Skip to main content
×
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2000
  • Online publication date: March 2008

7 - Plague and Family Life

from Part I - General Themes
Summary
The description of the evolution of the population development, in the various countries of Europe, and the assessment of the extent of its decline, from before the Black Death in relation to the recurrent outbreaks of the epidemic, has continued to sustain the interest of recent works. It was perhaps in Italy that the heavy losses in the heart of the urban and rural populations are most dramatically attested. Bocaccio was largely responsible for the fact that the Black Death was called 'the plague of Florence'. The second half of the fourteenth century opened on a universal cataclysm and, in the course of further outbreaks of the plague, saw its hopes of demographic recovery crumble away. The characteristics of Tuscan nuptiality remained relatively stable despite their many ups and downs. Cultural choices and inheritances also exerted a strong influence on family structures and, through them, on demography.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The New Cambridge Medieval History
  • Online ISBN: 9781139055741
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521362900
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
Albini, G. (1982), Guerra, fame, peste. Crisi di mortalità e sistema sanitario nella Lombardia tardomedioevale, Bologna
Baratier, E. (1961), La démographie provençale du XIIIe au XIVe siècle, Paris
Barbadoro, B. (1933), ‘Finanza e demografia nei ruoli fiorentini d’imposta del 1352–55’, Atti del Congresso internazionale per gli studi sulla popolazione, Rome, 11
Belletini, A. (1974), ‘La populazione italiana dall’inizio dell’era volgare ai giorni nostri’, in Storia d’Italia, V, Turin
Bellettini, A. (1961), La popolazione di Bologna dal secolo XV all’Unificazione italiana, Bologna
Beloch, K.J. (1937–61), Bevölkerungsgeschichte Italiens, 3 vols., Berlin
Benedictow, O.J. (1992a), Plague in the Late Medieval Nordic Countries, Epidemiological Studies, Oslo
Benedictow, O.J. (1992b), The Medieval Demographic System of the Nordic Countries, Oslo
Berkner, L.K. (1972), ‘The Stem Family and the Developmental Cycle of the Peasant Household. An Eighteenth-Century Austrian Example’, AmHR 77
Berkner, L.K. (1975), ‘The Use and Misuse of Census Data for the Historical Analysis of Family Structure’, JIH 5
Berthe, M. (1984), Famines et épidémies dans les campagnes navarraises à la fin du moyen âge, 2 vols., Paris
Bideau, A. (1983), ‘Les mécanismes autorégulateurs des populations traditionnelles’, AESC 38
Bideau, A. and Perrenoud, A. (1981), ‘Remariage et fécondité. Contribution à l’eacute;tude des mécanismes de récupération des populations anciennes’, in Dupâquier, J. et al. (eds.), Marriage and Remarriage in Populations of the Past, London and New York
Biget, J.-L. and Tricard, J. (1981), ‘Livres de raison et démographie familiale en Limousin au XVe siècle’, ADH
Biraben, J.-N. (1975), Les hommes et la peste en France et dans les pays européens et méditerranéens, 2 vols., Paris and The Hague
Biraben, J.-N. (1988), ‘L’hygiène, la maladie, la mort’, in Dupâquier, J. (ed.), Histoire de la population française, I: Des origines à la Renaissance, Paris
Blockmans, W.P. (1980), ‘The Social and Economic Effects of Plague in the Low Countries (1349–1500)’, RBPH 58
