilian occupation: The politics of Israeli architecture, London and Tel Aviv, 2003.
Sennett Richard (ed.), Classic essays on the culture of cities, New York, 1969.
Shaḥrūr Muḥammad, Al-Kitāb waʿl-Qurʿān: Qirāʿa muʾāṣira, Cairo and Damascus, 1992.
Shabout N. M. (ed.), Dafatir: Contemporary Iraqi book art, Denton, TX, 2007.
Shadid W. A. R. and Koningsveld P. S. (eds.), Political participation and identities of Muslims in non-Muslim states, Kampen, Netherlands, 1996.
Shafik Viola, Arab cinema: History and cultural identity, Cairo, 1998.
Shafik Viola, Egyptian cinema: Gender, class, and nation, Cairo, 2007.
Shaham Ron, Family and the courts in modern Egypt: A study based on decisions by the sharīʿa court 1900–1955, Leiden, 1997.
Shaham Ron, ‘State, feminists and islamists – The debate over stipulations in marriage contracts in Egypt’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 62 (1999), pp. 462–83.
Shakir Evelyn, Bint Arab: Arab and Arab American women in the United States, Westport, 1997.
al-Dīn Sharaf, Durīya , Al-Siyāsa wa al-sīnimā fī Misr, 1961–1981, Cairo, 1992.
Shariʿati Ali, On the sociology of Islam, trans. Algar Hamid, Berkeley, 1979.
Shariʿati Ali, Marxism and other Western fallacies: An Islamic critique, trans. Campbell R., Berkeley, 1980.
Shari’ati Ali, On the sociology of Islam, trans. Algar Hamid, Berkeley, 1979.
Shaw Stanford J., Jews of the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish republic, New York, 1991.
Shayegan Daryush, Henry Corbin: La topographie spirituelle de l’Islam iranien, Paris, 1990.
Shehada Nahda, ‘Women’s experience in the sharīʿa court of Gaza City: The multiple meanings of maintenance’, Review of Women’s Studies, 2 (2004), pp. 57–71.
Shepard Todd, The invention of decolonization: The Algerian War and the remaking of France, Ithaca, 2006.
Shields Sarah, Mosul before Iraq: Like bees making five-sided cells, New York, 2000.
Shiraishi Takashi, An age in motion: Popular radicalism in Java, 1912–1926, Ithaca, 1990.
Shuval Tal, La ville d’Alger vers la fin du XVIII siècle: Population et cadre urbain, Paris, 1998.
Sikand Yoginder, Bastions of the believers: Madrasas and Islamic education in India, New Delhi, 2005.
Simmons Gwendolyn Zoharah, ‘Striving for Muslim women’s human rights: Before and beyond Beijing’, in Webb Gisela (ed.), Windows of faith: Muslim women scholar-activists in North America, Syracuse, 2000, pp. 197–225.
Simon Jacques (ed.), L’immigration algérienne en France, Paris, 2002.
Singerman Diane, ‘Rewriting divorce in Egypt: Reclaiming Islam, legal activism and coalition politics’, in Hefner Robert W. (ed.), Remaking Muslim politics: Pluralism, contestation, democratization, Princeton and Oxford, 2005, pp. 161–88.
Sivan Emmanuel, Radical Islam: Medieval theology and modern politics, New Haven, 1985.
Skovgaard-Petersen Jakob, Defining Islam for the Egyptian state: Muftis and fatwas of the Dār al-Iftā, Leiden, 1997.
Skovgaard-Petersen Jakob, ‘The global mufti’, in Schaebler Birgit and Stenberg Leif (eds.), Globalization and the Muslim world, Syracuse, 2004, pp. 153–65.
Skovgaard-Petersen Jakob, and Chr Hans. Nielsen Korsholm, Middle Eastern cities, 1900–1950: Public places and public spheres in transformation, Proceedings of the Danish Instititute in Damascus, Aarhus, 2001.
Slavin Barbara, Bitter friends, bosom enemies: Iran, the U.S., and the twisted path to confrontation, New York, 2007.
Slyomovics Susan, The performance of human rights in Morocco, Philadelphia, 2005.
Smith Jane I., Islam in America, New York, 1999.
Smith Merritt Roe, and Marx Leo (eds.), Does technology drive history?: The dilemma of technological determinism, Cambridge, MA, 1994.
