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    Livesey, Steven J. 2016. A Companion to the History of Science. p. 179.

    Gibson, Kelly 2015. The Carolingian World through Hagiography. History Compass, Vol. 13, Issue. 12, p. 630.

    Bosworth, Amy K. 2010. Learning from the Saints: Ninth-Century Hagiography and the Carolingian Renaissance. History Compass, Vol. 8, Issue. 9, p. 1055.

    Eastwood, Bruce S. 2000. Astronomical Images and Planetary Theory in Carolingian Studies of Martianus Capella. Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 31, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Pfister, C. Luterbacher, J. Schwarz-Zanetti, G. and Wegmann, M. 1998. Winter air temperature variations in western Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages (AD 750–1300). The Holocene, Vol. 8, Issue. 5, p. 535.

    Eastwood, Bruce Stansfield 1997. Astronomy in Christian Latin Europe c. 500 — c. 1150. Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 28, Issue. 3, p. 235.

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  • Print publication year: 1995
  • Online publication date: March 2008

27 - The Carolingian renaissance: education and literary culture

from PART IV - CULTURE AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTS
Summary
The Carolingian renaissance appears as a well-organised programme. Observers from the time of Notker Balbulus and Heiric of Auxerre to the present day have been impressed by the Carolingian achievement. Much of the variety inherent in Carolingian learning can be attributed to differences in resources, talents and interests across the cultural landscape. Only a few of the Carolingian schools have been studied systematically. Books were at the heart of Carolingian education. The most original development in Carolingian rhetorical studies linked rhetoric with rulership. Carolingian poetry was a ubiquitous feature of Carolingian literary culture and one of its most impressive achievements modern collection, was an ubiquitous feature of Carolingian literary culture. The example Carolingian leaders provided in their courts and legislation and which Notker Balbulus enshrined in his emblematic account of Charlemagne's life was not lost on later politicians who believed that learning was important for the spiritual health of the individual and also for Christian society.
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