Bois, G. (1976), La crise du féodalisme. Recherches sur l’économie rurale et la démographie, du début du XIVe au milieu du XVIe s. en Normandie orientale, Paris; English trans. Birrell, Jean, The Crisis of Feudalism, Economy and Society in Eastern Normandy, c. 1300–1550, Cambridge (1982)
Bourin-Derruau, M. (1987), Villages médiévaux en Bas Languedoc (Xe–XIVe s.), 2 vols., Paris
Bowsky, W. (1964), ‘The Impact of the Black Death upon Sienese Government and Society’, Speculum 39
Britton, E. (1977), The Community of the Vill. A Study in the History of the Family and Village Life in Fourteenth-Century England, Toronto
Bulst, N. (1985), ‘Vier Jahrhunderte Pest in niedersächsischen Städten. Vom Schwarzen Tod (1349–1351) bis in die erste Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts’, in Stadt im Wandel. Kunst und Kultur des Bürgertums in Norddeutschland, 1150–1650 (exhibition catalogue of the Land of Lower Saxony, 1985), Brunswick
Bulst, N. (1987), ‘Zum Stand der spätmittelalterlichen demographischen Forschung in Frankreich’, in Schuler, P.-J. (ed.), Die Familie als sozialer und historischer Verband. Untersuchungen zum Spätmittelalter und zur frühen Neuzeit, Sigmaringen
Bulst, N. (1989), ‘Krankheit und Gesellschaft in der Vormoderne. Das Beispiel der Pest’, in Maladies et société (XIIe–XVIIIe s.), Paris
Campbell, B.M.S. (1984), ‘Population, Pressure, Inheritance and the Land Market in a Fourteenth-Century Peasant Community’, in Smith, R.M. (ed.), Land, Kinship and Life-Cycle, Cambridge
Campbell, B.M.S. (1991), Before the Black Death. Studies in the ‘Crisis’ of the early Fourteenth Century, Manchester
Carmichael, A.G. (1986), Plague and the Poor in Renaissance Florence, Cambridge
Carpentier, E. (1962a), Une ville devant la peste. Orvieto et la peste noire de 1348, Paris
Carpentier, E. (1962b), ‘Autour de la peste noire: famines et épidémies dans l’histoire du XIVe siècle’, AESC 17
Carpentier, E. and Glénisson, J. (1962), ‘La démographie française au XIVe s.’, AESC 17
Cherubini, G. (1970), ‘La carestia del 1346–47 nell’inventario dei beni di un monastero aretino’, Rivista di storia dell’agricoltura 10
Chevalier, B. (1975), Tours, ville royale (1356–1520). Origine et développement d’une capitale à la fin du moyen âge, Louvain and Paris
Comba, R. (1977), La popolazione in Piemonte sul finire del medioevo: Ricerche di demografia storica, Turin
Comba, R. (1984), ‘Emigrare nel medioevo. Aspetti economico sociali della mobilità geografica nei secoli XI–XVI’, in Comba, R., Piccinni, G. and Pinto, G. (eds.), Strutture familiari, epidemie, migrazioni nell’Italia medievale, Naples
Day, J. (1975), ‘Malthus démenti? Sous-peuplement chronique et calamités démographiques en Sardaigne au bas moyen âge’, AESC 30
Del Panta, L. (1977), ‘Cronologia e diffusione delle crisi di mortalità in Toscana’, Ricerche storiche, 7
Del Panta, L. (1980), Le epidemie nella storia demografica italiana (XIV–XIX), Turin
Del Panta, L., Livi Bacci, M., Pinto, G. and Sonnino, E. (1996), La popolazione italiana dal medioevo a oggi, Rome and Bari
Delmaire, B. (1983), ‘Le livre de famille des Le Borgne (Arras 1347–1538). Contribution à la démographie historique médiévale’, RN 65
Desportes, P. (1966), ‘La population de Reims au XVe siècle, d’après un dénombrement de 1422’, MA
Desportes, P. (1979), Reims et les Rémois au XIIIe et XIVe s., Paris
DeWindt, E.B. (1972), Land and People in Holywell-cum-Needingworth. Structures of Tenure and Patterns of Social Organization in an East Midlands Village, 1252–1457, Toronto