Smith Wilfred Cantwell, Islam in modern history, Princeton, 1977.
Smith Wilfred Cantwell, Islam in modern history, Princeton, 1957.
Sniderman Paul M., and Hagendoorn Louk, When ways of life collide: Multiculturalism and its discontents in the Netherlands, Princeton, 2007.
Snouck Hurgronje C., Mekka in the latter part of the nineteenth century, Leiden, 1931 (orig. 1888–9).
Snouck Hurgronje C., Nederland en de Islâm: Vier woordachten gehouden in de Nederlandsche-Indische Bestuursacademie, Leiden, 1911.
Soares Benjamin F., ‘An African Muslim saint and his followers in France’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30, 5 (2004), pp. 913–28.
Soares Benjamin F., Islam and the prayer economy: History and authority in a Malian Town, Edinburgh, 2005.
Sonbol Amira El Azhary, ‘Muslim women and legal reform: The case of Jordan and women’s work’, in Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck and Stowasser Barbara Freyer (eds.), Islamic law and the challenges of modernity, Walnut Creek, 2004, pp. 213–32.
Sonbol Amira El Azhary, ‘Taʿa and modern legal reform: A rereading’, Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 9, 3 (1998), pp. 285–94.
Sonbol Amira El Azhary (ed.), Women, the family, and divorce laws in Islamic history, Syracuse, 1996.
Soroush Abdolkarim, Reason, freedom, and democracy in Islam: Essential writings of Abdolkarim Soroush, ed. and trans. Sadri Mahmoud and Sadri Ahmad, New York, 2000.
Soroush Abdolkarim, Farbatar az īdiuluzhī, Tehran, 1373.
Souilamas Nacira Guénif, Des ‘beurettes’ aux descendantes d’immigrants nord-africains, Paris, 2001.
Soysal Y. N., ‘Citizenship and identity: Living in diasporas in postwar Europe?’, in Hedetoft U. and Hjort M. (eds.), The postnational self, Minneapolis, 2002, pp. 137–51.
Sreberny-Mohammadi Annabelle, and Mohammadi Ali, Small media, big revolution: Communication, culture and the Iranian revolution, Minneapolis and London, 1994.
Stewart Devin J., Islamic legal orthodoxy: Twelver Shiite responses to the Sunni legal system, Salt Lake City, 1998.
Stiglitz Joseph E., Globalization and its discontents, New York, 2002.
Stowasser Barbara Freyer, ‘The Turks in Germany: From sojourners to citizens’, in Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck (ed.), Muslims in the West: From sojourners to citizens, Oxford, 2002, pp. 52–71.
Stowasser Barbara Freyer, and Abul-Magd Zeinab, ‘Tahlil marriage in sharīʿa, legal codes, and the contemporary fatwa literature’, in Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck and Stowasser Barbara Freyer (eds.), Islamic law and the challenges of modernity, Walnut Creek, 2004, pp. 161–81.
Street T., ‘Logic’, in Adamson P. and Taylor R. (eds.), The Cambridge companion to Arabic philosophy, Cambridge, 2005.
Sunier Thijl, and Kuijeren Mira, ‘Islam in the Netherlands’, in Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck (ed.), Muslims in the West: From sojourners to citizens, Oxford, 2002, pp. 144–57.
Surūsh ʿAbd al-Karīm, Reason, freedom and democracy in Islam, Oxford, 2002.
Tabet Jad, Al-Iʿmar wa al-maslaḥa al-ʿāmma. Fī al-turāth wa al-ḥadātha: madīna al-ḥarb wa zākira al-mustaqbal, Beirut, 1996.
Tadrus Marlene, ‘Qānūn al-khulʿ fī’l-ṣahāfa al-miṣrīya’, in al-Sawi Muhammad Ahmad (ed.), Al-Ḥiṣạd: ʿAmān ʿalā al-khulʿ, Cairo, 2003, pp. 83–100.
Taha Mahmoud Mohamed, The second message of Islam, trans. An-Naʿim Abdullahi Ahmed, Syracuse, 1987.
Taji-Farouki Suha, Fundamental quest: Ḥizb al-Taḥrīr and the search for the Islamic caliphate, London, 1996.
Takeyh Ray, Hidden Iran: Paradox and power in the Islamic Republic, New York, 2006.