Dobson, R. B. (1977), ‘Urban Decline in Late Medieval England’, TRHS 5th series 27
Dollinger, P. (1972), ‘Les recherches de démographie historique sur les villes allemandes au moyen âge’, in La démographie médiévale (1972)
Dondarini, R. (1984), ‘La famiglia contadina nel bolognese alla fine del trecento’, in Comba, R., Piccinni, G. and Pinto, G. (eds.), Strutture familiari, epidemie, migrazioni nell’Italia medievale, Naples
Dubois, H. (1988a), ‘La dépression (XIVe et XVe siècles)’, in Dupâquier, J. (ed.), Histoire de la population française, I: Des origines à la Renaissance, Paris
Dubois, H. (1988b), ‘L’essor médiéval’, in Dupâquier, J. (ed.), Histoire de la population française, I
Dupâquier, J. (1972), ‘De l’animal à l’homme: le mécanisme autorégulateur des populations traditionnelles’, Revue de l’Institut de sociologie, 2
Fiumi, E. (1962), ‘La popolazione del territorio volterrano-sangimignanese ed il problema demografico dell’età comunale’, in Studi in onore di A. Fanfani, I, Milan
Fiumi, E. (1968), Demografia, movimento urbanistico e classi sociali in Prato dall’età comunale ai tempi moderni, Florence
Fossier, R. (1979), ‘Peuplement de la France du nord entre le Xe et le XVIe siècles’, ADH
Franklin, P. (1986), ‘Peasant Widows’ “Liberation” and Remarriage before the Black Death’, EcHR 2nd series 39
Gauvard, C. (1991), ‘De grace especial’. Crime, état et société en France à la fin du moyen âge, 2 vols., Paris
Ginatempo, M. and Sandri, L. (1990), L’Italia delle città. Il popolamento urbano tra medievo e rinascimento (secoli XIII–XVI), Florence
Goldberg, P.J.P. (1992), Women, Work and Life Cycle in a Medieval Economy, Oxford
Gottfried, R.S. (1982), Bury St Edmunds and the Urban Crisis: 1290–1539, Princeton
Gramain [Bourin-Derruau], M. (1972), ‘Un exemple de démographie méridionale: la viguerie de Béziers dans la première moitié du XIVe s.’, in La démographie médiévale (1972), Nice
Gras, P. (1939), ‘Le registre paroissial de Givry (1334–1357) et la peste noire en Bourgogne’, BEC 100
Grundmann, J. (1970), ‘Documenti umbri sulla carestia degli anni 1328–1330’, ASI 128
Guarducci, P. and Ottanelli, V. (1982), I servitori domestici della casa borghese toscana nel basso medioevo, Florence
Guenée, B. (1986), ‘L’âge des personnes authentiques: ceux qui comptent dans la société médiévale sont-ils jeunes ou vieux?’, in Genet, J-Ph. and Bulst, N. (eds.), Prosopographie et genèse de l’Etat moderne, Paris
Guilleré, C. (1984), ‘La peste noire à Gérone (1348)’, Annale de l’Institut d’estudis gironins 27
Hajnal, J. (1965), ‘European Marriage Patterns in Perspective’, in Glass, D.V. and Eversley, D.E.C. (eds.), Population in History, London
Hajnal, J. (1982), ‘Two Kinds of Preindustrial Household Formation’, Population and Development Review 8
Hallam, H.E. (1981), Rural England, 1066–1348, Glasgow
Hallam, H.E. (1985), ‘Age at First Marriage and Age at Death in the Lincolnshire Fenland, 1252–1478’, PS 39
Hatcher, J. (1986), ‘Mortality in the Fifteenth Century: Some New Evidence’, EcHR 2nd series 39
Heers, J. (1968), ‘Les limites des méthodes statistiques pour les recherches de démographie médiévale’, ADH
Herlihy, D. (1967), Medieval and Renaissance Pistoia. The Social History of an Italian Town, 1200–1430, Newhaven and London
Herlihy, D. (1973), ‘The Population of Verona in the First Century of Venetian Rule’, in Hale, J.R. (ed.), Renaissance Venice, London
Herlihy, D. (1985), Medieval Households, Cambridge, Mass.
Herlihy, D. and Klapisch-Zuber, C. (1978), Les Toscans et leurs familles. Une étude du catasto florentin de 1427, Paris; English trans. Tuscans and their Families. A Study of the Florentine Catasto of 1427, New Haven and London (1985)
Higounet, C. (1965), ‘Villeneuves et bastides désertées’, in Villages désertés et histoire économique, XIe–XVIIIe siècle, Paris
Higounet-Nadal, A. (1978), Périgueux aux XIVe et XVe siècles. Etude de démographie historique, Bordeaux
Higounet-Nadal, A. (1980), ‘La démographie des villes françaises au moyen âge’, ADH
Higounet-Nadal, A. (1988), ‘La croissance urbaine’, in Dupâquier, J. (ed.), Histoire de la population française, I: Des origines à la Renaissance, Paris
Hollingsworth, T.H. (1957), ‘A Demographic Study of the British Ducal Families’, PS 11
Hollingsworth, T.H. (1964), ‘The Demography of the British Peerage’, PS 18, 2 (Supplement)
Hollingsworth, T.H. (1977), ‘Mortality in the British Peerage since 1600’, PS Supplement)
Il libro del Biadaiolo. Carestia e annona a Firenze dalla metà del ’200 al 1348, ed. Pinto, G., Florence (1978)
Kershaw, I. (1973), ‘The Great Famine and Agrarian Crisis in England, 1315–22’, P&P 59
Klapisch-Zuber, C. (1983), ‘Parents de sang, parents de lait. La mise en nourrice à Florence’, ADH
Klapisch-Zuber, C. (1988), ‘La fécondité des Florentines’, ADH
Klapisch-Zuber, C. (1993), ‘Le dernier enfant: fécondité et vieillissement chez les Florentines, XIVe–XVe s.’, in Bardet, J.-P. et al. (eds.), Mesurer et comprendre. Mélanges offerts à Jacques Dupâquier, Paris
Klapisch-Zuber, C. (1995), ‘Les femmes et la mort à la fin du moyen âge’, in Ilaria del Carretto e il suo monumento nell’arte, la cultura e la società del ’400, Lucca
Klapisch-Zuber, C. (1998), ‘L’enfant, la mémoire et la mort dans l’Italie des XIVe et XVe siècles’, in Becchi, E. and Julia, D. (eds.), Histoire de l’enfance en Occident, I: De l’antiquité au XVIIe siècle, Paris, orig. published in Italian, Rome and Bari (1996)
Kussmaul, A. (1981), Servants in Husbandry in Early Modern England, Cambridge
La démographie médiévale. Sources et méthodes (1972), Nice
La Roncière, C.M. (1974), ‘Pauvres et pauvreté à Florence au XIVe siècle’, in Mollat, M. (ed.), Etudes sur l’histoire de la pauvreté (moyen âge-XVIe siècle), Paris, II
Laribière, G. (1967), ‘Le mariage à Toulouse aux XIVe et XVe siècles’, AMi 79
Laslett, P. (1973), ‘Characteristics of the Western Family Considered over Time’, Journal of Family and Marriage 2
Le Bras, H., and Dinet, D. (1980), ‘Mortalité des laïcs et mortalité des religieux: les Bénédictins de St-Maur aux XVIIe et XVIIIe s.’, Population 35
Le Roy Ladurie, E. (1972), Les paysans de Languedoc, 2 vols., Paris
Le Roy Ladurie, E. (1975), Montaillou, village occitan de 1284 à 1324, Paris; English trans. Bray, Barbara, Montaillou. Cathars and Catholics in a French Village, 1284–1324, London (1979)
Leguai, and Dubois, in La démographie médiévale (1972).