Tapper Richard (ed.), The new Iranian cinema: Politics, representation and identity, London, 2002.
Tarrow Sidney, Power in movement: Social movements and contentious politics, 2nd edn, Cambridge, 1998.
Tauber Eliezer, The emergence of the Arab movements, London, 1993.
Taylor Christopher S., In the vicinity of the righteous: Ziyāra and the veneration of Muslim saints in late medieval Egypt, Leiden, 1999.
Ternisien Xavier, La France des mosquées, Paris, 2000.
Thānawī Ashraf ʿAlī, Bayān al-Qurʾān, 12 vols., Lahore, n.d. (photomechanical reprint of the 2nd edn published in 1353).
Thānawī Ashraf ʿAlī, Al-Maṣāliḥ al-ʿaqliyya liʿl-aḥkām al-naqliyya, 3 vols., Lahore, 1964 (first published in 1915–16). Also see Bijnorī, Muḥammad Muṣṭafā, and Metcalf, Barbara.
, The truth will be known when the last witness is dead: Documents from the Fakhouri File, 2 vols., Cologne, 2004.
Tibi Bassam, Islam and the cultural accommodation of social change, Boulder, 1990.
Tietze Nikola, Jeunes musulmans de France et d’Allemagne, Paris, 2002.
Tocqueville Alexis, ‘Essay on Algeria’, in Tocqueville Alexis, Writings on empire and slavery, ed. and trans. Pitts Jennifer, Baltimore, 2001.
Tourneau Roger, Fès avant le protectorat, Casablanca, 1949.
Triaud Jean-Louis, and Robinson David (eds.), La Tijâniyya: Une confrérie musulmane à la conquête de l-’Afrique, Paris, 2000.
Trimingham J. Spencer, The Sufi orders in Islam, Oxford, 1971.
Trimingham J. Spencer, The Sufi Orders in Islam, with a new forword by Voll John O., New York, 1998.
Troll Christian W., Sayyid Ahmad Khan: A reinterpretation of Muslim theology, Delhi, 1978.
Troll Christian (ed.), Islam in India: Studies and commentaries, vol. II: Religion and religious education, New Delhi, 1985.
Tucker Judith, In the house of the law: Gender and Islamic law in Syria and Palestine, 17th–18th centuries, Berkeley, 1998.
Tucker Judith, ‘Revisiting reform: Women and the Ottoman Law of Family Rights, 1917’, Arab Studies Journal, 1 (1996), pp. 4–17.
Turābī Ḥasan, Tajdīd ʿusūl al-figh al-Islāmī, Beirut and Khartoum, 1980.
Udovitch Abraham L., Partnership and profit in medieval Islam, Princeton, 1970.
, Basic facts and figures 1952, Paris, 1952.
, Statistical yearbook 1980, Paris, 1980.
, Statistical yearbook 1999, Paris, 1999.
, Arab human development report 2004: Toward freedom in the Arab world, New York, 2005.
, Human rights: A compilation of international instruments, New York, 1994, vol. I.
, Arab human development report 2003: Building a knowledge society, New York, 2003.
Ursinus Michael, ‘Midhat Efendi und der Alte Orient’, in Ursinus Michael, Quellen zur Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches und ihre Interpretation, Istanbul, 1995, pp. 157–64.
Vacher Helène, Projection coloniale et ville rationalisée: Le rôle de l’espace colonial dans la constitution de l’urbanisme en France, Aalborg, 2001.
Vahdat Farzin, God and juggernaut: Iran’s intellectual encounter with modernity, Syracuse, 2002.
Bruinessen Martin, ‘Shari`a court, tarekat and pesantren: Religious institutions in the Banten Sultanate’, Archipel, 50 (1995), pp. 165–200.
Veinstein Gilles, ‘Le modèle ottoman’, in Grandin Nicole and Gaborieau Marc (eds.), Madrasa: La transmission du savoir dans le monde Musulman, Paris, 1997, pp. 71–81.
Venel Nancy, Musulmans et citoyens, Paris, 2004.
Verdery N., ‘The publications of the Būlāq press under Muḥammad ʿAlī of Egypt’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 91 (1971), pp. 129–32.
Vertovec Steven, ‘Islamophobia and Muslim recognition in Britain’, in Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck (ed.), Muslims in the West: From sojourners to citizens, Oxford, 2002, pp. 19–35.
Vikør Knut S., Sufi and scholar on the desert edge: Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Sanūsī and his brotherhood, Evanston, IL, 1995.
Vogel Frank, and Hayes Samuel L., III, Islamic law and finance: Religion, risk, and return, The Hague, London and Boston, 1998.
Vogel Frank E., Islamic law and legal system: Studies of Saudi Arabia, Leiden and Boston, 2000.
Vogel Frank E., ‘The public and the private in Saudi Arabia: Restrictions on the powers of Committees for Ordering the Good and Forbidding the Evil’, Social Research, 70 (2003), pp. 749–68.
Vogt Kari, ‘Integration through Islam? Muslims in Norway’, in Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck (ed.), Muslims in the West: From sojourners to citizens, Oxford, 2002, pp. 88–100.
Volait Mercedes, Architectes et architectures de l’Egypte moderne, 1830–1950: Genèse et essor d’une expertise locale, Paris, 2005.
Volait Mercedes, Heliopolis: Un ensemble urbaine moderne en Egypte, 1905–2005, CD ROM, 2005.
Voll John, Islam: Continuity and change in the modern world, 2nd edn, Syracuse, 1994.
Voll John O., ‘Hadith scholars and tariqahs: An ulama group in the 18th century Haramayn and their impact in the Islamic world’, Journal of Asian and African Studies, 15, 3–4 (1980), pp. 264–73.
Voll John O., ‘Muḥammad Ḥayyā al-Sindī and Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb: An analysis of an intellectual group in eighteenth-century Madīna’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 38, 1 (1974), pp. 32–9.
Voll John O., Islam: Continuity and change in the modern world, Boulder, 1982.
Voll John O., ‘The Sudanese Mahdī: Frontier fundamentalist’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 10 (1979), pp. 145–66.
Voll John O., ‘Fundamentalism in the Sunni Arab world: Egypt and the Sudan’, in Marty Martin E. and Appleby R. Scott (eds.), Fundamentalisms observed, Chicago, 1991, pp. 345–402.
Vulor Ena, Colonial and anti-colonial discourses: Albert Camus and Algeria, Washington, DC, 2000.
Wadud Amina, Inside the gender jihad: Women’s reform in Islam, Oxford, 2006.
Wadud Amina.Qur’an and woman: Rereading the sacred text from a woman’s perspective, New York, 1999.
Walbridge Linda, The most learned of the Shiʿa: The institution of the marjaʿ taqlibd, New York, 2001.
Shāh Walī Allāh, Shāh Walī Allāh of Delhi’s Ḥujjat Allāh al-bāligha: The conclusive argument from God, trans. and introduction by Hermansen Marcia K., Leiden, 1996.
Shāh Walī Allāh, Ḥujjat Allāh al-bāligha, 2 vols., Cairo, 1936.
Shāh Walī Allāh, The sacred knowledge of the higher functions of the mind: Translation of alṭāf al-quds, trans. Jalbani G. N. and revised by Pendlebury D., London, 1982.
Warburg Gabriel R., and Kupferschmidt Uri M. (eds.), Islam, nationalism, and radicalism in Egypt and the Sudan, New York, 1983.
Wardak Ali, ‘Crime and social control in Saudi Arabia’, in Sheptycki James and Wardak Ali (eds.), Transnational and comparative criminology, London, 2005, pp. 91–116.
Warde Ibrahim, Islamic finance in the global economy, Edinburgh, 2000.
Watenpaugh Keith, Being modern in the Middle East: Revolution, nationalism, colonialism and the Arab middle class, Princeton, 2006.
Waterbury John, ‘Hate your policies, love your institutions’, Foreign Affairs, 82, 1 (January–February 2003), pp. 58–69.
Watson William J., ‘Ibrāhīm Muteferriḳa and Turkish incunabula’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 88 (1968), pp. 435–41.
Watt W. Montgomery, The formative period of Islamic thought, Edinburgh, 1973.
Waugh Earle H., ‘North America and the adaptation of the Muslim tradition: Religion, ethnicity, and the family’, in Waugh Earle H., Abu-Laban Sharon McIrvin and Qureshi Regula Burckhardt (eds.), Muslim families in North America, Edmonton, 1991, pp. 68–96.