Les Espagnes médiévales: Aspects économiques et sociaux. Mélanges offerts à J. Gautier Dalché (1983), Nice
Leverotti, F. (1984), ‘La famiglia contadina lucchese all’inizio del ’400’, in Comba, R., Piccinni, G. and Pinto, G. (eds.), Strutture familiari, epidemie, migrazioni nell’Italia medievale, Naples
Livi Bacci, M. (1978a), ‘Les répercussions d’une crise de mortalité sur la fécondité: une vérification empirique’, ADH
Livi Bacci, M. (1978b), La société italienne devant les crises de mortalité, Florence
Lorcin, M.-T. (1973), Les campagnes de la région lyonnaise aux XIVe et XVe s., Lyon
Lot, F. (1929), ‘L’état des paroisses et des feux de 1328’, BEC 90
Lucas, H.S. (1930), ‘The Great European Famine of 1315, 1316 and 1317’, Speculum 15
Mazzi, , On Florence and the libri dei morti (1984).
Mazzi, M.S. (1978), Salute e società nel medioevo, Florence
Mazzi, M.S. (1982), ‘Demografia, carestie, epidemie tra la fine del duecento e la metà del quattrocento’, in Cherubini, G. et al. (eds.), Storia della società italiana, VII, pt 2, Milan, ‘Bibliography
Mazzi, M.S. (1984), ‘La peste a Firenze ’nel quattrocento’, in Comba, R., Piccinni, G. and Pinto, G. (eds.), Strutture familiari, epidemie, migrazioni nell’Italia medievale, Naples
McNeill, W.H. (1976), Plagues and Peoples, New York
Mols, R. (1954–6), Introduction à la démographie historique des villes d’Europe du 14e au 18e siècle, 3 vols., Louvain
Montanari, P. (1966), Documenti su la popolazione di Bologna alla fine del trecento, Bologna
Moxó, S. (1979), Repoblación y sociedad en la España cristiana medieval, Madrid
Mueller, R.C. (1979), ‘Aspetti sociali ed economici della peste a Venezia nel medioevo’, in Mueller, R.C. (ed.), Venezia e la peste (1348–1797), Venice
Muzzi, O. (1984), ‘Aspetti dell’evoluzione demografica della Valdelsa fiorentina nel tardo medioevo’, in Comba, R., Piccinni, G. and Pinto, G. (eds.), Strutture familiari, epidemie, migrazioni nell’Italia medievale, Naples
Neveux, H. (1968), ‘La mortalité des pauvres à Cambrai (1377–1473)’, ADH
Ottolenghi, D. (1903), ‘Studi demografici sulla popolazione di Siena dal sec. XIV al XIX’, Bullettino senese di storia patria 10
Pesez, J.-M. and Le Roy Ladurie, E. (1965), ‘Le cas français: vue d’ensemble’, in Villages désertés et histoire économique, XIe-XVIIIe siècle, Paris
Phythian-Adams, C. (1978), ‘Urban Decay in Late Medieval England’, in Abrams, P. and Wrigley, E.A. (eds.), Towns in Societies, Cambridge
Phythian-Adams, C. (1979), Desolation of a City. Coventry and the Urban Crisis of the Late Middle Ages, Cambridge
Pini, A.I. (1969), ‘Problemi di demografia bolognese del duecento’, Atti e memorie della deputazione di storia patria per la provincia di Romagna n.s. 16–17
Pini, A.I. (1976), La popolazione di Imola e del suo territorio nel XIII e XIV secolo, Bologna
Pini, A.I. and Greci, R. (1976), ‘Una fonte per la demografia storica medievale: le “Venticinquine” bolognesi (1247–1404)’, Rassegna degli archivi di stato 36
Pinto, G. (1972), ‘Firenze e la carestia del 1346–47. Aspetti e problemi delle crisi annonarie alla metà del trecento’, ASI 130
Pinto, G. (1984), ‘La politica demografica della città’, in Comba, R., Piccinni, G. and Pinto, G. (eds.), Strutture familiari, epidemie, migrazioni nell’Italia medievale, Naples
Poos, L.R. (1989), ‘The Historical Demography of Renaissance Europe: Recent Research and Current Issues’, Renaissance Quarterly 41