Waugh Earle H., Abu-Laban Sharon McIrvin and Qureshi Regula Burckhardt (eds.), Muslim families in North America, Edmonton, 1991.
Webb Gisela, Windows of faith: Muslim women scholar-activists in North America, Syracuse, 2000.
Max Weber, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, Tübingen, 1980.
Weber Max, The city, New York, 1958.
Weber Stefan, Damascus: Ottoman modernity and urban transformation (1808–1918), 2 vols., Aarhuis, 2009.
Weimann Gabriel, Terror on the internet: The new arena, the new challenges, Washington, DC, 2006.
Weismann Itzchak, Taste of modernity: Sufism, Salafiyya, and Arabism in late Ottoman Damascus, Leiden, 2001.
Welchman Lynn, Women and Muslim family laws in Arab states: An overview of contemporary textual development and advocacy, Amsterdam, 2007.
Welchman Lynn, Beyond the code: Muslim family law and the sharʿia judiciary in the Palestinian West Bank, The Hague, 2000.
Welchman Lynn, ‘In the interim: Civil society, the sharʿī judiciary and Palestinian personal status law in the transitional period’, Islamic Law and Society, 10, 1 (2003), pp. 34–69.
Welchman Lynn, Women and Muslim family laws in Arab states, Amsterdam, 2007.
Welchman Lynn (ed.), Women’s rights and Islamic family law: Perspectives on reform, London, 2004.
Werbner Pnina, Pilgrims of love: The anthropology of a global Sufi cult, Bloomington, 2003.
Werbner Pnina S.Pilgrims of love: Anthropology of a global Sufi cult, London, 2003.
White Charles, Three years in Constantinople, 3 vols., London, 1946.
White Elizabeth H., ‘Legal reform as an indicator of women’s status in Muslim nations’, in Beck Lois and Keddie Nikki (eds.), Women in the Muslim world, Cambridge, MA, 1978, pp. 52–68.
Wickham Carrie Rosefsky, Mobilizing Islam: Religion, activism, and political change in Egypt, New York, 2002.
Wiet Gaston, Mohammed Ali et les beaux-arts, Cairo, 1950.
Wihtol de Wenden Catherine, L’immigration en Europe, Paris, 1999.
Wiktorowicz Quintan, The management of Islamic activism: Salafis, the Muslim Brotherhood, and state power in Jordan, Albany, 2001.
Wiktorowicz Quintan, ‘The new global threat: Transnational salafīs and jihād’, Middle East Policy, 8 (2001), pp. 18–39.
Wiktorowicz Quintan, Islamic activism: A social movement approach, Bloomington, 2004.
Wilson-Goldie K., ‘Contemporary art practices in post-war Lebanon: An introduction’, in Cotter S. (ed.), Out of Beirut, Oxford, 2006; published in conjunction with the exhibition ‘Out of Beirut’ at Modern Art Oxford, 13 May – 16 July 2006.
, Knowing our rights: Women, family, laws and customs in the Muslim world, Lahore, 2003.
Woodward Mark R., Islam in Java: Normative piety and mysticism in the sultanate of Yogyakarta, Tucson, 1989.
, Unlocking the employment potential in the Middle East and North Africa: Toward a new social contract, MENA Development Report, Washington, DC, 2004.
, The world development indicators 2005, cd-rom, Washington, DC, 2005.
, World development report 1997: The state in a changing world, New York, 1997.
Wright Gwendolyn, The politics of design in French colonial urbanism, Chicago, 1991.
Wright Robin, The last great revolution: Turmoil and transformation in Iran, New York, 2000.
Wurth Anna, ‘Mobilising Islam and custom against statutory reform: Bayt al-ṭāʿa in Yemen’, in Dupret Baudouin and Burgat François (eds.), Le shaykh et le procureur: Systèmes coutumiers et pratiques juridiques au Yémen et en Égypte, CEDEJ, Egypte/Monde Arabe no. 1–3 série, Cairo, 2005, pp. 289–308.
Wurth Anna, Al-Sharīʿa fi Bāb al-Yaman: Recht, Richter und Rechtspraxis an der familien-rechtlicher Kammer des Gerichtes Sud-Sanaa 1983–1995, Berlin, 2000.
Wurth Anna, ‘Stalled reform: Family law in post-unification Yemen’, Islamic Law and Society, 10, 1 (2003), pp. 12–33.
Wuthnow Robert, The restructuring of American religion: Society and faith since World War II, Princeton, 1988.
Wynn Lisa, ‘Marriage contracts and women’s rights in Saudi Arabia’, in Hoodfar Homa (ed.), Shifting boundaries in marriage and divorce in Muslim communities, Grabels, 1996, pp. 106–20.
Yeor Bat, The dhimmi: Jews and Christians under Islam, Rutherford, NJ, 1985.
Yilmaz Ihsan, Muslim laws, politics and society in modern nation states, Aldershot, 2005.
Yūsuf Muḥammad Khayr Ramaḍān, Al-Muʿjam al-muṣannaf li-muʾallafāt al-ḥadīth al-sharīf, 3 vols., Riyad, 2003.
Zaini-LaJoubert Monique (ed.), Abdullah bin Muhammad al-Misri: Ḥikāyāt Mareskalek I, II, Cerita Siam, Ḥikāyāt Tanah Bali, Bandung, 1987.
Zakariya Mohamed, Islamic calligrapher, Bellevue, WA, 2006; published in conjunction with the exhibition at Bellevue Arts Museum, 21, September 2006 – 18 February 2007.
Zaman Muhammad Qasim, ‘Sectarianism in Pakistan: The radicalization of Shiʿi and Sunni identities’, Modern Asian Studies, 32, 3 (1998), pp. 689–716.
Zaman Muhammad Qasim, Ashraf ʿAlī Thanawi: Islam in modern South Asia, Oxford, 2008.
Zaman Muhammad Qasim, ‘The scope and limits of Islamic cosmopolitanism and the discursive language of the ʿulamāʾ’, in cooke miriam and Lawrence Bruce (eds.), Muslim networks from Hajj to hip hop, Chapel Hill, 2005, pp. 84–104.
Zaman Muhammad Qasim, ‘Tradition and authority in Deobandi madrasas of South Asia’, in Hefner Robert W. and Zaman Muhammad Qasim (eds.), Schooling Islam: The culture and politics of modern Muslim education, Princeton, 2007, pp. 61–86.
Zaman Muhammad Qasim, ‘The ʿulamāʾ of contemporary Islam and their conceptions of the common good’, in Salvatore Armando and Eickelman Dale F. (eds.), Public Islam and the common good, Leiden, 2004, pp. 129–55.
Zaman Muhammad Qasim, The ulama in contemporary Islam: Custodians of change, Princeton, 2002.
Zebiri Kate, Maḥmūd Shaltūt and Islamic modernism, Oxford, 1993.
Zeghal Malika, Les islamistes marocains: Le défi à la monarchie, Paris, 2005.
Zeghal Malika, Gardiens de l’Islam: Les ulama d’al-Azhar dans l’Egypte contemporaine, Paris, 1995.
Zeghal Malika, Gardiens de l’Islam: Les oulémas d’Al Azhar dans l’Égypte contemporaine, Paris, 1996.
Zeghal Malika, ‘The “recentering” of religious knowledge and discourse: The case of Al-Azhar in twentieth century Egypt’, in Hefner Robert W. and Qasim Muhammad Zaman (eds.), Schooling Islam: The culture and politics of modern Muslim education, Princeton, 2007, pp. 107–30.
Zeghal Malika, ‘Religion and politics in Egypt: The ulema of al-Azhar, radical Islam, and the state (1952–94)’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 31 (1999), pp. 371–99.
Ziadeh Nicola A., Sanūsīyah: A study of a revivalist movement in Islam, Leiden, 1958.
Ziai Hossein, ‘Recent trends in Arabic and Persian philosophy’, in Adamson P. and Taylor R. (eds.), The Cambridge companion to Arabic philosophy, Cambridge, 2005.
Zubaida Sami, Law and power in the Islamic world, London, 2003.
Zubaida Sami, Islam, the people and the state: Essays on political ideas and movements in the Middle East, 2nd edn London, 1993.
Zulficar Mona, and al-Sadda Hoda, ‘Hawl mashrūʿ taṭawwir namūdhij ʿaqd al-zawāj’, Hagar, 3–4 (1996), pp. 251–9.