Poos, L.R. (1991), A Rural Society after the Black Death. Essex, 1350–1525, Cambridge
Postan, M. M. (1950a), ‘Histoire économique: moyen âge’, Rapports du IXe Congrès international des sciences historiques, Section III, Histoire économique, sub-section, Moyen Age, Paris, revised as ‘The Economic Foundations of Medieval Society’, in his Essays on Medieval Agriculture and General Problems of the Medieval Economy, Cambridge (1973)
Postan, M.M. (1950b), ‘Some Agrarian Evidence of a Declining Population in the Later Middle Ages’, EcHR 2nd series 2; repr. in Essays on … the Medieval Economy
Postan, M.M. (1972), The Medieval Economy and Society. An Economic History of Britain in the Middle Ages, London
Prevenier, W. (1983), ‘La démographie des villes du comté de Flandre aux XIVe et XVe siècles’, RN 65
Raftis, J.A. (1957), The Estates of Ramsey Abbey. A Study in Economic Growth and Organization, Toronto
Ravensdale, J. (1984), ‘Population changes and transfer of Customary Land on a Cambridgeshire Manor in the 14th Century’, in Smith, R.M. (ed.), Land, Kinship and Life-Cycle, Cambridge
Razi, Z. (1980), Life, Marriage and Death in a Medieval Parish, Cambridge
Romano, D. (1991), ‘The Regulation of Domestic Service in Renaissance Venice’, Sixteenth Century Journal 22
Rosenthal, J.T. (1973), ‘Mediaeval Longevity and the Secular Peerage, 1350–1500’, PS 27
Rossiaud, J. (1976), ‘Prostitution, jeunesse et société dans les villes du Sud-Est au XVe siècle’, AESC 31
Russell, , Based on inquisitiones post mortem of the propertied classes, (1948).
Russell, J.C. (1948), British Medieval Population, Albuquerque
Russell, J.C. (1966), ‘The Preplague Population of England’, JBS 5
Schofield, R. and Wrigley, E.A. (1981), ‘Remarriage Intervals and the Effect of Marriage Order on Fertility’, in Dupâquier, J. et al. (eds.), Marriage and Remarriage in Populations of the Past, London and New York
Searle, E. (1979), ‘Seigneurial Control of Women’s Marriage: The Antecedents and Function of Merchet in England’, P&P 82
Shrewsbury, J.F.D. (1970), A History of Bubonic Plague in the British Isles, Cambridge
Smith, R.M. (1981), ‘The People of Tuscany and their Families in the Fifteenth Century: Medieval or Mediterranean?’, Journal of Family History 6
Smith, R.M. (1983), ‘Hypothèses sur la nuptialité en Angleterre aux XIIIe-XIVe siècles’, AESC 38
Smith, R.M. (1984), ‘Families and their Land in an Area of Partible Inheritance: Redgrave, Suffolk, 1260–1320’, in Smith, R.M. (ed.), Land, Kinship and Life-Cycle, Cambridge
Stella, A. (1990), ‘Les Ciompi et leurs familles’, Médiévales 19
Titow, J.Z. (1961), ‘Some Evidence of the Thirteenth-Century Population Increase’, EcHR 2nd series 14
Trasselli, C. (1964), ‘Sulla popolazione di Palermo nei secoli XIII-XIV’, Economia e storia, 1
Vandenbroucke, J.P. (1985), ‘Survival and Expectation of Life from the 1400s to the Present: A Study of the Knighthood of the Golden Fleece’, American Journal of Epidemiology 122
Venezia e la peste (1348–1797) (1979), ed. Mueller, R.C., Venice
Villani, G., Nuova Cronica, ed. Porta, Giuseppe, Parma (1990)
Villani, M., Cronica, Trieste (1857)
Werveke, H. (1959), ‘La famine de lɷan 1316 en Flandre et dans les régions voisines’, RN 41
Wrigley, E. A. (1969), Société et population, Paris
Wrigley, E.A. and Schofield, R.S. (1981), The Population History of England, 1541–1871. A Reconstruction, London
Ziegler, P. (1969), The Black Death, London